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stadia wires is often added to the cross-hairs of the telescope, so that the distance of the leveling rod may be computed by taking a second reading, above or below the level line at the time when the level is fixed. An ingenious device renders the stadia wires invisible when the cross-hairs are being used, and vice-versa. A small pocket level known as the "Locke Level, is of great usefulness in reconnaissance work. In this instrument the bubble tube is attached to
the top of the tiny telescope, the upper part of which is cut away, and a semi-circular mirror at 45 degrees placed beneath it in the telescope. The image of the bubble in the mirror decides when the instrument is held in a true level position, and at the same moment the point at which the level line strikes the leveling rod is in plain view.
For the measurement of angles in the field the commoner instruments are the magnetic compass and the transit. The former depends upon a continual reference of the direction of a line to the magnetic north-and-south line indicated by a magnetic needle swinging in a compass box, the rim of which is graduated to 15 minutes of arc; from which the angle can be very closely estimated to five minutes. By an attachment to the compass it may be made a solar compass, a necessity where the principal lines of the survey are referred to the true meridian, as in government surveys of the public lands. The compass may be still further improved by the addition of a telescope, which may be clamped to the rear sight, and this telescope may have a long bubble tube, making it available for running levels, and it may also carry a vertical circle for measuring vertical angles.
The transit is the engineer's instrument of precision for angular measurements. Its essenvial factor is the plate, from five to seven inches in diameter, bearing graduations of exquisite accuracy, to 30 minutes of arc in the smaller instruments and 20 minutes in the larger ones. Verniers are affixed at opposite sides of the plate by which the angular measurement may be made to 30 seconds in the one case or to 20 seconds in the other. The telescope which carries the line of sight with the intersection of cross-hairs is often fitted with stadia wires also, so that the tangents of the distances may be measured upon a leveling rod. A long bubble tube enables the engineer to use the transit for all ordinary leveling work. It is not uncommon to have a four-inch vertical circle attached,
carried on four arms, and reading to single minutes. A solar attachment, consisting of three arcs of circles, on which the latitude of the place, the declination of the sun and the hour of the day may be set off, converts the instrument into a solar transit. Where a vertical circle is a part of the instrument, this serves for the latitude arc. The transit shown in the illustration is equipped with the popular Saegmuller solar attachment mounted above the primary telescope. A special form of the transit for mining engineers has the axis of the telescope extended beyond the standard at one side, and a second telescope mounted upon it so that a sight may be made directly downward. For very accurate and extended work, as in geodetical work, the telescope of the transit is sometimes 36 inches in length, the horizontal graduated circle 36 inches in diameter and the vertical circle 24 inches in diameter,
The plane table is practically a drawing board, usually 24 by 36 inches. In its simplest form the ruler or "alidade carries two sights at the ends by which the direction is obtained, the line of this direction being then drawn along the ruler upon a sheet of paper attached to the board. In the better class of instrument the sights are replaced by a telescope, which sometimes carries stadia wires for measuring distances, a compass box for orientation and short vertical arcs for measuring tangents which cannot be covered by the stadia wires. The plane table is of use chiefly for rapidly filling in topographical details upon the may made by ordinary surveying methods. The plane table shown in the accompanying illustration is equipped with reels for carrying a continuous roll of drawing paper. See SURVEYING.
Bibliography.- Baker, I. O., Engineers' Surveying Instruments: Their Construction, Adjustment and Use (New York 1909); Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Metro Manual: A Handbook for Engineers) (Rochester 1915); Gurley, W. and L. E., Manual of the Principal Instruments used in American Engineering and Surveying' (Troy 1914);
, Lovell, W. H., The Plane Table, and Its Use in Surveying (New York 1908); Stanley, W. F., Surveying and Leveling, Instruments’ (London 1914); Webb, W. L., and Fish, J. C. L., Technic of Surveying Instruments and Methods) (New York 1917).
SURVEYS, United States Governmental. From an early period in its history the government has made provision for exploring expeditions of various kinds, mainly in the vast region west of the Mississippi which for many years was a but little known wilderness. Some of these explorations were for military routes to the west and later came surveys of public lands. The first official surveys were made by a geographer attached to the Continental army in the Revolution and in 1781 Thomas Hutchins (q.v.) was attached to Greene's division (Southern) as geographer. After the Revolution he was retained to supervise surveys of the Western lands and continued in office until his death in 1789.
