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the Lightning People, the Thunder People and Tibet, in the sacred lakes of Manasarowar and the Rainbow People, and he commanded them Rakas-Tal, flows through the latter lake at an to work for the people of Haarts (the earth). elevation of 15,000 feet, follows a circuitous He divided the world into three parts: Haarts course through the Himalayas, finally joining (the earth); Tinia (the mid-plain); and Hu- the Indus at Mithankot. Its principal tribuwaka (the upper plain); and to the Clouds taries are the Li, Beas and Chenab; it passes and the Rainbow he gave the Middle Plain. in its upper course through scenery of a wild When all this had been done he had the two and savage grandeur. Its entire length is 900 original mothers create the sun, the moon and miles; a swift current marks its upper course, the stars.

often forming deep cascades and waterfalls; it SUSTENTATION FUND, the name spe

is navigable only in its lower course. The cifically applied in the Presbyterian denomina

river is spanned by splendid bridges, that of the tion to a fund for the support of poorer

Indus Valley Railway connecting the shores churches. All important religious bodies have

near Bhawalpur, and another iron bridge of funds of this character. The object is to en

the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, near able communities unable from their own means

Jullunder to support properly a pastor or minister, to SUTPHEN, William Gilbert Van Tassel, have the benefit of religious services.

American author: b. Philadelphia, 11 May 1861. SUTHERLAND, Alexander, Canadian

He was graduated at Princeton in 1882; since Methodist clergyman: b. Guelph, Ontario, 17

engaged in editorial work. He has written Sept. 1833; d. 1910. He learned the printer's

(The Golficide! (1898); (The Cardinal's Rose) trade, but studied for the ministry and in 1859

(1900); (The Golfer's Alphabet (1899); (The was licensed as a preacher and stationed at

Nineteenth Hole (1901); (The Doomsman' Niagara. He removed to Therold in 1861 and

(1903); The Gates of Chance! (1904), etc. afterward preached at Drummondville, Ham- SUTRA, soo'trą, in Sanskrit literature, the ilton, Yorkville, Toronto and Montreal. He technical name of aphoristic rules and of works was secretary of the Conference in 1870–71, and consisting of such rules. There is a bibliogafter the union of the Methodist churches in raphy of sutra texts in Macdonell's History Canada he was secretary and treasurer of the of Sanskrit Literature (London 1913). Sec missions of the Church. In this capacity he SANSKRIT LITERATURE. made extended tours of Canada; and in 1879 SUTRO, soo'tro, Adolph Heinrich Joseph, he inaugurated a campaign to raise $75,000 for American engineer and philanthropist : b. Aixthe purpose of clearing the missions depart- la-Chapelle, Rhenish Prussia, 29 April 1830; ment of debt and succeeded in raising $116,000. d. San Francisco, 8 July 1898. Coming to the Author of A Summer in Prairie Land) (1882). United States in 1850 he went to California SUTHERLAND, George, American jurist:

where he engaged in business for 10 years. In 5. Buckinghamshire, England, 25 March 1862.

1860 he visited Nevada and planned the Sutro He came to the United States with his parents

tunnel, a charter being secured on 4 Feb. 1865. in 1864, received his academic education in

It was begun on 19 Oct. 1869 and cost nearly Utah; studied law at the University of Michi- $4,000,000. The main tunnel is 20,000 feet long, gan, began practice at Salt Lake City in 1883;

1,650 feet below the surface, 12 feet wide and was elected to the first Utah senate as a Re- 10 high. On the discovery of gold, years before, publican in 1896; served in Congress in 1901–03;

he had invested heavily in San Francisco real in the United States Senate, 1905–17; appointed

estate and became very rich. In 1894 he was Associate Justice of the United States Supreme

elected mayor of that city, to which he gave Court, 5 Sept. 1922; qualified, 2 Oct. 1922.

a park and other gifts. His library of 250,000 SUTHERLAND, Howard, United States

volumes was peculiarly rich in works on the senator: b. near Kirkwood, Mo., 8 Sept. 1865.

history of the Pacific settlement. The library

was almost totally destroyed in the fire followIn 1889 he was graduated at Westminster Col

ing the earthquake of April 1906. The 100,000 lege, Fulton, Mo., studied law at Columbian (now George Washington) University, but did

volumes saved were, after continued litigation, not complete course. In 1889-90 Mr. Suther

turned over to the State Library in 1913. land was editor of the Republican of Fulton,

