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judicious remarks on the subject of virtù words, but it is very rarely an liting and the fine arts, which are introduced in authors that the public confers the ho. many of the letters from Italy. An oh. nour of bcing masters of Ibe mint. fervation of another kind, dated from Rome,and relative to the Pope,may now', ANECDOTES OF THE AUTHOR. when the French are advancing with Mr. O. was educated at the Unireto such rapidity towards that territory, be fitv of Cambridge, where he distinguish. confidered as an evidence of the Au. ed himself very honourably in the exthor's fagacity :
ainination for his first, or Batchelor of “ The age of the Holy Father may Arts degree; the great period of expoflibly secure to him a peaceful demise; ertion and emulation in tha: feminary and thus the single niche in the Vatican of learning. He was afterwards elected now remaining, may receive the statue. Fellow of Bene': College, where he had of Pius VI. Bur I cannot prevail upon been originally admitted, and was in. myself to believe that another niche vested about the same time with the will ever be carved; or that the keys clerical fun&tion. In this einployment of St. Peter will have the virtue of a he obtained great credit, very shortly fceptre in the hands of a succesor." after ordination, by discourses delivered
In the 19gth Letter there is a very without nntes, and with confiderable fensible character of Baron Trenck; fiucncy, correctness, and self-command. which ought to be read by all those who His travels on the continent were frit wish to appreciate properly the cha co occasioned by an engagement of the ter of that violent and unfortunate tutelary kind; but they were conrinu. foldier.
ed, we believe, for several months after We cannot but repeat, what we have his feparation from his charge. He has already observed concerning thete Leto lately relinquished his Fellow hip. in ters, that the ftyle in which they are
confequence of marriage, and is nuw written is fingularly classical, accurate, fertled upon a curacy in the neighbours and perspicuous. A few instances, boud of ihe metropolis, exerciling, ' however, cccur of nasty composition; have no doubt, his talents and his dili. “ piled into heaps of fiuafiy clay :--no gerce in the most laudable and more town Dufours me to much as Berne.'
uieful of all employments. Mr. O. las a valuable exrbequer of
Letters from Scandinavia, on the Pait and Present Siare of the Northern Nations
of Europe. Pp. 940. Svo. : vols. 14. Robinsons. 1796.
(Continued from l'ol. XXIX. Page 182.) THE Northern kingdotus of Europe, for the ainulement of our Readers, **
and above all the Ruthian Empire, Mall make some farther Extracts. from the northern migration of Science, Arts and Empire, have come to attract STATE OF SOCIETY AND IMPROVE. a very general attention. They cmerge
MENT IN Russta. from the corpor of Hyperborein cli- “ I ought to except the present Em. mates, and are animating by the yenius press from any share in the cenfure which of warmer skies. Travellers, for some I think due to the sovereigns of Rulfra, years back, have made, accordingly, for having neglected the mass of the the tour of Northern as well as Southern people, iu their endeavours to civilize Europe.--- We have had leveral cravel- their empire. She has bestowed her lers of lare who have travelled, or re- csief arrenrion on the lower orders of ther made excursions and rambles into her subjects. The infruction of the the Northern Kingdoms, but few, since higher classes had already been suffici. the times of Mr. Maillet, who have ently provided for. But it remained stirown 1o much light on those parts, for her to procure the means of ima particularly Ruffia and Poland, as the provement for those who had neithet anonymous Author of the Scandinavian money nor leisure to attend the feiniLetters-few to be compared with this naries which had formerly been instiWriter for historical setlarchi
, profound tuted. Accordingly the has established reflection, various obfervation, and ani. a number of schools, in various parts of mation as well as energy of style. her doininions, at which the children of .
1o. juftificatioa of this Criticism, and the lower stafles are instructed in the
elementary parts of knowledge foited is leaft pernicinus when it is left activeto their ftation.
