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anchester lies on the east bank | the Free Trade Hall, and the movement was that of the Irwell, which divides it initiated and engineered by the Anti-Corn Law from Salford. The two places League (led by Richard Čobden), the seat of may be regarded to-day as which, naturally enough, was Manchester. From making a single town, though the point of view of social history, therefore, Manthey are governed by indepen. chester is of peculiar interest; and, as will be dent corporations. The origin explained later, to the historic interest there has of Manchester can be traced been added another, connected with the present

back Roman times, but there relation of the town to the business activities of is still doubt as to the name with which it began. Lancashire. Mancunium is the usually accepted Latin name, It must not be supposed, however, that Man. but throughout the Middle Ages the place was chester first came into business notice when the invariably known as Mamecestre, which cannot industrial face of the country was being transbe derived from Mancunium. It is not unlikely formed a hundred years ago. Mention of it as a that the Latin was really Mamucium, which town of economic importance will constantly be occurs in the Itinerary of Antonine; and it has met with in works of standing in the 16th and been suggested that the earliest form was Mam- particularly in the 17th century. Some connection mium, which could have been altered into either with textiles no doubt dates back to the 13th disputed form.

century, but it was not until later that Manchester Despite its early beginnings, it was not until began to assume an outstanding

position. Camden, modern times that Manchester achieved distinction, who visited it in the reign of Elizabeth, describes but it is now one of the cities of the world, both it as 'surpassing neighbouring towns in elegance.' because of the part played by it in the initiation | Here,' he says, is a woollen manufacture, church, of the present economic epoch, and because it market, and college. In tlie last age it was more presents unique features. It was in and around famous for the manufacture of stuffs called Man. Manchester that the industrial revolution made its chester cottons and the privilege of sanctuary, first noticeable marks and proceeded with greatest which the parliament under Henry VIII. removed rapidity. Consequently problems connected with to Chester." In 1641 Lewes Roberts, in his Treasure the industrial revolution were peculiarly associated of Traffic, writes, with reference to the cotton and with this great Lancashire town. The attitude to linen manufactures, that the people of Manchester these of the new men naturally came to be desig: should be remembered, and worthily, and for their nated as that of the Manchester School, in view of industry commended.' Again, in 1724, Stukeley the fact that Manchester dominated the area of describes it as 'the_largest, most rich, populous, greatest disturbance, and that many of the new and busy village in England. Here,' he adds, 'are men who voiced the new ideas were connected with about 2400 families, and their trade, which is in. Manchester. The prominence in and about the credibly large, consists of fustians, tickings, girthtown of the Radical movement of the first quarter webbs, and tapes, which are dispensed all over the of the 19th century is signified historically by the kingdom and to foreign parts. : . . On the same

Peterloo Massacre,' which took place where a river for the space of three miles are sixty waterbuilding now stands to commemorate the part mills. It was the coming of the cotton industry played by Manchester men in another social move. which gave Manchester rank among the chief ment, also connected with the industrial revolution, towns of England. As Daniel Defoe observed in which followed some years later. The building is the course of his tour in 1727, “the grand manu

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factare which has so much raised this town is that is from the foreign trade, which has assunied proof cotton in all its varieties. By 'cotton' he digious dimensions, that Manchester has received meant cotton proper, and not the coarse woollens its cosmopolitan character. At first the foreign which under the name of cottons had won for them. trade was carried on by travellers abroad repre. selves a reputation generations before.