SUTRO TUNNEL. See TUNNELS AND Mo., and from 1890 to 1893 served from clerk

TUNNELING. to chief of population division of the 11th SUTTAS, Buddhist, a collection of the census. In 1893 he removed to Elkins, W. Va., most important religious, moral and philosophical where for 10 years he was connected with the discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Davis-Elkins coal and railway interests, be- Buddhists. It gives the most essential, most coming their general land agent. For some original and most attractive part of the teachyears he has engaged in coal and timber land ing of Buddha, the Sutta of the Foundation of operations on his own account and is president the Kingdom of Righteousness and six others of the Greenbrier Land Company, of Valley of no less historical value, treating of other County. In 1908-12 he was member of the sides of the Buddhist story and system. The West Virginia State senate and from 1913 to translator, T. W. Rhys Davis, gives as the dates 1917 was a member of the 63d and 64th Con- of Buddha's life of 80 years about 500_420 B.C. gresses, serving as member-at-large from West

SUTTEE, să-tē', in India, a term applied to Virginia. In 1916 he was elected to the United

the self-immolation of Indian widows on the States Senate for the term 1917-23. Senator

funeral pile of their deceased husbands. The Sutherland is a member of the American

origin of this practice is of considerable antiqAcademy of Political and Social Science.

uity, but it is not enjoined by the laws of the SUTLEJ, sŭt'lėj, India, a river forming the great legislator, Manu, nor is it based on the eastern boundary of the Punjab. It rises in Vedas. This practice was abolished by Lord

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Bentinck, governor-general of India, in December 1829, and may now be said to be extinct, though perhaps rare cases still occur. Until then the British government had permitted it, provided the act was perfectly voluntary (which the religion of Brahma also prescribes), and if notice of such resolution had been previously given to a magistrate, who was required to see that the suttee was public and that all the requisitions of the law were fulfilled. The ceremonies of a suttee were various and lasted from a quarter of an hour to two hours. Sometimes the widow was placed in a cavity prepared under the corpse of the husband; sometimes she was laid by the body, embracing it. If the husband died at a distance from home, anything which belonged to the deceased - his garments, slippers, walking-staff – might be substituted for the corpse. Consult Bose, J. C., (The Hindus as they_Are! (2d ed., London 1884), and Tylor, E. B., Primitive Culture (4th ed., 2 vols., New York 1903).

SUTTER, John Augustus, American pioneer:. b. Kandern, Germany, 15 Feb. 1803; d. Washington, D. C., 17 June 1880. He was graduated at the Bern Military Academy in 1823 and came to America in 1834, locating at Saint Louis. Receiving favorable accounts of California he crossed the Rocky Mountains in 1838; sailed down the Columbia River and thence to Hawaii. After going to Sitka, Alaska, he cruised along the Pacific Coast and was stranded at the site of San Francisco in July 1839. During that year he established the first white settlement on the site of Sacramento. In 1841, after receiving a large tract of land from Mexico, he built a fort which he named New Helvetia on the site of the present Sacramento, Cal.; was made governor of the frontier country by Mexico, but was held in suspicion by the Mexicans owing to his friendly feelings toward the United States. In 1848, when California was ceded to the United States, he owned many thousand head of cattle, much land and other property, but owing to the discovery of gold his estates were overrun by miners, and his workmen left him, and not being able to secure others he was financially ruined. He appealed to the Supreme Court, but was not sustained. Later the legislature of California granted him a pension of $250 a month. He moved to Littz, Pa., in 1873. (See SACRAMENTO, Cal.). Consult Dellenbaugh, F. S., Frémont and '49) (2d ed., New York 1914).