when it leaves the peasant to vegetate. **Many circumstances, however, make in hopeless indolence. If it is exerted it probable that, with all the fupport to inspire him with industry, it coole Government can bestow, the progreis of durs him 'merely as a machine which knowledze will not speedily become ex- does inire incrk according as it is imfinfire in Ruflia. 'The Itate of the pelled with a greater force i or as a beast. Country is highly unfavourable to its of burden, which is forced to exert its peneral diffusion. The flavery in which ftrengıb by the spur and the whip. The the peasanis are held checks the spirit improvement of ihe minds of the peaof improvement in that numerous body fants is a proje&t which has not yet enof men. A man who can gain nothink tered inco the plan of the Russian lando, by becoming wifer than liis fellows, holders; it is a project that would be will hardly be rempted to take much Ecncrally considered by them as chimetrouble in acquiring fuper Hunus accoin. ricai, if not pernicious. The villainous pilishments, or in beltoring thein on his policy of despotim has commonly la. chicres. A Rullian pealan: las 110- boired to degrade, those whom it would thing that can fiarulate him to the pur. Lureroad to guard, with the most fuit of knowledge. He fees himself jcalous circumfpecuion, every approach Sucd to a particular ipui, irom which through which light may break in on he can have no hope of romth.g; and chole whom it dooms to bondage and furrounded with beings ignorant and darkness. In consequence of this odio. brutish like himself. His induary, if ous fyfter, the peasants are trained to he has any, is firictly and permanently condider chemielves as beings of an inapprepriated. So many days in the ferior nature; as more intiru!enis in week, and lo many hours in the dav, no the hand of their malter, who ought to knows he must labour for his mailer: have no will but what lie dictates, no and, be his own peectrics what they industry but what he inspires, no emua may, he is fenfibic that this portion of lation but what he excites.--I will por his time mult prit be encroached upon. indeed ras', thai this is the universul If he policis hurfus or sous or inlirue character of the Rusian peasantry (for ments of lus occupariun, a large portion the pervants of a few robicmen, as well ., of what he can tårn by them goes to as those of che crown, are fortunately the use of his traiter. If he has a wife an excepsion): but I may fay, with od children, there also are but partially rruch, that this character is very gene. tis own : his master may command their ral, through this miscrable race of forvices whenever, and in whatever beings. Trander, he pleases. He is barely per: " The great body of the peasantry mited to stir from his hut without his being the completely shut cut from the Taller's leave, nor can be earn a lingle Parlis of knowledge, ret caly is the geo Mirtel of bread without his per millior. neral progress of improvement retaided, li his children are to be taught aty bolit the chance of the appearance of in. trade, it is the master who criers what dividualra: 110 is alio extremely nata that trade thail be, and who is to be che Toivot. in every country, the number teacher: if the are so go co Ichool, the of inen of genius who arise to refine malter leads and renoves bein athis the public talit, and improve the na. pieature; and if they wish to marry, tional character, will be in proportion ibey must do it agiersbiy to his come to the rumber of there who have the mands. In a word a Rian peasant means of knowledge in their power ; todepends on his master for everything. perher with the prospect of extending He caniste, it is true, be remove of the heir reputation, and improving their world without the forms of law; but, fortune byther acquirettients. In Rufa Oj the negative which cvery manér pots fi? his reber is extremely finalla Se Tes against the marriage of his peu
Herce Rullia has produced very few ple, he may be prevented from coming noap oor ditingoitted abilities in any line, onto it; and when once le has got in, Hermos cricbrated academicians have his lifc may be made as burdensome as 2!! been foreigners. She has produced praney and caprice can delire. Hiftorians and poets and printers ; 5115
It is to be expected that a power" their works will not btar a comparison thes shamefully unlimited will be often with the tit It of the fame kind, which. as thamefully abused. Accordingly the most other nati as in Europe can Ipari donition of the nobles over their lives
* It would frem that, in the proe
gress of science, the acquiring of a just authority of the crown is noir rather conceprion of the proper object of litera. nominal than real, and powers merely ture is tot one of the first attainments of nominal do not long survive their in. the learned. Great literary labour, and dependence-the kingdom of Poland, at that too fustained by considerable ta- the present moment, naturally calls back lents, has been wafed; by some india our attention to the ticiffitudes of its viduals in this country; on subjects of history and goternment. Gingular inutility.
" Poland in the changes it has re* A Ruisian bishop has spent a great cently undergone, and in the fituation part of his life in translating the Ancid in which it now appears, presents an ininco Greek verle. Had he iranflated it teresting fubject of enquiry to the phiinto Ruffian verfe, his country would losopher and the politician. About a have been indebted to him but little, century ago, it was one of the most repraise, furely, is due to the efforts which spectable Powers in Europe. It now aim only at erecting a monument to of- preserves little more than a nominal extentation. You will not, I am pero iftence, as an independent nation. Durfuaded, find in the present age, another ing the course of the present century it country in Europe, where induftry has exhibited an almost uninterrupted could have been fo ftrangely milapplied. , Scene of disorder and calamity. Somne. The labours of this learned prelate times overrun and pillaged by foreiga ought, in justice to the fruitlessness of enemies, and generally distracted by intheir objc&t, so be clafed with the manu. ternal diffentions; peace and security factures of these poetical artists who and settled government have been ala worked their verses into the figure of moft ink nown. Kings hade been raised hearts, and wings, and altars, and ma- to the throne, and precipitated from it. Ay other ingenioun devices.
Conftitutions have been established, and “ It may be made a general observan altered, and overthrown, and renewed. tion, that the few natives of Rullia who Some of its fineft provinces have been bare devoted their lives to study have dilmembered; and foreign armics estan attained only the praise which is due to blished in the republic, either to pero the middle class of the learned ; they petuate its miseries, or to complete its have by no means equalled those who subjugation. stand in the highest ranks of literature. • The fituation of the country exhi.