For some

senting Manchester firms, just as the liome trade years in and about Manchester the cotton and between merchants and retailers used to be conwoollen industries flourished side by side ; but the ducted through the medium of riders out' with former, introduced probably in the second half of samples. But the method of using the English the 16th century, eventually pushed the latter over traveller to get in touch with foreign demand was the Pennine Range, and in the period 1770–88, ac- soon found to be unsatisfactory. The travellers cording to Radcliffe, the author of The Origin of knew little of foreign conditions, and, however the New System of Manufacturing,, cotton was long their acquaintance with another country, they become the almost universal material for employ. seldom learned to read its needs as a business man ment. At the end of the 18th century Manchester of the country could. Consequently the tendency was a pre-eminent manufacturing, town, but its soon appeared for the foreign houses to send their form then was very different from what it is to-day. representatives to Manchester and establish offices In those times, where there are now streets of vast there instead of awaiting the travellers from Manwarehouses and offices, buildings stood, part resi chester firms. In a sense the foreign business of dences and part business premises, in which Man- every important country has permanently atlixed chester merchants lived and stored their goods, one of its tentacles to Manchester, with the result and from which they put out their work to the that the latest demands of otlier countries can now numerous hand-loom weavers and small manufac. be learned from visits to offices in Manchester streets turers in the vicinity. A faithful and picturesque instead of being gleaned piecemeal, imperfectly account of Manchester life in these pre-factory and slowly, from the correspondence of travelling days, and of the general features of the town, will representatives. The extent to which this transbe found in Mrs Linnaeus Banks's The Manchester ference of commercial points from abroad to the Man. Around these merchants' premises factories metropolis of the cotton industry has proceeded soon sprang up, and Manchester became a mixed may be gathered from a walk through Manchester textile manufacturing (including spinning) and streets when attention is given to the names on commercial centre, with numerous subsidiary in. the doorplates of the various offices. At first the dustries such as machine-making.

invasion of the foreign business man excited not a The next epoch in the history of Manchester is little distrust, but to-day it is realised that through signalised by its development as a marketing: this invasion foreign trade has been assisted in centre. It is this characteristic, namely, that of attaining its present dimensions. With this reserving as the trading nucleus of an extensive modelling of Manchester into an outstanding industrial district, which in the main renders commercial centre there has been associated the Manchester a striking type of town organisation development of credit facilities, since finance plays at the present day. Spinning and manufactur- so large a part in modern commerce, and, indeed, ing, and even machine-making, were continuously in modern industry also. The leading banks of pushed in bulk south and north and west, but they the country have important branches in the metrowere not completely dissevered from Manchester. polis of the cotton industry, which do duty as The necessary trading functions connected with the centres for smaller branches in various cotton. cotton industry ivere conducted on the Manchester towns; and there have appeared in addition (as Exchange, which has more than once been housed in should perhaps have been mentioned first) powera larger building. A large extension of the present ful local banks with their head-offices in Manbuilding has been made. The Exchange, it may be chester, just as there has arisen for the same incidentally remarked, is maintained out of the reason a local railway system, namely, the Lancasubscriptions of members, and is managed by a shire and Yorkshire, which is managed from Manboard of directors. When spinning separated to chester. Thus Manchester is to day a metropolis a large extent from weavingthe exercise of the somewhat in the same sense that London is a marketing functions uniting them became of para: metropolis. London is the financial and business mount importance, for the spinner and weaver had centre of the whole country. Similarly Manchester to keep in constant touch with one another for the is the financial and business centre of the cotton purposes of sale and purchase of the material for industry and trade and all that is subsidiary to cotton cloth; and a marketing-centre was also it. But the Lancashire district is not, therefore, needed for the disposal of the cotton cloth. With self-contained and unlinked from the national regard to the cotton wool, however, for the feeling metropolis, for the credit system of the country is of spindles, the market for this concentrated at substantially one, and it must be largely through Liverpool, its natural home, after the opening of the national metropolis that Lancashire business railway communication between the two towns. interests are brought into relation with those of Previously spinners bought, as a rule, from Man- other parts of the country. The development of chester cotton-dealers, and up to 1789 the leading the twin city of Manchester and Salford' is to be cotton mart had not been Liverpool but London. read to some extent from the population figures It is to be noted that a portion of the raw cotton below : market, but only a fraction, has been recovered for Manchester since its transformation into a

75,300
14,500

89,800

..303,400 port by the opening of the Manchester Ship-canal.