SUTTNER, Bertha, BARONESS VON, Austrian author and worker for universal peace: b. Prague, 9 July 1843; d. Vienna, 21 June 1914. She was the daughter of Count Franz Kinsky, an Austrian field-marshal, who died in her infancy. She was excellently educated, traveled extensively, and in 1876 she was married to Freiherr Arthur Gundaccar von Suttner, the novelist, who died in 1902. She was for a time secretary to Alfred Nobel, and for the greater share of her life was an indefatigable worker for world peace. She was widely known as a writer of fiction, on social science and on a world union to ensure peace. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905. Author of Inventarium Einer Seele! (1882); Die Waffen Nieder) (1889); Hanna' (1894);

Krieg und Frieden' (1896); Schack der Qual' (1898); Die haager Friedenskonferenz'

(1900); When Thoughts Will Soar) (1914);

Der Kampf um die Vermeidung des Weltkriegs) (2 vols., 1917), etc. Consult her

Memoirs (Stuttgart 1908; Eng. trans., Boston 1910).

SUTTON, Mass., village and township in Worcester County, eight miles southeast of Worcester, on the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. There are manufactures of cotton goods. Pop. town, 2,829.

SU TUNG P'o, or soo TUNG P'O, also known as SU SHIH, Chinese poet, essayist and statesman: b. 1031-36; d. 1101. He was educated under the care of his mother and passed first on the list when he was examined for his degree. He was at various times the holder of high offices at court, but was several times banished through the jealousy of enemies. He was a brilliant writer of verse and essays, and holds a high place in Chinese literature. Consult Giles, H. A., Gems of Chinese Literature (1884); A History of Chinese Literature (1901).

SUTURE, a line along which two things are joined, as by sewing, etc., so as to form a seam or something resembling, a seam. In anatomy a suture is the immovable junction of two parts by their margins. The sutures of the skull are the lines of junction of the bones of which the skull is composed. Various types of suture exist, as the serrated or dentated suture, the squamous or scaly suture and the harmonic suture or harmonia. Arranged according to their situation, there are coronal, frontal, fronto-parietal, occipito-parietal and many other sutures. In surgery a suture is the uniting of the lips or edges of a wound by stitching. In zoology sutures are the outlines of the septa in the Tetrabranchiata, so named from their resemblance to the sutures of the skull. When these outlines are folded the elevations are called saddles and the intervening depressions lobes. In botany a suture is the line formed by the cohesion of two parts. If the suture formed by the carpellary leaves in a pistil face the centre of a flower it is called the ventral suture; if it face the perianth, the dorsal suture. The former corresponds to the margin and the latter to the midrib of the carpellary leaf. Consult Da Costa, J. C., Modern Surgery (7th ed., Philadelphia 1914).

SUVA, soo'vä, the capital of the British colony of the Fiji Islands (q.v.). It is about 1,100 miles distant from Auckland, New Zealand. It has a population of over 1,300 Europeans.

SUVALKI, SOO-väl’ke, Poland, (1) capital of the province of the same name, on the Czarna-Hancza, near the Prussian frontier, 152 miles northeast of Warsaw. It contains two churches, municipal buildings and a large market-place, various schools of primary and grammar grades, two breweries, etc. Pop. about 33,000. The town was taken by the German_forces in 1915. (See War, EUROPEAN). (2) The province of Suvalki lies in the extreme northeastern part of Poland. In the north is covered by thickly-wooded plains and on the Prussian frontier by forests, swamps and lakes. The fertile region is at the south. The chief streams are the Niemen, Bohr, Scheschupe and Pissia. Agriculture is the principal occupation.



There are numerous factories, including tanneries, distilleries and mills. There are some schools. Area, 4,763 square miles. The population is about 700,000, of whom 50 per cent are Lithuanians,