“ If the condition of the peatants be bits the most friking impressions of fo highiy vafavourable to the progress of these convulsions. The principles of improvement, the liruarion and charac. disorder, long ago incorporated into the ter of the clergy are equally unfriendly to frame of the .conftitution, have been it. Almall number of the fuperior clergy matured and perfected by the habits of may be found eminent among the Rui party diseasiun, heightened by religious lans for learning and virtue ; but, with animoficy, and fomented by the infidithis abatement, the order confifts of men ous policy of the neighbouring States. cither ignorant, or profligate, or both Law and justice have been filenced by the one and the other.
the strife of faction, or overwhelmed “ A great proportion of the regular by the preffure of foreign force. The slergy conills of the lowest of the free people, reduced to the lowest late of people, who have taken fanctuary from degradation and opprelfica, bare no inihe business of their staiions in the cor- terest in the mesures of government, por of the monasteries.”
and no incirement to industry. The We shall present our Readers wi:h practice of telling the crown to the an extract from the history which this highest bidder has introduced an almost Author has given (in a series of letters, universal venality among tlic nobility: dated chiefly at Memel, 1792,) of Po. Ainidst the vioience of faction, honour land, from the commencement of the aud principle have been swept away ; kingdom to its final dismemberment in and while alıuft every nation of Eu1794. This History, concise and rapid rope has been advancing in improvement as it is, contains more particulars truly and civilization, Poland appears to have interesting, and gives greater and more been lung farionary; if it was not rae complete fatisfaction than anything ther returned in a contrary progress. that has yet bcen published in any form, " It would require voth greater abi. on the subject.
litics and more leisure than fall to my •• The kingdom of Poland verging made, to trace the operation of the va. towards iss anal dissolution for the rious caulcs which have concurred to produce these remarkable effects. As, measures of government. Although the however, the l'uhjeet is interesting, and sovereign power was generally conti. as it may tend to give you a more distinct pued in the laine fainily, there was no idea of the ficuation of the country, I established rule of hereditary succellion. hall endeavour to give you a short view If a free election did not take place oa of the priocipal circumliances which every vacancy, the content of the nabave deprived the republic of Poland of tion, cxprelled in a general diet, was its wonied energy, and reduced it to always necellary to confirin the nominathe fate of weakness in which it ap. tion of a fucceifor to the ducal dignity. pears at the period of which I propose While the government remained on this to give you loine account.
footing, the people were in fact free; • The nature of the Polish govern- and yet the sovereign power appears to ment is certainly the great suurce from have been subject to no consiitutional which the mistorcunes of this country reftrictions. Neither thc perogatives of bave taken their rise. In support of the duke, nor the privileges of the peo. this opinion, I begin with an historical ple, were defined by positive law. Cura ketch of the government of Poland, som seems to have formed the only rea from which you will see the weakness friction to either. The tovereign care of the fate keeping pace with what the ried his power as far as he thought he Pules are pleased to call the freedom of could depend upon the lubmillion of the the conftitution.
nation; and the people lometimes exerted ". The first part of the history of Po. their right of expelling a tyrannical land, like that of most other nations, Niafter, and asserting their freedom by cannot be considered in any other light force." than as a mass of fable, illuminated with From the account of what we may fome scattered rays of truth. Little, call the dying ftruggle of Poland, the therefore, can be certainly known re. parriotism and heroifin which it prospecting the origin of the Polith govern- duced, but the triumph over thele of toen. There are, however, several accumulated numbers and brutal force, circunstances to dirca our opinion. which has awakened all the fenfibility The defcription Tacirus has lefi us of of our Author, and given unusual the tribes from whom the Poles are, energy, to nis ftyle, never feeble ;~from Doli probably, descended; the analogy this animated and interesting narrative of orber northern nations, and the gene. we at first intended to make other ex. ral tenor of the Polith history, tend to tracts--but we find that we have alrea. prove, that the great body of the people dy trespassed on the plan prescribed by tajoyed an high degree of freedom, as our limits, well as a considerable influence on the
A Journey Over-land to India, partly by a Route never gone before by any European. By Donald Campbell, of Barbreck, Esq. who formerly commando ed a Regiment of Cavalry in the Service of his Highness the Nabub of the Car. satie. In a Series of Lorters to his Son : com;irchending his Shipwreck and Imprisonment with Hider Alli, and his fubsequent Negociacions and Transacçions in the Eas. In One Volume. Quarto. il. is. Culien and Co.
( Concluded from Vol. XXIX. Page 333. ) THE Jeftirute and disastrous fruation templated without horror and dismay.
