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what was the object of the address moved | wisdom of the executive government, for, or what the hon. gentlemen meant his General principles were laid down in a majesty's ministers should advise the king strong manner by writers; but it was on to do. The next point was the general government that we were to rely for a principle, as far as it was connected with prudent application of them. The rights the law of nations, upon which his ma- of war were harsh, but yet they were jesty's ministers and the commanders in rights that existed: happy would it be if the West Indies had acted. On this he the state of humanity, in that respect, was would only say, that he had acted in altered, and war existed no longer ; but concert with his colleagues, and never this was a point more desirable than without having what they considered to attainable. It was not possible to make be the best and soundest legal advice the an innoxious or a peaceable war. The country could afford them. Were it not very intent of war being to compel people, that the person * was present, to whom by a sense of suffering, to do what otherthey owed so much on that subject, he wise they would not do. The general would have said more. With regard to principle of the law of nations was, to the prize-money or booty, the king had make the private property of the subjects not yet decided how it was to be disposed of the hostile countries, amenable to the of ; of course, nobody concerned in the rights of war; and its effect was, to make expedition could be said to have received every man that was the subject of one it. With regard to the easiness of the state in hostility, the enemy of every conquest, he differed widely from those subject of the other. The property of who seemed to underrate the services every individual in the state composed performed ; and he contended, that the the property of the state itself, and was degree of resistance which the British subject to the rights of war.

This was forces met with, fully justified every pro- the law of nations as it existed; sorry ceeding that had taken place. He felt it should he be if it was to be enforced his duty not merely to give his negative vigorously; but if the House were to to the proposition moved, nor to get rid come to a decision on the point, they of it by the order of the day. The grati- must necessarily come to one as harsh as tude that the country owed to those gal that. For the enforcing and dispensing lant men, who had done such brilliant of those laws, this country had proper services as had merited and received the courts; first, the court of admiralty, and unanimous thanks which that House had next, the court of appeals. The decision already come to, pointed out the necessity of those courts was as binding as those of of doing something farther. His inten- any court of law; indeed more so, for the tion, therefore, was to move two resolu- legislature had an unlimited power over tions; but in order to get rid of the the municipal laws of the country, while motion, he would first move the previous its authority over the law of nations was question.

not of such extent. In the case of St. Sir William Scott said, he objected to Eustatius, the same principles as those the original motion ; first

, because the broached that night were laid down in House was thereby called to decide on that House by gentlemen of the first the general principles of the laws of talents; but the court of admiralty, and nations, and lie could not help thinking, the lords commissioners of appeals, at. that for the House to decide on abstract tended by lord Camden, and other respeclaws of nations, was unwise : 2dly, because table judges, determined that the universal it went to censure the proclamations, principle was, that the private property without the aid of any real evidence: and of individuals was subject to confiscation. 3dly, because the questions both of law To punish error or inadvertency in the and fact were now depending in the application of the general principles of competent court. The law of nations had the law of nations, on the part of comprovisions to regulate the mode of war or manders, would be to subject them to a self-defence. The rights of war were of a responsibility too rigorous for any officer delicate nature, depended on particular to incur. În the proclamations there circumstances, and must bend to those might be expressions which, on mature circumstances, and be directed by the consideration, and better advice than

could be expected in actual service, it Sir William Scott, the king's advocate would be desirable to correct; but this general,

was not the criterion by which the House

tect.

ought to judge. They would judge by incur the penalty of contributions and the intention and the manner in which confiscation, what planter would take up the proclamation had been acted upon. arms to oppose the enemy? The affidavits would not be held sufficient Mr. East said, that if the commanders evidence in the admiralty courts for a had been led into an error by misinfordecision in any single case ; much less mation, the House was called upon to could he consider them as evidence for correct that error in a stronger way than the House to found a vote upon. All the the secretary of state proposed. He was questions, both of law and fact, were now therefore against the previous question. at issue in the proper courts, whose deci- Colonel Wood entered into a defence sion, where there appeared no public of the proclamations. He should have ground for the interposition of the House, preferred giving a decided negative to was to be preferred. For these reasons, the proposition; but as the right hon.genhe should vote for the previous question, tleman had moved the previous question, concurring, as he did, most heartily in he would vote for it. So far from thinkthe proposition for referring to the testi- ing the conduct of the two gallant and mony already given by the House to the meritorious officers deserving of censure, merits and services of sir Charles Grey he would join most cordially in expressand sir John Jervis.