351,200 It is the proximity of the manufacturing places in

462,300

638,550 Lancashire to a marketing-centre with which they

544,000 220,950 764,950 are united by a dense network of railways, offering

.714,350 231,350 945,700 .730,307

964,352 frequent services, which accounts for the highly differentiated form of the Lancashire cotton in- This growth is partly to be explained by incorporadustry when compared with the same industry on tion of new areas from time to time. An area of the Continent and in America, where the same about 4300 acres was extended to 6000 acres in crowding of the industrial centres around com- 1885, 13,000 in 1890, 20,000 in 1904, and 21,650 mercial centres is not to be found.

in 1909. Apart from London and Glasgow, ManManchester serves as a market not only for the chester and Salford together make up the largest home tradę, but also for the foreign trade; and it town in Great Britain, in respect of population,

Manchester.

Salford.

Total.

1801.. 1851. 1871.. 1891 1901 1911.. 1921.

102,450
124,800
176,250

405,850 476,000

234,045

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according to the census of 1921. Next to it stood in 1848 and extended in 1884, connection was estab. Birmingham with 919,444, Liverpool with 802,940, lished with Thirlmere in 1894, the year in which and Sheffield with 490,639.

the Manchester Ship-canal was completed after Facilities for transportation more than anything the final stages had been rendered possible by a el-e govern the economic development of districts. loan to the directors from the corporation. On Manchester has been fortunate in its proximity to the educational side also a progressive policy has a port, and it has been peculiarly fortunate also in been pursued. The schools of the city under haring taken early steps to meet the needs of its public control are numerous and attain a high trade by improving nieans of communication. In standard of efficiency, and in addition a municipal 1720 an act was obtained to make the Irwell navi. college of technology has been established on a gable. In 1759-61 the Bridgewater Canal was palatial scale. Such of the work in this college constructed (by Brindley on the undertaking as is of university character is now organised as of the Duke of Bridgewater), which put Man- the Faculty of Technology of the University of chester in touch with the coalfields of Lancashire Manchester. and, later, with the salt-mines of Cheshire, and Among the features of Manchester, apart from made an outlet to the sea. Other canals which business, the university is one of the chief. It followed were the Ashton and Oldham, the Man- began as the Owens College on the basis of an ciester, Bolton, and Bury, and the Rochdale. In endowment left by John Owens in 1851. In 1870 1830 Manchester had the first perfect railway in it acquired new buildings, and ten years later it full operation between it and Liverpool, and at the received a royal charter as the Victoria University, present time no town in England is better served with which the college of Liverpool and eventually with railways. Moreover, in order to avoid tran- that of Leeds were associated. In 1904, in conseshipment of goods and to render Manchester an quence of the development of university teaching inland port, the gigantic work of making a ship. in the north, the federal university split into three, canal was carried out in 1887-94 at a cost of and the Victoria University became the independent about £14,000,000, including the purchase of land Victoria University of Manchester. At this time and the Bridgewater Canal. The total amount among the changes made was the institution of a charged to capital now stands at nearly £18,000,000. Faculty of Commerce. Shortly after its foundation Through this canal Manchester has been made a the Owens College took a high rank, notably in port of no mean size in respect of tonnage cleared. science, and particularly, perhaps, in chemistry,