The earliest governmental explorations in the West could hardly be regarded as surveys although many of them prepared maps which added greatly to knowledge of a little known region. Position were determined astronom
ically, and route maps were the principal prod- Ozark region. The following year his obseructs. The first of these was the Lewis and vations were extended along the Couteau des Clarke expedition sent out by President Jeffer- Prairies between the Missouri and Minnesota son in 1803. One of its products was a map rivers. In 1838 Nicollet was sent by Colonel of the country between Lake Superior and the Abert of the United States Army Engineers to Pacific Ocean between the 39th and 49th paral- make a map of the hydrographic basin of the lels. Major 2. M. Pike's expeditions in 1805– Mississippi River. In 1839 and 1848 D. D. 07 to the sources of the Mississippi and of the Owen made surveys of mineral lands of the Arkansas and Red rivers were fruitful of ge- Northwest extending to Lake Superior and ographic results. Major S. H. Long's expedi- covering an area of 57,000 square miles. These tion from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains surveys were made for the United States Land in 1819 and 1820 was under order of the Sec- Office. In 1847–48 C. T. Jackson and J. D. retary of War. In 1823 Long made another Foster and J. W. Whitney operating ander journey to the Great Lakes and the source of orders of the Secretary of the Treasury exSaint Peter's River. Sextant and pocket chro- tended this work in the copper district of the nometer were used, distances were estimated Lake Superior region. and courses were taken by compasses. The most Corps of Engineers, United States Army. elaborate early survey was that of J. C. Brown - A large amount of surveying was done by the of a road from Osage to Taos in 1825–27. topographical engineers of the United States Chain compass and a good sextant were used army. The first notable expedition under that and a large scale map prepared. Similar to it burcau was N. Nicollet's explorations of the are the surveys by R. Richardson of a road basin of the upper Mississippi River in 1836-40 from Little Rock to Fort Gibson in 1826, and which resulted in a map which is regarded as a a survey by Dimmock in 1838 for a military most important contribution of American geogroad from Fort Smith to Fort Leavenworth. raphy. His surveys were largely instrumental In 1832 Lieutenant Allen on the Schoolcraft and he used a barometer for ascertaining eleexpedition made an excellent map on a scale vations. The Fremont expedition in 1842 reof 5.75 miles to an inch, of the head of the sulted in a valuable map on the millionth scale, Mississippi Valley but all the distances were of the country from the forks of Platte River estimated. He was the discoverer of the to South Pass between the 43 and 45th paralsource of the great river.
lels. Expeditions by Fremont in following years The Bonneville expedition in 1832–36 was 1843–46 extended his observations westward to not under governmental authority although the Pacific Ocean and the surveys made were Bonneville was an army officer. The Wilkes the basis for important new maps. expedition in 1841 surveyed part of Columbia The following is a list of some of the more River. The first of the early expeditions which notable army expeditions and surveys from could be regarded as a geological survey was 1836 to 1879. (excepting the surveys for Pacific made by Featherstonhaugh in 1834 to the railroads which are noted on following page): List OF PRINCIPAL SURVEYS UNDER THE BUREAU OF TOPOGRAPHICAL CORPS OF ENGINEERS,
UNITED STATES ARMY.
Upper Mississippi Basin.
Missouri River to Rocky Mountains.
Rocky Mts. and to Oregon and northern California.
San Antonio to Saltillo, Mexico.
Between Platte River and 35th Parallel to Rocky Mts.
Fort Leavenworth, Mo., to San Diego, Cal.
Part of Sacramento Valley.
Rio Grande from north of Matamoras.
Road from Fort Smith to Santa Fé.
Valley of Great Salt Lake.
Red River of the North.
Down Zuni and Colorado rivers.
Colorado River Mouth to Fort Yama
To sources of Red River.
Sioux to Mendota.
Oregon and Washington Territories.
Dakota and Sioux County.
Missouri and Yellowstone rivers.
Territory of Nebraska and Black Hills.
