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after the date of this capitulation, but they shall be sent safe back to France.

Answ. Refused.

XV. The commander in chief, and the other generals, shall be embarked with their aides-de-camp, and the officers attached to their suite, without being separated.

Anfw. Granted.

XVI. The prisoners made during the lege, including the crews of the William Tell and the Diana, thall be considered as part of the garrison; and the same regulation to extend to the crew of La Justice, if she should be taken before she reaches any of the ports of the republic.

Answ. The crew of the William Tell is already exchanged, and that of the Diana - will be taken to Minorca, in order to be exchanged immediately.

XVII. All the property which belongs to the republic shall not be subject to reprisal of any sort, under any pretext whatsoever.

Anfw. Granted.

XVIII. If any difficulty shall arise upon the conditions of this capitulation, they shall be interpreted in the most favourable manner for the garrison. Answ. Granted, according to justice. Executed at Malta on the 5th Sept. 1800. (Signed) VAUBOIS, General of Division.

Rear-admiral VILLENEUVE.
Pigot, Major-general.

Captain MARTIN,
Commander of the Ships of his Britannic Ma-

jesty and those of his Allies, before Malta *.

Protection granted by General Augereau to the County of Nassau,

dated Heud quarters at Aschaffenburgh, 2415 Sept. AUGEREAU, general in chief, considering the intercession

of his Majesty the King of Prussia for the country and possessions of the Prince of Nassau in Germany, and the exhausted state of the said country by the calamities of a long war, as well by the prudent conduct of its government in withdrawing its contingent from the army of the Empire, and not taking any

• The above copy is extracted from the Moniteur, in which paper it ficft appeared. Another copy was afterwards published in the London Gazette. The only difference between thefe two copies is, that the one inserted in the London Gazette states, that the garrison was not to serve against Great Britain or her allies until regularly exchanged.

part

part in the war since the renewal of hostilities after the negotiation of Rastadt; and, moreover, confidering that at this moment it is in negotiation with the French government for a defenfive treaty of peace

Orders, that the country of Naflau and its dependencies shall be regarded as neutral; and that, in consequence, there cannot, under any pretence whatever, be levied nor exacted

any

kind of contribution, whether in money, in provisions, or any

kind of warlike supplies. This reserves, however, to the General in Chief, in case that the neceslities or exigencies of the war require it, the power of making pass or of quartering troops in the faid country and its dependencies. All general officers, and all civil and military agents of the French army, are forbidden to contravene the above-mentioned decree.

AUGEREAU, General in Chief.

Letter from Lieutenant-general Dupont, commanding the right Wing

of the Army of Italy, to Major-general Count Brigide, Commandant of Ferrara.

Head-quarters at Gaftalia, Sept. 24. IA

AM informed, M. General, that bands of Ferrarese insur

gents spread themselves in the territory of Bologna, and have committed exceiles there. I am also told, that Austrians are mixed with these robbers.

I apprize the regency of Ferrara, that I shall make it refponfible for such events. The honour of the two armies does not allow that they should be renewed on the territories occupied by them. I will still less allow the Austrians to take part with the infurgents, and violate the armistice.

(Signed)

DUPONT.

Lieutenant-General Dupont to the Regency of Ferrara.

Head-quarters at Gafalla, Sept.24. SOME brigands, assembled in the Ferrarese, aflaffinate and pillage on the territory of Bologna. If you do not repress these dreadful excesses, 'I shall think you commit them yourselves, and shall make you responsible. The property you possess in the department of Rheno will be fequeftered, and a terrible chastisement fhall be the reward of those who encourage thefe robberies.

(Signed)

DUPONT.

Arreté of the 2d Vendemiaire, Sept. 24. BONAPARTE, Chief Consul of the republic, decrees as fol

lows:

1. Citizen Clarke, general of division, is appointed commandant extraordinary of Luneville, and of all the department of La Meurthe.

2. In all public affairs concerning this district, he shall correspond directly with government.

3. Measures Tall be taken that a correspondence may be carried on with Luneville by means of the telegraph.

4. General Clarke shall repair immediately to Luneville, and take the necessary steps for the holding of a congress.

5. The Minister of War is charged with the execution of the present decree. The Chief Conful, (Signed)

BONAPARTE.
By the Chief Consul, (Signed) H. B. MARET,

The Secretary of State.

Political Observations on England.-Extracted from the Moniteur of

the 27th Sept. WAR

AR is constantly considered as destructive of the prosperity

of empires. The people dread it as fatal to their happiness; the rich apprehend its effects with regard to their fortunes; the poor look upon it as ruinous to their industry; and governments behold it with anxiety, as their power inay be impaired by its consequences.

It is confidently maintained that it is peace which is at present formidable to the cabinet of St.Jaines's ; it is asserted that the mif. fortunes of war are reviewed by it as an inexhaustible mine, which it is its duty to continue to work without pity and without remorse, for its own profit alone, at the expense of the calamities of the continent, the colonies, and the world.