Though the name of Manchester calls up first in and for many years now it has been admirably the mind the conception of a vast business system, equipped all round, in the arts and other facul. it is not for its business alone that Manchester is ties as well as in science. In addition to the uniof interest. It is of interest also on its administra. versity there are also in Manchester a famous tive side, again on account of its past and of its Grammar School and a well-known High School present activities. Manchester received a charter for Girls. The Grammar School dates back to from the last of the Grelleys in 1301, seventy years 1515, in which year it was founded by Hugh Oldafter the chartering of Salford by Randle de Blun- ham, Bishop of Exeter. It has produced many deville. Prior to 1301, however, Manchester (or eminent men, and at the present time is one of Mamecestre, to give it the name by which it was the largest public day-schools in the country. then known) had certain borough characteristics. Almost as old as the Grammar School is the Blue Burgage tenements, a borough court, a weekly Coat School, founded, together with a library, by market, and a three days' fair (granted by Henry Humphrey Chetham in 1653. In addition to the III. in 1227) were all in existence. The last was Chetham Library, containing some rare books and held until early in the 19th century on the spot manuscripts, and the Free Reference Library, mainnow known as St Ann's Square. It was then twice tained by the corporation together with numerous removed, and finally abolished in 1876. Despite branch libraries, there are two other libraries of note the charter of 1301, it was formally decided in 1359 | in Manchester, namely, the Christie Library and that Manchester was no borough, but a market the John Rylands Library, which, in respect of the town, the reason being, no doubt, that a distinction value of its possessions, is of world-wide repute. was drawn between royal charters and those re- The John Rylands Library possesses the famous ceived from lords of the manor. Why Manchester | Althorp collection of books, and was presented was omitted, therefore, from the list of 246 cor- to the town in 1892 in commemoration of Jolin porations possessing and exercising municipal Rylands, a Manchester warehouseman and mann. functions,' drawn up in 1833 by the Municipal facturer, by, his widow. On the cultural side Corporation Commissioners, is comprehensible. In Manchester has for long been to the fore among 1791, however, some of the benefits of incorporation English cities, in this respect almost rivalling had been anticipated by the transference of the Edlinburgh. Of the existing daily papers, the government of the town to police commissioners. Manchester Guardian, founded early in the cenIncorporation came in 1838. In connection with tury, ranks with the best in the country. The the agitation for it, Richard Cobden's pamphlet, Literary and Philosophical Society, which con, Incorporate Your Borough, is worthy of note. Intains on its roll of members the distinguished 1839 the first commission of the peace was created ; names of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas de Quincey, in 1847 a bishopric followed ; in 1853 the title of John Dalton, Sir William Fairbairn, James NaCity was conferred, and in 1893 its chief officer smyth, and Dr Joule, dates back to 1789. The received the title of Lord Mayor. In 1888 it became Statistical Society was instituted in 1833, a year a county borough under the Act of that year. The before the London one. Reform Bill of 1832 gave Manchester two members Manchester has in addition several first-class of parliament and Salford one. The Act of 1867 | theatres, and maintains among its concerts the gave them three and two members respectively; famous "Halle Concerts. There are also several and from 1885 Manchester had six, until they were museums and art galleries. The chief museum is increased to ten (1918), and Salford three members. maintained by the university, but it receives a

Of late years the corporation of Manchester has grant from the corporation, which also shares in gone a long way in assuming control of its public its management. The chief art gallery is located services. Gas, water, electricity, and the tramway at present in somewhat cramped premises in Mosley system have all been municipalised. To improve Street. The parks are also worthy of mention. the water supply, obtained in the main from Long. Of public buildings the most striking are the Town dendale valley, reservoirs having been constructed | Hall, which contains some remarkable paintings

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MANCHESTER

MANCHURIA

on its walls by Ford Madox Brown, the Law.courts, pot unlike a small apple; dried and pulverised it and the University (all designed by Waterhouse), is diuretic; and still more so its seeds. The wood and the Cathedral. The Cathedral, formerly known is well suited for cabinet-making. as the College Church, was built in 1422, but between Manchuria, the north-easternmost portion of 1845 and 1868 it underwent complete restoration. the Chinese dominions, lies between the Yellow

See Whittaker's History of Manchester (1771); Reilly's Sea and the Amur, and borders on Korea and History of Manchester (1861); Baine's History of Lanca- Siberia. The area of Manchuria is said to be shire (1870); Proctor's Memorials of Manchester (1880); 360,000 sq. m.; total pop. 21,000,000. There are Axon's Annals of Manchester (1886); Saintsbury's Man three provinces—Kirin in the centre, Feng-tien or chester (1887); Tait's Mediæval Manchester and Begin- Liao-tung in the south, and Hei-lung-chiang in ning of Lancashire (1904); Chapman's Lancashire Cotton the nortli. The eastern and most of the central Industry (1904); Bamford's Early Days (1848) and Passages in the Life of a Radical (somewhat earlier), both parts are covered with the irregularly grouped republished in 1893 ; Victoria County History (volumes ranges of the Long White Mountains, which in on Lancashire); Prentice's Historical Sketches and Per- the White Mountain itself reach 8000 feet, whilst sonal Recollections of Manchester (1850).