ing the same sense of the importance of Mr. C. Dundas, as the strongest proof their services, which was acknowledged of the integrity of sir Charles Grey, read by the House twelve months ago. extracts of several letters from sir Charles Mr. Sheridan complimented Mr. Dunto general Dundas, on the conduct to be das on the fair and manly manner in pursued in the conquered islands. In which he had come forward in defence one he said, “ with respect to booty, I of gallant officers, whom it was the duty wish there was no such thing; I am of ministers who employed them to proheartily sick of it. We must take care The country at large would rethat nothing be done to tarnish the glory joice to hear, that there was not a shadow of the brilliant actions performed by you of foundation for the aspersions that had and the brave troops :" in another, re- been so long circulated against the chagretting the same difficulties, that " racters of sir Charles Grey and sir John tributions, in lieu of booty, had been Jervis. settled with the consent of the several Alderman Lushington said, he would islands:" and in a third, that “ the advi- console himself for the loss of the original sers of violent measures ought to be motion, by the general admission, that listened to with great caution; that as the proclamations contained things very most of their information came from objectionable. Frenchmen who had been emigrants, it Mr. For would have preferred meeting was to be received with distrust; and that the motion with a direct negative, but as such of them as were disposed to violence, the previous question had been moved, should be permitted to quit the islands." he would vote for it. He objected to

Sir W. Young said, that the proclama the original motion, because to condemn tions contained principles directly in the a proclamation, without specifying the teeth of the law of nations.“ Do as you precise principles condemned, was to lead would be done by," was, in these enlight- others into error, as one might think it ened times, applicable to a state of war. was condemned upon one principle, and

The exercise of the right of conquest was another upon a principle very different. limited by state use. “Quando hostis in To move a vote of disapprobation on the mea potestate est, hostis esse desinit.” It proclamation, and to enter into various was the duty of the House to take from an allegations of fact not to be found in the extension of the right of conquest, the papers before the House, without allowweight of British authority. An army ing, by a motion of inquiry, a fair oppor. ought never to levy money for itself. tunity of repelling those allegations, must The force of the proclamations, although be construed into a direct attack upon not acted upon, was not done away by the characters of most meritorious offithe letters from the secretaries of state. cers. The capture of Martinico was one If those letters were inserted by order in of those instances of prompt decision, the Gazettes of the several islands, he mixed with prudence, which characshould be satisfied. If it was to be laid terised the military conduct of sir Chaudes down, that resistance of inyasion was to Grey,

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The previous question being put, “ That Jervis in the conquest of the French that question be now put,” the House di- | Islands," it was carried in the affirmative. vided : Tellers.

Debate in the Commons on the East Mr. Foster Barham

India Budget.] June 16. The House YEAS

17 having resolved itself into a Committee

on the Annual Accounts presented from Mr. Whitbread

67

the East India Company, Mr.

Mr. Secretary Dundas rose and said ; So it passed in the negative.

The accounts to which I request the atList of the Minority.

tention of the committee are as usual nu

merous and important; but being made Allardyce, Alexander Lushington, ald.

up with great care and attention, they are Anderson, alderman Manning, William Barham, John Foster Rose, George Henry

so free from perplexity, that I hope to be Benfield, Paul Smith, general

able to give an explanation of those parCurtis, alderman Smith, George

ticulars which appear to require it, and to Davidson, Duncan Smith, Robert

collect from the whole a general stateEast, Edward Hyde Smith, Samuel ment, in one point of view, of the affairs Ellis, Charles Rose Thellusson, Peter Is. of the East India company, without tresHalhed, Nat. Brassey Young, sir William passing long on the indulgence of the Joddre, R. Paul