How many painful and terrible truths might be opposed to so cruel a fyftem of politics! We shall confine ourselves to some reflections.

The fource of the riches and credit of England does not lie within that island.

However highly its territorial revenues, the produce of its induftry, and the fruits of its commerce, may be exaggerated, it is evident that the resources of the country are supplied from foreign parts, and that it is with the gold of another hemisphere it pays for the crimes and the calamities of this.

- Every one admits that in the present war England has become, by her naval power, the mistress of the feas. The French republic has acquired by land a power, which the combined exertions of Europe have been incapable of resifting : the only use to which her government is desirous of converting it, the only advantage which it still pretends to derive from it, is the attainmert of a peace, lasting and folid; of a treaty which justice and the general interest of Europe are to guarantee.

The cabinet of St. James's, on the contrary, wishes to make use of its successes for the purpose of consolidating its uncontrolled dominion, and expends a little gold in Europe, with the fole view of pofsefling itself of all the gold of America and Asia.

The French republic contends for the preservation of her liherty. England contends for the security of her domination.

Were the kings of Europe convinced by the dictates of a true system of politics, that it is tiine to spurn at the destructive weight which England wilhes to impose upon their degraded thrones ; were their real intereits better understood than those which are now held forth in the case of Austria as the most prefling, and they should succeed in forming a league against the usurpation, the invasion, and the maritime despotism of England ; and should such a confederacy say, “Let us break to pieces the sceptre of this Rome of the ocean !" what could she do?

She derives indeed confidence from her fleets; but fleets do not constitute the preponderating arm in the contest of empire against empire. Ships are not alone sufficient to enable a state to give laws to the universe.

Let the ports of the continent of Europe be shut against the English ; let them be indignantly repelled froin every part of the earth on that element where they have been folicitous of acting the tyrants; let them be denied in every quarter the means of repairing the ravages of tempests and the decays of time; let there be an end to the imprudence of attacking them by sea with unequal strength; let them spend their force in keeping stations, and in carrying on fruitless blockades ; 'let them be deprived of the opportunity of, compelling, by the threat of punithinent, the seamen of their enemies or of their allies from serving on board their squadrons, and from converting their prisoners into recruits or victims; and let the powers of Europe have the courage to undergo for some months, some years, if it be necessary, privations, in order to avoid the disgrace of being the tributaries of their commerce!

It will then be seen that prosperity founded upon fleets and ships has never yet been permanent.

Successes obtained by sea partake of the inconstancy of that element.

Seafaring nations have in all times closed their career, by submitting to the powers of the land.

Never yet, it is aftested by reason and history, has a maritime power triumphed over a continental power.

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The English, after gaining battles on the French territory, as the Carthaginians did on that of Italy, have been obliged to employ, as the means of their safety by flight,' the ships which were armed for their triumphs.

And did the powers of Europe, not satisfied with a common league for the defence of the continent, agree to form a navy equal to contend with that of England, then certainly the miseries of humanity would be more cruel and affecting, but the authors of them would be more rigorously punished.

How many ships already at fea, or ready for sea, might be collected against England ! how many might be built and equipped against the new Carthage !

The Persians were vanquished by the ships of Athens, constructed in a hurry by Themistocles.

Rome was not mistress of a single vessel, when a galley was hipwrecked on the coast of Italy, and served as a model.

Philip the Second lorded it on the ocean by the allistance of the gold of Mexico, as George the Third rules the two seas by the means of the riches of India. Philip attacked England ; a few weak ships were aided by refiftless storms, and the Spanish Armada was destroyed.

Louis the Fourteenth wished to have a navy, and he created one,

The Czar Peter learned the art of thip-building in the ports of Europe, and Russia maintains a rank among the maritime powers.

The formation of a navy is a measure more expensive than difficult.

It abounds more in danger than obstacles. Le: England then dread, left the should behold a confederacy of the powers of Europe, not only to banish her from their thores, but even repulse or destroy her fleets by more numerous squadrons !

Indignation and interest are powerful motives ; and if the cabinet of St. James's do not adopt another system of conduct, wil. dom and humanity itself may convert into irreconcilable enemies, its allies, convinced of their former follies.

Proclamation of Toussaint Louverture, General in Chief of the Army

of St. Domingo, to all the Citizens of the Department of the South.

Citizens, Brothers, and Friends, TRUTH has at length pierced ihe clouds of falsehood which

have so long bedimmed your eyes, and notwithttanding the efforts of the enemies of your happinefs, the cause of justice at length prevails over that of iniquity. Were there any among you fill fo incredulous and blind as to doubt the criminality of Rigaud and the purity of my intentions, it would be sufficient for me to Temind them of the past, in order to banith their incredulity, and VOL. X.

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