the northern province is crossed by the Chingan Manchester, the largest city of New Hamp watered by the Sungari, which rises in the crater

Mountains. The central parts of the country are shire, stands mostly on the east bank of the Merrimac River, 16 miles S. of Concord, 59 miles NNW. lake of the Long White Mountains, and after a of Boston by rail. Its principal streets are wide

course of 850 miles joins the Amur on the north

border. and shaded with elms, and it has several public

The hills" are rich in timber, pines parks. The river here falls 54 feet, and affords predominating; in minerals, chiefly gold, silver, water power to numerous factories. The great coal, and iron, little worked till lately; and in industry of the place is its manufacture of cottons fur-bearing and other animals, as the sable, foxes, and woollens; but locomotives, fire-engines, sewing. lynx, squirrel, tiger, bear, wolf

, deer, &c. The machines, wagons, edged tools, boots and shoes, Manchurian lark, a clever mimic, is exported in paper, &c. are also manufactured. Manchester is great numbers to China. The rivers swarm with the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a

salmon, and trout are plentiful. The climate is Catholic orphanage and a convent, besides a state temperate in summer, especially whilst the rains reform-school. Pop. (1870) 23,536 ; (1920) 78,384.

last (May to September), but very severe in winter, Manchester, EDWARD MONTAGU, second

the season of traffic, when the streams and exEARL OF, English general and statesman, was

tensive marshy tracts are frost-bound; the therthe son of the first earl, and was born in 1602.

mometer frequently falls as low as - 25° F. in the After leaving Cambridge-his college was Sidney northern province in the depth of winter. The soil Sussex—he accompanied Prince Charles to Spain, millet (with vegetables the chief food of the

is extremely fertile, and produces in abundance and afterwards was created. Baron Montagu, of people), beans, wheat, rice, maize, hemp, vegetables, Kimbolton. But siding, with the popular party, and ginseng. 'Cultivation of the soy. (or soya) bean and being an acknowledged leader of the Puri has developed prodigiously. Wild silk is produced. tans in the Upper House, he was charged by the Manufactures for the most part are primitive, but king (3d January 1642) with entertaining traitorous designs, along with the five independent members

there has been a very vigorous growth of factory of the House of Commons. He succeeded his father enterprise under Russian, Japanese, and Chinese as earl in the same year. On the outbreak of hos: management. A large amount of trade is carried tilities he of course fought for the parliament. He

on at the towns in the interior, and especially at served under Essex at Edgehill, then held the asso

the treaty-port of New-chwang (q.v.). Beans, bean ciated (eastern) counties against Newcastle, took

cakes and oil, silk, ginseng, skins and furs, &c., are Lincoln (1644), and routed Prince Rupert at Marston exported, and cottons, woollens, metals, sugar, silk, Moor-that is to say, he nominally commanded; paper, medicines, &c., imported. . There is a rail the real fighting was done by Cromwell and his Korea, through southern Manchuria to Mukden

way, connecting with those of Clih-li, Dairen, and Ironsides. He then marched to oppose the royalists and Kharbin, where it joins the Russian direct in the south-west, and defeated them at Newbury line (*Chinese Eastern " to Vladivostok, which (the second battle). But after this battle he again showed slackness in following up the victory, the

crosses Manchuria from north-west to south-east. same fault that had been noticed after Marston

Floods have often caused severe famines. The Moor.

In consequence Cromwell accused him of population includes but few Manchus, and most military incompetency in the House of Commons, of these dress and speak like Chinese. Yet they and the two had a downright quarrel. The Self magistrates and soldiers, its police, and its hunters,

are the aristocracy of the country, furnishing its denying Ordinance deprived Manchester of his command, and this did not allay his bitterness though many cultivate their own land. From the against Cromwell. He opposed the trial of the

time when the Manchus conquered China (1644) king, and protested against the Commonwealth and founded the late imperial dynasty Manchuria Afterwards, having been active in promoting the

was the favourite recruiting ground for the Chinese Restoration, he was made Lord Chamberlain, a

army. The rest of the population consists almost step designed to conciliate the Presbyterians. He Austrions, and prosperons, and still pouring in.