House. In doing this, I shall first state Mr. Dundas then moved, “ That the the amount of the Annual Revenues at inhabitants of the French islands not the several settlements in India, and of having, availed themselves of the Pro- the various charges, to the payment of clamation of the 1st of January 1794, the which they are immediately applicable, said proclamation cannot be considered in order to show the capital thence obas having formed a general rule for the tained for carrying on the Company's conduct of the commanders of his ma- trade, or towards liquidating their debts jesty's forces, by sea and land, respecting in India: I shall then advert to the exthe persons and properties of the inha- tent of that trade, and the state of the bitants of those islands." Upon this the Company's affairs at home, as arising both House divided : Yeas, 64; Noes, 13. from their trade and revenues. From Mr. Dundas next moved, “ That the the whole of these statements I shall Proclamations of the 10th and 21st of May draw a general result, to show what va1794 not having been carried into effect, riations have taken place in the affairs of it is unnecessary for this House to give the Company abroad and at home, col. any opinion thereupon; and that this lectively, since the dates of those ac. House retains the cordial sense which counts on which I had the honour to offer they have already expressed, in their vote my observations to the committee of this of the 20th of May 1794, of the distin- House last year. And first as to guished merit and services of sir Charles BENGAL.-In the first three columns Grey and sir John Jervis in the conquest of the account No. 1, are stated the of the French islands." And an objec- amounts of the revenues of this presidency, tion being made, that the said motion for the three years, 1791-2 to 1793-4, the contained a complicated question; the average of which is 5,425,3176. Whick motion was, ty consent of the House, is 111,8271., more than the average of the divided into two questions, the first part three preceding years. The next account ending with the words “ to give any opi- to which I refer is No. 3, being a comnion thereupon." And the question parison between the estimated and actual being put, “ That the Proclamations amount of the revenues and charges of of the 10th and 21st of May 1794 not Bengal for 1793-4. The estimated having been carried into effect, it is unne- amount of revenues was 5,432,7681. The cessary for this House to give any opi- actual 5,871,9461., being an excess above nion thereupon ;" The House divided : the estimate of 439,1781

. The mint and Yeas, 57; Noes, 14. Then the question post-office collections exceeded the estibeing put, “ That this House retains the mate in a small sum; but the principal cordial sense which they have already ex- articles in which the above excess arises pressed, in their vote of the 20th of May are the land revenues and the produce of 1794, of the distinguished merit and salt and opium. The adoption of the new services of sir Charles Grey and sir John system for letting the lands on permanent

lo

leases, occasioned the revenues at first to timate 77,1567,, in consequence of the
fall short of the amount of preceding larger sales, as already stated. The
years; but the second year the collections charges of buildings and fortifications
were considerably increased ; and in the were 36,5351. less than estimated.
next the year to which these accounts be- the other articles there is some variation.
long, a large amount of arrears having Deducting the excess of charges from the
been paid, the total received exceeds the excess of revenue, the actual account is
collections of former years, and produced better than the estimate by 345,5461.
139,968l. more than was computed on The total nett revenue of this presidency
in the estimate, which was formed on the in the year, was 2,539,9681. 'The reve-
amount received in the preceding year. nue for the year 1794-5 is computed to
The produce from the sales of salt also amount to 5,580,606). and the charges to
exceeded the estimate, the total receipt | 3,278,6341., leaving a nett revenue of
being 1,293,4581. In my observations 2,501,9721., which is 237,9961. less than
last year, it was stated that the increas the actual nett amount in the preceding
ing prosperity of the country warranted year, and is a proof of the caution with
the expectation of a million per annum which the estimate is made.
from this article ; and in a letter then just MADRAS.—The finances of this presin
received, it was remarked, that the sales dency, for the years to which the accounts
would! probably, amount to about the now before the committee refer, have not
sum above stated : and this, it was ob- been in a settled state. The war with
served, arose not from an enhanced price, Tippoo Sultaun continued till near the
but chiefly from an increased sale. In end of 1791-2. In the next year a new
some of the sales, however, the price ap- treaty was made with the nabob of Arcot
pears to have been higher than it ought and rajah of Tanjore, the particulars of
to be in a plentiful season: in order, there which could not be carried into full effect
fore, to allow for a reduction of price, the immediately. It required also some time
estimate for the following year is taken at to settle the revenues and ascertain the
1;113,6001.-In the sale of opium, the charges of the countries ceded to the
amount has exceeded the estimate by East India Company by Tippoo: and in
49,7541. The trade in this article has con- the last year, the French possessions in
siderably increased, partly owing to the that part of India were captured, which
facility with which it can be carried on to occasioned an extra expense, and pro-
the Eastward islands, by means of the new duced some revenue. From these circum-
settlement at Prince of Wales' island.stances it follows, that an average of the
Beside which, in the present year, that revenues of those three years would not
part of the trade in opium, which by be applicable to show the amount that
treaty was allowed to the French, has been, may be realised at that presidency in fu-
in consequence of the war, taken from ture years. The first account to be re-
them, and produced an addition to the ferred to is, therefore, the comparison of
Company's profit of upwards of a lack of the estimated and actual revenues for the
rupees.-A new article of revenue, levied year ending the 30th of April 1794. The
for the purpose of preserving the police, revenues were estimated to amount to
has fallen short of the estimated sum, and 2,232,0771., and the actual amount was
the charges of the same have exceeded 2,110,0891. being less than the estimate
the estimate. But when the assessment 121,988. The charges were estimated
shall be more regularly established, it is to amount to 1,701,2981., the actual
expected the receipts will equal the ex- amount was 1,999,3761. The excess of
penses. The charges of the Bengal go- charges therefore is 298,0781. which add-
vernment for 1793-4 were estimated at ed to the deficiency of receipts as above
3,238,3461.; the actual amount was stated, 121,9881., the actual account is
3,331,978l., being more than the estimate worse than the estimated, by 420,0661.
93,6321. This is principally accounted for the following year, the annual reve-
for, by an additional donation granted to nues are estimated to be more productive,
the Bengal troops that served in the late and to amount to 1,855,3171., and the
war against Tippoo Sultaun, not known charges to 1,782,2471., leaving a nett re-
in India when the estimate was made, venue, without any extra aid of 73,0701,
amounting to 46,7291. The advances BOMBAY.— The account last presented,
and charges for the manufacture and sale shows the estimated and actual revenues
of salt and opium, were more than the es. and charges for the year ending 30th of