SUVOROFF-RIMNIKSKI, soo-võ'rof rim-nyik'ski, Alexander Vasoilievitch (PRINCE ITALIESKI), a celebrated Russian general: b. in Moscow according to one account, in Finland according to another, 24 Nov. 1729; d. Saint Petersburg, 18 May 1800. He entered the army as a private, fought bravely in the war against Sweden and by his distinguished conduct during the Seven Years' War gained the rank of colonel (1762). He participated in the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1768–72, capturing Cracow in the first year of the conflict and attaining the rank of major-general. When war with Turkey. broke out in 1773, Suvoroff as general of division achieved notable victories at Turtukai and Hirsuva, and in conjunction with a force under Kainenskvi completed the overthrow of the Turkish armies at Kosludji beyond the Danube. Subsequently he fought against the pretender Pugatcheff, whose overthrow was largely due to his exertions, and made successful campaigns in Crimea, against the Kuban Tatars and against the mountain tribes of the Caucasus. Upon the renewal of war with Turkey in 1787 he was entrusted with the chief command, and after inflicting decisive defeats_upon the enemy at Kinburn, Otchakov and Tokshani, performed the most splendid feat of arms of the entire war by effecting the rescue of the Austrian army under the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, which was surrounded on the banks of the Rymnik by a vastly superior Turkish force, which Suvoroff utterly overthrew, gaining thereby the title of Rimnikski and the rank of count. In 1790 he stormed Ismail, where his troops were guilty of the most bloody excesses. Sent in 1794 against the Polish insurgents he gained the title of field-marshal by his storming of the Praga, suburb of Warsaw, and the occupation of the Polish capital. After five years of retirement, he was summoned to take command of the Russian forces which were to co-operate with the Austrians against the revolutionary armies of France in Italy. At 70 Suvoroff was to achieve the most notable triumphs of his career. Arriving in Italy in April 1799 he succeeded within four months in driving the French from the northern part of the country, after he had defeated their armies at Cassano, 27 April, on the Trebbia, 17–19 June and at Novi, 15 August. Thereupon he crossed into Switzerland to effect a junction with a second Russian army under Korsakoff. The crossing of the Saint Gotthard pass was accomplished only after fearful hardships, with the loss of one-third of his army and all his guns. In Switzerland he found that Korsakoff had been defeated by Masséna and that the French were masters of the country. He thereupon began a retreat through the Grisons and Vorarlberg, in which he displayed some of the highest qualities of his generalship: Setting out on the way to Russia, after he had been named commanderin-chief of all the Russian forces with the title of Prince Italieski, he lost the favor of the Emperor Paul before his arrival in Saint Petersburg, where after a short ailment he died. Consult Smith, F., Suworow's Leben und

Heerzüge) (Vilna 1833–34); also his Autobiography, edited by Glinka (1819); and biographies by Polevoi (1853); Spalding, (1890), Consult also Macready, E. N., A Sketch of Suwarrow and his Last Campaign? (London 1851), and Reding-Biberegg, Der Zug Suworows durch die Schweiz) (Zürich 1869).

SUWANNEE, sū-wä'nē, a river in southern Georgia, in the Okefinokee Swamp, which flows in a winding, generally south-southwest course through Florida into the Gulf of Mexico, about 10 miles north of Cedar Keys. It is the subject of the popular ballad, Old Folks at Home,' beginning "Way Down on the Suwannee River.” Its total length is about 240 miles.

SUWARROW, soo-vä'rov, or SUVAROF, a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, between Samoa and the Manihiki Islands, is generally included in the Tokelan Islands. It has important pearl fisheries. Great Britain annexed the islands in 1889.

SUYEMATSU, Kencho, VISCOUNT, Japanese statesman, son-in-law of Marquis Hirobumi Ito (q.v.): b. Bunzen, Kiusiu, August 1855. He served in the Satsuma Rebellion as civilian staff officer to the commander-in-chief of the army, and later engaged in journalism on the staff of Nichi Nichi. In 1890-95 he was a member of the Japanese House of Commons, and after he was created baron in 1895 he served in the House of Peers. He was director of the Legislative Bureau in 1892–1905; Minister of Communications in the Ito Cabinet in 1898; and held the portfolio of the Interior in the Seiyukai Cabinet in 1900-01. He served as a non-official agent for Japan in London during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. He was made a viscount in 1907. He translated into English (Genji Monogatari?; and is author of (The Risen Sun: A Fantasy of Far Japan (1915).

SUZZALLO, Henry, American university president: b. San José, Cal., 22 Aug. 1875. He was graduated at the California State Normal School in 1895, at Leland Stanford Junior University in 1899 and took his Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1905. He was connected with the faculty at Leland Stanford Junior University in 1902-07; was professor of the philosophy of education at Teachers' College, Columbia, in 1909–15; and since 1915 has been president of Washington University, Seattle. He has edited the Riverside Educational Monographs since 1909, has lectured extensively and is a contributor to educational magazines. He was appointed chairman of the Washington State Council of Defense in 1917.