entirely of Chinese immigrants, enterprising, indied 5th May 1671. His grandson, CHARLES MONTAGU, fourth EARL, Kharbin (q.v.); Kirin (q.v.); Kwangcheng.tzu;

The principal towns are Mukden (9.v.), the capital ; supported William of Orange in Ireland, was sent as ambassador extraordinary to Venice ( 1696 ), Paris

Liao-yang; Tsitsihar ; Ying-tzu, commonly called (1699), and Vienna (1707), and was made Duke of New-chwang, the chief port; Antung, also a great Manchester in 1719 for having favoured the Han filthy, worse than English towns in the 15th cen

port. All Manchurian towns are indeseribably overian succession. He died 20th January 1722.

tury, and most of them are walled. The religions Manchineel (Hippomane Mancinella), a tropi. current are those found in China (q.v.), though the cal American tree of the natural order Euphor original creed of the Manchus was Shamanism. biacee, celebrated for the poisonous properties of Early in the 17th century B.C. there existed a its acrid milky juice. A drop of this burns like native kingdom in the southern of the three fire if it falls upon the skin, and the sore which provinces, and this was succeeded by other it produces is very difficult to heal. The Indians states, until in the beginning of the 17th century use it for poisoning their arrows. The fruit is | Nurhachu, a Manchu chief, founded a powerful MANCINI

MANDEVILLE

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sovereignty; in 1644 his grandson ascended the although there are resemblances to Ophites and throne of China, and thus founded the dynasty that other old sects, the name probably means observers,' reigned till 1911. The conquerors imposed upon i.e. men distinguished for their knowledge. Prayers the conquered the custom of wearing the pigtail. are recited thrice during the day and twice at night. The first step in the Russian occupation was the Emphasis is laid upon ritual rectitude and truth, concession by China allowing the deviation of the and ritual purity; and there are some special foodSiberian railway through Manchuria ; then the laws. In course of time Christian, Jewislı, Persian, events connected with the russification of Port and other influences continued to modify the religion

Arthur (q.v.) and Ta-lien-wan. Finally it was (e.g. observance of the Sabbath, resurrection), even • arranged that the Siberian railway should be con- as they explain the heterogeneous elements already

nected with Kirin and Mukden, with Peking on present in the sacred books. The light thrown by the one hand and Port Arthur on the other. Since the Mandæan writings upon early beliefs in Babythe Russo-Japanese war of 1904–5 (see JAPAN) | lonia prior to the age of Islam is of great value; Japan holds a lease of the Liao-tung peninsula, but the analysis of the different elements, as will and has railway and other trade privileges in be seen from the above, is a very difficult task, southern Manchuria (the principal theatre of war). upon which the chief work has been done by Brandt The Russians and the Japanese control the rail. (see Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics) and ways.

In the Chinese civil wars General Chang- Lidzbarski (edition of texts); on the book of John tso-lin, governor of Manchuria, played a leading see Mead, The Quest, vol. xv. part as the rival of General Wa-pei-fu. The

Mandalay, the chief town of Upper Burma, Manchu language is of the Ural-Altaic family. stands 2 miles from the left bank of the Irawadi, a The Manchu alphabet is of Syriac descent. See little N. of Amarapura (q.v.), the former capital, and ALPHABET. French Catholics (since 1838 ) and 410 miles by rail (1888) N. of Rangoon. Founded Presbyterians (since 1861) have missions. See in 1860, it was the capital of independent Burma books by Hosie (1901), Whigham (1904), Weale until its capture by the British in the end of 1885, (1904), Kemp (1912)," Christie (1914), Sowerby and after the treaty (1886)

,

and after the treaty (1886) by which the king lost (1923).

his throne it became the capital of Upper Burma. Mancini. See MAZARIN.

The city forms a square, each side a mile long, and Manco Capac, mythical ancestor of the Incas. is surrounded by a wide moat, a crenelated brick

wall 26 feet high, and an inner earthen parapet. Mancunium. See MANCHESTER.