Colorado River from Fort Yuma to Grand Canyon.
Santa Fé to junction of Green and Grand rivers.
Great Salt Lake Valley.
Headwaters of Yellowstone and Missouri rivers.
Route from Fort Dallas, Ore., to Great Salt Lake
Yukon River Basin.
Southern and southeastern Nevada.
Northern Montana and Dakota.
Northwestern Wyoming and Yellowstone Park.
Fort Garland, Colo., to Fort Wingate, N. Mex.
Carroll, Mont., to Yellowstone Park.
Bighorn and Yellowstone Valley.
Routes in Wyoming,
Geographical Surveys west of 100th Meridian.
1836-40. 1842. 1843-44 1846. 1815 1846-47 1849.
1849. 1849. 1849-50. 1849. 1850 1850-51. 1851, 1852. 1852. 1853. 1854. 1885 1855. 1856. 1857 1857-58 1859, 1859 1859-60. 1859
1869. 1869. 1870. 1871, 1871. 1873. 1873. 1873 1874. 1874. 1875 1876 1877
There were also many reconnaissance trips shores and of the straits and rivers immediately and explorations for roads which can hardly connected with lake navigation. In 1876-79 be called surveys. Some of the maps were not this work was extended down the Mississippi published but remain on file in the War De- River to Memphis. partment.
Hayden Surveys.- The survey under F. V. Black Hills Survey.- In 1874 Capt. W. Hayden began in 1867 for the General Land Ludlow made expeditions through the Black Office and its work was in Nebraska Territory, Hills of South Dakota with N. H. Winchell as but it was not until 1871 that it began much geologist. The results were given in a quarto surveying. In 1873 it became the United States volume issued in 1875. Later the Indian Bu- Geological and Geographical Survey of the reau sent an expedition under W. P. Jenney and Territories and in the next five years covered H. E. Newton to investigate reports of gold in 170,000 square miles with topographic and these hills and a quarto report with folio of geologic mapping, mostly in Colorado, Wyommaps was published by the Survey of the Rocky ing, Idaho and Montana. James T. Gardner Mountain region.
was chief geographer and A. D. Wilson and Pacific Railroads.- In 1853 the War De Henry Gannett were in charge of parts of the partment began a series of explorations for work. The principal geologists were A. C. routes for railroads across the Far West. The Peale, W. H. Holmes, A. R. Marvine, F. H. expeditions were conducted by army officers Endlich and F. V. Hayden. Twelv ual but had topographic and geologic assistants, reports and a series of quarto memoirs were who made surveys of various kinds. Among published. these geologists were Jules Marcou, Thomas Geological and Geographical Survey of Antisell, J: S. Newberry, W. P. Blake and Rocky Mountain Region. These surveys were James Schiel. The routes surveyed were not organized and conducted by Maj. J. W. Powell far from the several transcontinental railroad under the Interior Department. In 1869 Major lines of to-day. The results were published in Powell made his famous boat trip through the 13 quarto volumes which contain not only Grand Canyon under auspices of Smithsonian geographic results of the surveys but a large Institution. In 1871 continuation of his examount of information on natural history, re- planatory work in the West was provided for sources, etc.