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April, 1794. The revenues were estimated

REVENUES, at" 277,8981 ; the actual amount is computed at 312,3641; more than estimated At Bengal ............ 5,871,946 54,4661. The principal excess is in the

Madras

2,110,089 revenues of the ceded countries, which Bombay

312,364 £. exceeded the estimate by 21,6451.; the

8,294,399 other revenues and customs also were

CHARGES, more than the amount estimated. But the subsidy from Travancore, although At Bengal ............ 3,331,978 settled to be paid to the Bombay govern.

Madras

1,999,376 ment, is not stated in their accounts, and

Bombay

789,792 £. is therefore taken on estimate. - The

6,115,146 charges were estimated at 696,1391., and amounted to 783,791l.; more than esti

2,179,253 mated 87,652. The excess of charges Supplied from Bengal to Benin the marine department, 22,1481., is ac

coolen, Pinang, the Andaman counted for by the extra expense in fit

Islands, and St. Helena, per ting out cruizers to protect the trade of

No. 18, CRs.........

66,358 the country merchants, &c.; and in the Excess of the revenues above military charges there is included a dona

the Civil and Military Charges 2,112,895 tion of 47,8341. to the army which served The next charge is the interest on the in the late war in Mysore. The revenue debts in India, 459,843l., which being charges of the ceded countries were also deducted from the revenues leaves a nett upwards of a lack of rupees more than surplus of 1,654,852. To this add the the estimate; but the supervisor observes, amount received for the sale of import that the operations of this year are to be goods and certificates 475,994). The total considered as an experiment. The charges is the sum applicable to the purchase of inwere higher, on account of a greater vestnent, payment of commercial charges, number of natives being employed to liquidation of debts, &c. which amounted ascertain the amount of the revenues in 1793.4 to 2,130,8461. of the different districts, to whom large ESTIMATES for 1794-5— Total salaries were given, as they were employed revenues of Bengal, Madras, for only one year. Those charges, in future, and Bombay estimated 1794-5 7,790,807 may therefore, probably, be reduced; and Total charges ditto

5,923,063 as the country recovers from the effects of the late war, a larger revenue may be ex

1,867,744 pected. Deducting the excess of revenue Deduct interest on debts 437,047 from the excess of charges, the actual account appears worse than the estimate by Estimated surplus Revenue... 1,430,697 53,1861. The revenues of this presidency Addestimated Sales of Imports, having, on the whole, been less then its and amount of Certificates... 380,669 charges in 1793.4, by 471,4281.- The Amount estimated to be aprevenues are computed to amount to plicable to investments, pay. 354,8831., and the charges to 757,551l., ment of Commercial Charges, leaving a deficiency of 402,6681.

&c. &c.

1,811,366

DEBTS IN INDIA. Amount BENCOOLEN, &c.— The revenues of

owing by the Company stated Fort Marlborough, on an average of three years, amounted to 4,8481. The supplies Amount by the latest advices 7,505,462

to the House last year......... 7,857,405 from Bengal to this Residency, Pinang, St. Helena, and the Andaman Islands,

Decrease...... £.551,943 were estimated at 77,0001., and amounted to 66,358l. ; less than estimated 10,6421. Debts bearing interest last year The supplies for 1794-5 are estimated at

amounted to .....

6,322,328 104,6321.

Amount bearing interest at GENERAL View.--The revenues and present .....

... 5,597,299 charges of all the British settlements in Decrease of debt bearing inIndia, for the year 1793-4, collected from terest .......

725,029 several statements, are as follow:

Amount of interest payable by
last year's accounts...... 517,825

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