In the centre of the city stand the royal palaces, Mandæans, a small sect found in South Baby

constructed principally of teak-wood, and enclosed lonia and Khuzistân. The members are a fine by three stone walls and a teak-wood stockade. race, chiefly gold and silver smitlis and boat- There is little of real interest or beauty in them builders; and their sacred books are written in a beyond some rich wood-carving. The most famous very archaic Aramaic dialect and script which date building in Mandalay is, however, the Arakan back before the 7th-8th centuries A.D. The religious Pagoda ; it contains a brazen image of the Buddha, beliefs, which are of remarkably diverse origin, are 12 feet high, an object of veneration to thousands opposed to Judaism, Christianity, and the dualism

of pilgrims. Outside these enclosures was, until of Manichæism (see MANICHÆUS), and have much the British conquest, a crowded, dirty native town, in common with Gnosticism (q.v.). From ancient now cleared away to make room for a Britishi Babylonia are derived the names of certain deities,

cantonment. The present native quarters lie outastral elements, the fight with darkness, Hibil's side the fortified city. Beyond them, again, on the descent into the underworld, the sanctity of water, slopes of the hills that border the valley of the and the elaborate water-ritual. The Great Fruit

Irawadi, are numerous fine monasteries. Pop. (Pira) and the Great Vessel (Mând Rabba) stand

(1921) 148,917.. Silk weaving is the most important at the head of the religious system. Then comes of the industries; the others are gold and silver the First or Great Life, the King of Life, the source work, ivory and wood carving, bell and gong castof all development and of the Great Jordan which ing, and knife and sword making. A disastrous encircles the celestial realm. Next follow the fire in 1892 destroyed most of the town and faciliSecond Life and the Manda d Đayye (Knowledge tated the great improvements made since the British of Life, i.e. salvation), from whom the sect derives

occupation. It has now fine well-lighted streets. its name. He is source of life, mediator, and saviour. His three sons, messengers of the true

Mandamus is a writ, not of right but of prereligion, are Hibil (Abel), Sithil (Seth), and Enochrogative, which issues from the Court of King's (Gen iv. 26, fused with the Son of Man in Dan.

Bench, commanding some public body, or inferior vii. 13, and, like the latter, dwelling in a cloud), it is their legal duty to do.' In the United States

court, or justices of the peace, to do something which The Third Life is father of the 'Uthré (riches,' Mammons ?), and his son Ptahil created the bodies

the power to issue writs of mandamus is vested in

the Supreme Court, and is also allowed to the cir. of men, although the spirit comes from Mâna Rabba. In another version this demiurge is Gabriel. The

cuit courts, subject to considerable restrictions. Ruha (“spirit') with her son 'Ur (“light')-both Mandarin, a general term applied to Chinese derived from Gen. i. 2 seq:-produced the planets,

officers of every grade by foreigners, derived from signs of the zodiac, &c., including Ishtar i Venus,

the Portuguese mandar, to command.' For the or the Holy Spirit), Bel (Jupiter), Nebo (Mercury),

Chinese governmental authorities, their rank and Adonay (the founder of Judaism ), and other sources

distinctive buttons, see CHINA. of false religion and evil. The false prophets ex. Mandeville, BERNARD, an English satirical tend from Abraham to Mohammed. The true writer, though born of Dutch parents at Dordrecht prophet was John the Baptist, Jesus being a false in Holland in 1670. He graduated in medicine at prophet (also identified with Mercury) whom Enosh Leyden, after six years of study, in 1691, and imexposed. The Mandæan reverence for John and mediately afterwards settled in London to practise the prominence of rites of baptism (maşbutha)-- his profession; he died in that city in 1733. He Christian baptism being condemned-account for is known as the author of a short work in doggerel the misleading name of St John's Christians given verse entitled The Fable of the Bees, which, as to the sect (17th century onwards), and for the older finally published in 1723, included the fable itself, title of Şabians (in the Koran), whence the modern called The Grumbling Hive, first printed in 1705, name of Subbis. The native title, Naşoræans, Remarks on the Fable, and Inquiry into the Origir suggests the old Jewish-Christian Nazoræans; but I of Moral Virtue, both added to the 1714 edition,

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