by the government and from that time to 1878 International Boundaries.—The boundaries an area of 67,000 square miles was covered by of the United States have been surveyed by topographic and geological surveys. Α. Η. various organizations. In 1818 surveys were Thompson was chief geographer and G. K. begun on the northern boundaries of New York, Gilbert, E. E. Howell, Capt. C. E. Dutton and New Hampshire and Maine by United States C. A. White were assistant geologists. army engineers. In 1822(?) the Northwest Fortieth Parallel Survey.- This survey Boundary Commission, appointed under the organized and conducted by Clarence King and Treaty of Ghent, made a survey of the boundary under direction of the chief of engineers, United in the region about the outlet of Lake Superior, States army, operated from 1867 to 1872. It and in 1857-61 the United States Commission prepared topographic (contour) maps and geoworking under direction of the State Depart. logical map of a wide strip of country contigument surveyed the boundary west from longi- ous to the 40th parallel west of the 105th meridtude 110°. In 1872-75 the United States Bound- ian. The geological work was by Clarence King, ary Commission under the State Department S. F. Emmons, Arnold Hague and James D. surveyed the Canadian boundary along the 49th Hague. John D. Gardner was in charge of parallel and a narrow strip of contiguous topographic work. The results were published country from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky in seven quarto volumes and a folio. Mountains, connecting there with the survey Wheeler Survey.- From 1869–79 extensive from the west. The Louisiana-Texas line sur- explorations were made in the West under vey in 1840 was made jointly by engineers of direction of Capt. G. M. Wheeler of the United the United States army and surveyors ap- States army engineers. The title of the organpointed by Texas. The results are in Senate ization was United States Geographical Surveys Ex. Doc. 199, 27th Congress, 2d Session. Con- west of the 100th meridian. Many hachured siderable boundary surveying has been done by topographic maps were prepared of parts of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The Mexican Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Colorado and Boundary Survey was made by Maj. W. H. the geology of various regions was mapped by Emory in 1855–56 and its results were published G. K. Gilbert, A. R. Marvine, E. E. Howell, in two quarto volumes which included geological J. J. Stevenson, I. C. Russell and others. The observations by Parry and Schott. Detailed principal results were published in three quarto remapping of this boundary in 1889 was done volumes issued in 1875, 1881 and 1889. by a joint International Boundary Commission United States Geological Survey.-- In consisting of three Mexican members, two 1876 there were four geological surveys in army engineers and a member of the United
progress, the Hayden, King, Wheeler and States Coast Survey. The result was a folio Powell with some duplication of work, a condiof maps showing topography and profiles from tion which roused so much criticism that ConEl Paso to the Pacific. The southern boundary gress referred the consideration of the conof Kansas was surveyed by Lieut.-Col. J. E. tinuance of the work to the National Academy Johnson in 1857 and the Texas boundary in of Science. That body recommended the sub1858-60 by a commission organized by the stitution of a single organization for the topoInterior Department.
graphic and geologic work, and accordingly in Lake Survey.- A survey of the Great Lakes 1870 Congress created the United States Geowas made by the War Department (corps of logical Survey (q.v.) as a bureau of the Inengineers) in 1841 to 1881. Very detailed terior Department. This survey has been charts (79) were prepared of the lakes, their continued by annual appropriation (about $1,500,
000 in 1917). It has made detailed topographic few Indian reservations where contour lines maps of 40 per cent of the area of the United have been used. This mapping covers most States. Large areas have also been mapped of the smooth surfaced rolling lands geologically, considerable public land classified but large areas of mountain lands are in various ways and water resources determined. yet subdivided. The maps are not issued but The maps are on various scales and sold at cost held in file in the general land office and local of paper and printing, most of them by the land offices in various public land States. The survey. Many of the geological reports are bureau does, however, issue general maps of for gratituous distribution. Two hundred and the States and of the United States compiled eleven folios of the Geologic Atlas of the largely from its own surveys. United States have been issued which sell from Coast and Geodetic Survey.— The work of 25 to 75 cents each.
mapping the coast of the United States was Reclamation Service.- Many detailed sur
initiated by Congress, 10 Feb. 1807, on recomveys have been made by the Reclamation Serv
mendation of Thomas Jefferson, with an approice in connection with its various projects, and
priation of $50,000. F. R. Hassler was its first many suggested ones. Some of the resulting superintendent, beginning work in 1816 and maps have been issued in the various annual continuing to 29 April 1818 as a bureau of reports of the bureau and others are filed.
the Treasury Department. The surveys were Isthmian Surveys.- Many surveys have
then continued by the United States army enbeen made by parties sent to the Central
gineers and by officers of the navy until the America and Panama by the United States gov
bureau resumed operations again in 1832 under ernment to obtain data for canal routes.