'in which we left the unfortunate Great, however, as his perils were, Traveller on the clore of our last Roe they did not terminate with this event, view of this interefing narrative, will for on recovering from the swoon incu excite the hopes and aların the fears of which he had fallen, he found himself every tender mind. A brave, encere a captive to the troops of HYDER priting, generous spirit ftriving to sur. Alli, who, to increase his miserics, nouor the accumulated difficulties by plunged him into a deep and loaihsome which its progress was retarded, thrown dungeon. “Here," says Mr. Campnaked, moneyless, and without a friend bell, “ I had full room for reflection, upon an unknown and perhaps in hof- and could meditate eoen to madness: the plabie fure, on the eve of reaching its whole of my fituation appeared before dcared goal, presents a picture of dis nie with all its aggravating circumsan. artís and difsculty that cannot be cau. ce of horror ; and to any one who con.
fiders it, I believe it will appear that it pearing his orders a second time in a was hardly posible to til ile biter cup form and decitive tone of voice and man. of calamity fuiler."
bile he conti.
lier, they ali ran oli. nued in this fiena ion, the companion suf is coon as we were alone, he reIns tip wreck, Ma. Hall, it came his vealed to vie, that he had all along compauion in chrivity, and after expe. know who I was-abad oft hearely riencing great cruelty iney Weremaren. pitied my sufferings, and privately en. ed up the Country by a long and cir- ieria ined the most anxious withis to CUTO:s roure, logged in a priton ar terve me, but could not venture to in. Brunngre, exainined before ne Zemadar teriere-the leait jealuniy, when once in fuil Dierbar, exhorred to enter ioio awakened, being there always followed the service of Hicier Alls, and again com. up by summary vengeance. He then mitted to connnement.
micarioned his name, informing me that During this period MR. HALL re. he was the son of a Nabou wear Vellore, Jated the history of his life to his bro. whole dimonions had been wrelted from ther caprive, inferred in anorner de him by force, and anired to the Care partment of our lisgazine, a Hii, netic; that his family had received tory linconmonly interesting, and great tavours from my father, in return
Ielated with equal fpirit, good fences for which be fei: kinielf bound to do and feeling:
me every service in his power; but that The limits of our Review prevent having beer, after the misfortunes us from pursuing the sequired of thir, which befed his fainily, taken into the CAMPBELL's adventures in particu- servies of Hyder, and holding then a larly as we intended. The'rilieats, place of consequence under him, te persuasions, and remonftrancese, which was disqualined from demonstrating his were inade line of to induce hind io ac- gratitude and efteem in the way he cepe of a command in the armies of ihę withod : he added, he had jutt come enemy, were ulcd in vain; his aitach. from the sum nuit of me Goauis, where mear to liis country and facily rose he left the English army polied, after paramount in all other contaterations, their having bear the Circar truops, and and he gard the arent of Jaydess the carried all ile arong works which had celebraced Hiyat Subie, a peremp:ory been created for the detence of the decisive reíuial. The feverelics of child- paffes, and were deemed from their finement were, of course, increased; luation in pregnable ; tbic the Jema. and fown put a period to ivr. Walt's dar, HYAT SA 18, had game initier to cilience, wiilcie and Mr. CAMP BELL ericurage th:troops, and animate then were chaineri, arm in arm, to each to one grand etort of refittance, and other. Mr. Cainpbell was at length would remains there ell the lucceeding seleased from prilon, and conducted, day, Hore lie topped, and Icemed under a guard, farther up the country much agitated; but, recuering dinleil When we had gor," lays he, "' about foon, laid, 'n
à Polemo and alarming á mile froin the fort, we met a perfon manner, “ This day I heard Ilyas attended by three others, all op horfe. SAHIB give ordtré to oring you belona back. He was a iran of considerable him, in order that lie might fivate his sank in that Country, and I recollected revenge by four death Hosv. Da phy to have seen him at the Jem dar: Dir. am I in having an opportunity to read bar, where he had marituntud alat ur. cue you will carry you touck writta alte difpcion' sowards me, buciking, me, i heretore, to Bidapure, and piace, aliays gracivull:, und neding to !, you in a state of focurity with my is. stich, conleung my Chiwumanees mily.” and his, was not a lite extraordinary, Soon after this event sur llero, for The mimart he recog1:12:nc, lie furely the toruside with which he eh. scaped from his burie, apprenti, in dared his mutrintiid filterinss well great agita ion': then turning to the entities him that appesiauor, was guards, ordered them to kvitt foc 17??
me the initrurilcare of DSOCILOR mediadily; faving at the laine since that hotiveen GENTRAL MATHEWS and he would be in werable for the conte: Tre?00 Salus, who had iucceeded to quences. They focmed at hrít wherin the throne of his father LYDER taic whether they would bey him or ALL!; and by his management he connot; but on his thaking at item listributed to put the im, tant garrisuus fuord, which was all alony drawn in ius of BIDANOR into che hanils of the hand, and timuared with blood, anj, Be- Company without the luis of a single