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Duke' to difarm the levy en maffe ; but that the latter having refused to do so, Lieutenant-general Dupont entered Florence the 15th of October, and the General of Brigade, Clement, Leghorn the 16th.
All Tuscany is occupied by the French army. Above 25,000 men of the rising en masse have been dispersed, disarmed, and fent back to their several homes. The French troops required nothing inore than their reputation to conquer them. General Sommariva and the corps of Austrians who were in Tuscany, have retired to Ancona. All the English merchandises found in Tuscany, and particularly at Leghorn, have been confiscated for the benefit of the republic.
The disarming of these brigands has not been attended with any loss on our side. Our troops have observed the strictest discipline.
Dupont, Lieutenant general, to the General in Chief, Brune.
Head-quarters at Florence, Oct. 15. I HASTEN to give you an account, Citizen General, that I have entered Florence. The army of Tuscan insurgents, about 25,000 strong, according to the acknowledgment of the Austrians themselves, is dissolved. I have now only to pursue the scattered corps which have taken refuge in several quarters in the narrow defiles of the Appenine, and to chastise the brigands of Arezzo. They are the most audacious, and the same who dared to insult the army of Naples in the last campaign. It was in that city that the famous miracle of the Holy Virgin was fabricated, which gave the signal of insurrection by the firing of a gun, which Mr. Windham, one of the principal artists in that ridiculous miracle, made her discharge upon the French. These impostures should not be suffered 10 arm this multitude of peasants and increase their force.
The head-quarters of the insurgents, commanded by General Spanocci, were at Barberino, from whence they were chased yesterday. As they were menaced on three points, they were obliged to divide themselves, and from fear of being surrounded they abandoned the works, where they had begun to place their artillery, and the most advantageous positions. General Sommariva has apprized me of his departure from Florence, by a' leiter, of which a copy is subjoined. He is retiring to Ancona.
General Monnier will advance to-morrow against Arczzo, with the brigade of General St. Cyr. General Pino will march against Prato and Pistoja ; and General Malher against Leghorn. I do not know whether General Clement has entered that place. VOL. X.
I hope that in confequence of these dispositions the difarming will be speedily effected in all Tuscany.
The regency established on its departure a provisional government. General Sommariva emptied the state chests.
DUPONT. For a true copy.
(Signed) The General in Chief, Brune.
Dupont, Lieutenant-general, commanding in Tuscany.
Head-quarters at Florence, 15th OEtober,
gth Year of the Republic,
DECREE. ART. 1. All the public functionaries now in office shall continue their functions provisionally, until it shall be otherwise ordained.
2. All persons now confined on account of their political opinions thall be immediately fet at liberty, and the sequestration put on their properties shall be taken off. The public functionaries, whom this order concerns, are responsible for its execution.
3. The present imposts shall be continued until a new order.
4. The magistrato supremo is charged with the posting, publishing, and execution of the present decree, which shall be printed 'in both languages.
Clement, General of Brigade, commanding the French Troops in the Republic of Lucca and the City of Leghorn, to the Tuscan People..
Head-quarters at Leghorn, 16th Oftober, goh Year
of the French Republic, one and indivisible. IN conformity with the orders which I have received, I come to Leghorn with the column which I command.
Acknowledging only the laws of honour and justice, the respect due to property, to worship, usages, political and religious opinions, I come the expounder of these sentiments, as a friend and as a general, jealous of good order and discipline.
The harmony which prevails between the French troops and those of his Imperial Majesty shall be maintained. . I shall punish with severity whoever shall attempt to disturb it, or raise any obItacle in its way.
Tuscan people, remain peaceable at your firesides.. Let not the arrival of the French inspire any dread. Let such persons as
have withdrawn themfelves from fear at our approach, return. I promise them, on my honour, support and protection.
The city of Leghorn shall enjoy tranquillity and repose. I have taken the means to secure them. The order, the union, and the discipline which I shall maintain among the troops which I command, make me hope that its inhabitants, not having any cause of complaint, will see with pleafure the French in their bosom.
The Tuscan troops of the line fhall remain under the protection of the troops of his Majesty the Emperor.
The refugees returned in confequence of the arrival of the French column, who shall offer the slightest insult whatever, towards any person whatever, shall be immediately arrested, carried before a military tribunal, and punished as disturbers of the public peace.
Report of Lieutenant-general Dupont to the General in Chief Brune.