the Navy Department with Hassler again as General Land Office.- The General Land superintendent. On reorganization late in 1843 Office created in 1812 (see PUBLIC LANDS) and
A. D. Bache became superintendent and he consince 1849 a bureau of the Interior Department,
tinued in charge until his death in 1867. Pierce, has surveyed a large proportion of the public
Patterson, Hilgard, Thorn, Mendenhall, Duflands in the States west of the Mississippi
field, Pritchett, Titimann and Jones were later River, except Texas, and also Ohio, Illinois,
superintendents. The geodetic work or deterIndiana, Florida, Alabama, Wisconsin and
mination of the form of the earth was made an Michigan. Many of the State lines were run
additional function of the survey in 1878. The by the Land Office. In the surveys by this
survey has prepared charts of the coasts and bureau public lands are divided into townships
exterior waterways of the United States and six miles square, comprising 36 sections one mile
of parts of its possessions, and mapped more or square, the latter divided into quarter sections
less of the coast, the District of Columbia and of 160 acres and in some cases, minor divisions,
other areas. Many special reports on geodesy, a system devised by Lieutenant-Colonel Mans
tide tables and scientific researches of the
bureau have been issued. The charts which field in 1803. The enclosing lines are due north
are issued in sheets of various sizes and scales and south and east and west and owing to convergence of meridians and varying length of
are sold at low rates directly by the bureau parallels at different latitudes the divisions are
and by local agents in seaboard cities.
Mississippi and Missouri River Commisonly approximate. The townships are num, bered east and west from prime meridians, and
sions.- The Engineers corps, War Department north and south from standard parallels. The
has made a detailed survey of the Mississippi
River and of its principal tributaries, showing sections, ordinarily a mile square, are numbered thus:
topography of the shore, 1876–84. These surveys were intended primarily for guidance in the many engineering problems connected with improving the waters for navigation, a task on which the government had expended nearly $150,000,000 up to end of June 1916. The War Department has made special surveys for many river and harbor improvement projects. Hydrographic Office (q.v.).—To this
branch of the Navigation Bureau of the Navy Department is entrusted the preparation of many kinds of data relating to navigation. Numerous maps are produced in many cases based on original surveys.
Forest Service.- The Forest Service of the Agricultural Department has made surveys in most of the Forest Reservations in some cases with detailed representation of topography and distribution of various kinds of timber. A series of atlases has been published and many
maps are on file in the various offices of the Thus, for instance, a piece of land is desig- bureau. Some work of this kind was also done nated NW74 Sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 28 W. New by the United States Geological Survey in 1897Mexico. Farther subdivision is indicated by 1900 and many maps were published in annual 44, 42 sections, and odd areas as lots. The reports and professional papers. Since 1897 maps are prepared on a scale of two inches this survey obtains data as to forested areas in to one mile and in most cases the con- all districts mapped topographically. figuration of the land is represented by Soil Surveys.- The Agricultural Departhachures excepting in later work in ment has made surveys of soils in many parts
of the United States, publishing the results on diction or benefice. In the English canon law, the detailed topographic maps by the United as in that of the Roman Catholic Church, a States Geological Survey.
These soil maps
suspension is removed by absolution, by revoare issued for gratuitous distribution.
cation of the censure by the person inflicting Biological Survey.— The Agricultural De- it or by dispensation. partment is also conducting a survey to ascer- SUSPENSION BRIDGE. See BRIDGE. tain the geographic distribution of animals and
SUSPENSION RAILWAY, a railway in plants.
which the carriage is suspended from an eleBibliography.- (United States Geological
vated cable or track. See MONORAIL. and Geographic Surveys,' G. M. Wheeler, Vol. I, pp. 519-745; Report of Third International
SUSQUEHANNA, Pa., borough of SusGeographic Congress (Venice, Italy, by G. M. quehanna, on the Susquehanna River and on the Wheeler, 48th Congress, Second Session. H.
Erie Railroad. It is 38 miles north of Carof R. Ex. Doc. 270, 1885); Emmons, S. F., The
bondale and 23 miles southeast of BinghamGeology of Government Explorations! (Geo
ton, N. Y. It has machine shops, chemical logical Society of Washington, 1896); Merrill,
works and manufactures of washing machines G. P., Contributions to the History of Ameri
and metal ware. Pop. (1920) 4,500. can Geology) (Report of United States National SUSQUEHANNA, sus-kwe-hăn’ạ, a river Museum, 1904, pp. 189-734).
formed by two branches, an eastern or northern N. H. DARTON, and a western, which unite at Northumberland United States Geological Survey. in Pennsylvania. The eastern branch, which is SUSA, soo'sä, Persia, capital of the prov
considered the main stream, issues from Lake ince of Susiana or Elam, on the Choaspes
Otsego in New York, and has a length of about River, 50 miles west of Shuster, was one of the
250 miles. The western branch rises in the celebrated cities of the Old World, renowned
western slope of the Alleghenies, and flows very in Biblical history. Shushan, meaning lilies, is
circuitously east-southeast for about 200 miles.
The united stream flows south and southeast, alluded to in the Old Testament and on the cuneiform tablets of Assyria. It has a rec
passing Harrisburg, Wilkesbarre and Bingham
ton, N. Y., enters Maryland, and after a course tangular form without walls, but possessed a
of about 150 miles flows into the northern exstrongly fortified citadel, which enclosed the stately palace and one of the most important
tremity of Chesapeake Bay at Port Deposit.
The navigation was much obstructed by rapids, treasuries of the Persian kingdom. Numerous
but by constructing canals the river has been rivers water the plain in which it stands, some
made navigable for a considerable distance of which partly surrounded the ancient city.
from the Chesapeake. All the Persian kings, beginning with Darius Í, erected beautiful palaces, the remains of which
SUSQUEHANNA COMPANY, The, in
American history a land company formed in belong to the most magnificent ruins of Asia. It was here that Esther's intrigue was developed ;
1754, chiefly by Connecticut farmers, for the Daniel saw the vision at Shushan, and here he
colonization of the Wyoming country. By a was buried. Consult Billerbeck, (Susa' (Leip
treaty with the Five Nations, 11 July 1754, an zig 1893); Dieulafoy, L’Acropole de Suse
enormous tract of country was purchased for (Paris 1888-92); de Morgan, J., Fouilles à
$10,000. It began at the southern boundary of
Connecticut and followed in a northerly direcSuse! (Paris 1900).
tion the course of the Susquehanna to northern SUSAN NIPPER, a character in Dombey Pennsylvania. In 1785-86 many disputes arose and Son' by Charles Dickens. She is an between the Susquehanna Company and the attendant upon Florence Dombey and is noted
Pennsylvania claimants of the territory. This for her sharp tongue.
was called the Pennamite War.) SUSANNA, soo-zăn'a, the Jewish woman SUSQUEHANNA UNIVERSITY, who figures in the book of Susanna, as the in
Lutheran institution of higher education at tended victim of two elders who obtained her
Selingsgrove, Pa., founded in 1858. The faculty condemnation to death on a false charge. The
numbers 22; the average annual attendance of prophet Daniel proved her to be innocent, and students is 325; tuition fees are $75 to $90; obtained a reversal of the sentence. The date
living expenses, board, etc., $175 to $225; the of about 600 B.C., is ascribed to the event.
productive funds amount to $72,000; the total See SUSANNA, BOOK OF; BIBLE.
income, including tuition and incidental charges, SUSANNA, Book of, the 13th chapter of amounts to $42,000. The college colors are Daniel in the Septuagint version of the Old orange-maroon. The library contains over Testament. It is accepted as canonical by Ro- 16,000 volumes. The number of graduates since man Catholics, but rejected by Protestants. organization number over 1,000. (See Bible). Consult Kay, D. M., in Charles, SUSSISTINNAKO, the Spider, was acThe Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old
cording to the Sia Indians of New Mexico, Testament) (Oxford 1913).
the first of all beings in the lower world. He SUSPENSION, in canon law, a censure of lay out the directions by drawing one line of which a clergyman is forbidden to exercise his meal from east to west and another from order or to enjoy the fruits of his benefice. north to south. Within the magic confines thus Partial suspension inhibits a cleric from the laid out he sang his magic songs and rattled his exercise of his spiritual functions, or from the magic rattle, and as he sang and rattled people, administration of his benefice, or only from a animals, birds and insects appeared at his part of his sacred functions: for example, a call. He created two mothers who were bishop may be suspended from ordaining, and the mothers of all; then he divided the peoyet be perfectly free to govern his diocese. En- ple into clans, after he had created the earth tire suspension prohibits all use of order, juris- for them, and he made the Cloud People,