Head-quarters, Florence, October 17, 91h Year. AS soon as the Austrian major sent to Milan had returned to Florence, General Sommariva took every means to excite a general insurrection. He caused all his troops to march forward, and the tocfin to be founded in Florence and the neighbouring country, Lo! the pledge of the promises which have been made to us, and which evidently had no other obje&t but to gain time. To supply the want of muskets, pikes were distributed in the villages. There was a depot of them at Barberino, which I have caused to be brought to Bologna. The least delay in my march would have been attended with great inconveniencies. The presence of the French in Tuscany has been thought necessary by several partisans of the Grand Duke themselves, who feel that the safety and honour of the French army required the measures which you have ordered. I have found this opinion strongly accredited here.The extraordinary levies inspired, besides, a very lively fear for the interior of Tuscany, and their pay was an enormous weight which this state could not support. I have observed the highest respect towards the Austrian troops. Those which were in the Tuscan port which surrendered its arms, and those which had been left at Florence, set out to-day for Ancona. Nothing has passed that could in the flightest degree affect the armistice, and all the officers have acknowledged in this procedure that the occupation of Tuscany was a particular measure which ought riot to diminish the harmony that prevails between the two armies.
The city of Florence is tranquil. My proclanution instantly inspired the fullest confidence. LI 2
I send you a copy of a decree which I was obliged to ordain on my arrival, to prevent the public adminiftration from falling into dissolution. I was solicited by the provisional government, which the regency of Florence instituted at its departure. The members of this government request to be dismissed, as they are already engaged in other employments to which they give a preference. Í have not consented to their removal, and await your answer on this point. I have ordered such persons as were confined for matter of opinion to be set at liberty. The provisional government, though the avowed partifan of Austria, has itself judged this measure necessary. The severities exercised by the regency extend to above 20,000 families. It has been real tyranny, and has made us friends. Should I occupy Tuscany for some time, I think it would be necessary to confide the several branches of administration to men less devoted to our enemies. The public tranquillity and the service of the troops require it.
DU PONT. A true copy, General in Chief, Brune.
Extra£t of a Letter from the Isle of Leon ; dated Oętober 7, 1800.
enemy's fleet which had come from the Mediterranean, and consisted of
22 Sail of the line.
143 There can be no doubt that it was the dreadful epidemic disor. der, which has raged in Cadiz and its vicinity since the beginning of the month of August, which suggested to the humanity of the English the desire of paying us a visit, on the supposition that the velsels in the roads might be easily carried, and that they could penetrate to the old arsenal, in order to set it on fire ; for it is not probable that such preparations Mould have been made merely to bombard Cadiz, and they must have known that they could not obtain poffeffion of it without meeting a number of obstacles.
General Don Thomas de Morla, lately appointed governor of this place, where he arrived during the most violent period of the epidemic disease, thought it right to send a note (No. 1) to the English admiral, stating to him the situation of the inhabitants, and the odium which must, among all nations, attach to the English name, if any attack was made upon that city. General Abercromby and Admiral Keith sent a reply (No. 2] to the governor, in which, without taking any notice of him as governor of Cadiz, but' merely as captain general of the army, and province of Andalusia, and captain general of the department of marine, they proposed to him to deliver up the thips already armed, and those which were arming, the crews and officers of which might be set at liberty; and on complying with this condition they would withdraw their fleet.
The governor of Cadiz sent back an answer (No. 3), in which he stated the erroneous conclusion which they had drawn froin his letter.
Yesterday the whole of the expedition came to an anchor before Cadiz; but to-day, the wind having come round to the southeast, they dropped their foresails, and tacked off Ahore until pretty late in the afternoon; and towards evening they were about fix leagues distant.
The masters of the fishing-vessels stopped yesterday by the squadron, and who have arrived here this evening, declared that it was the intention of the enemy to attempt a descent this morning between Candon and Regla; but they have been prevented by the south wind.
The number of land forces on board is not accurately known. They are estimated at 20,000; a number not improbable, confidering that there are eighty-four transports, besides the ships of the line, frigates, &c.
It must be confessed that this eyent could not have taken place in more critical circumstances, as, in consequence of the ravages of the epidemic distemper, we had scarcely a force sufficient to defend the 'harbour. It would appear, however, from the enemy's not hazarding an attack, that they must have thought our numbers more formidable. So far as respects the land service, all the necessary measures have been taken to defeat their plans. It is not to be imagined that they will abandon them, ihould the wind change from the south; and it does not promise a long continuance in that point.
These are all the particulars I can give you in this rapid sketch. It is already late; I have a press of business to attend io, and I am not yet entirely recovered from my late illness.
Annexed are copies of the documents above referred to.