SVERDRUP, svěr'drup, Otto, Norwegian Arctic explorer: 'b. Harstad Farm, Helgeland, 1855. He went to sea at 17, went with Nansen to Greenland in 1888, and again in 1893, as commander of the Fram, which he brought back to Norway in 1896. He led an expedition to the northern regions in 1898, with the intention of exploring the north of Greenland. The expedition received its financial support mostly from two brothers of the name of Ringnes, and the Norwegian government renovated and equipped the Fram for his use. On reaching Smith Sound, between Ellesmere Land and Greenland, he found it impossible to force his vessel further north through the ice, and sent



87); Schneider, Eugene, - Württembergische Geschichte (Stuttgart 1896). See WAR, EURO


two expeditions to the southwest across Ellesmere Land, which penetrated a region never before explored, and found in the southern part of Ellesmere Land a large glacier district. Later in 1899 he brought the Fram down to Jones Sound, to the south of Ellesmere Land, and from there conducted a number of sledging expeditions, exploring the southern and western portions of Ellesmere Land. On the southeast coast of Ellesmere Land, north of Jones Sound, a large bay was discovered about 100 miles in breadth and penetrating into Ellesmere. On the northern side of this bay large and complicated fiords are situated. On the west coast of Ellesmere Land, in about 89° W., a large system of fiords was discovered. To the west of Ellesmere Land, about 130 miles north of the Parry Islands, Sverdrup discovered two islands, to the north and west of which nothing was visible but rough polar ice. He returned to Norway in 1902. The discovery of the islands and the mapping of the western and southwestern coasts of Ellesmere Land are the most important results of Sverdrup's expedition. He brought back also a valuable series of meteorological reports, and a representative natural history collection. In 1914–15 he led a relief expedition to the Arctic and wintered on the shores of Kara Sea. He published New Land: Four Years in the Arctic Regions) (1904).

SVETLA, Karolina, Bohemian novelist: b. Prague, 24 Feb. 1830. She gained the attention of the literary critics by her first novel (A Double Awakening,", published in 1858. She has attained high rank in Bohemian literature, many of her novels being translated into French, German, Polish and Russian. Among them are (Láska k básnikovi? (1860); (Vesnicky roman (1869); Kriz a potoka) (1871); The Atheist (1873).

SWABIA, swā'bi-a, or SUABIA (German, SCHWABEN), capital Augsburg, now part of the republic of Württemberg, formerly a duchy in the southwestern part of Germany, occupying the area now covered by Baden, Württemberg and a part of Bavaria. It extended from the Rhine on the west to the Lech on the east, and from Switzerland northward to the Rhine Palatinate. It is a mountainous country, and probably the most picturesque portion of Germany. The region was known in ancient times as Allemannia, and received its present name from the Suevi, who entered it in the 5th century and amalgamated with the Allemanni. In the 10th century Swabia was raised into a duchy which continued in the house of Hohenstaufen until 1268, when it was resolved into a number of lesser principalities among whom there was continual feud. In 1488 these little states formed the famous "Swabian League) for the purpose of securing internal peace and giving mutual aid to each other. In 1512 the emperor, Maximilian I, made Swabia one of the 10 circles into which Germany was divided, and enlarged its territory. This division continued until 1806, when the modern kingdom of Württemberg was founded. (See BADEN; WÜRTTEMBERG). At present the name of Swabia is retained by one of the southwestern provinces of Bavaria. Consult Stalin, B. F., Geschichte-Württemberg) (Gotha 1882

SWAGE (swāj) BLOCK, a heavy iron block or anvil provided with notches and perforations, used by blacksmiths in shaping metal. The swage block is so arranged that it may be readily clamped in any desired position and may as readily be released whenever it is necessary to adjust the anvil to a different position. The block has trunnions or journals which engage open bearings formed on the top of the standards of the frame. The standards are connected with each other at their lower ends by bolts. Midway of their height they are connected by a clamping device which consists of a rod revolubly secured to one standard and threaded into a nut in the other standard. By operating a crank on this rod the upper ends of the standards may be drawn together to bind against the ends of the swage block and hold it from turning. Inwardly-directed flanges are formed on the standards just below the trunnion bearings, and these on being drawn inward form firm supports for the swage block when in horizontal position. The recesses lying between these flanges receive and securely hold the swage block when turned to vertical position. When the swage block is held at other angles the flanges sink into grooves formed in the ends of the block around the journals. The usual variety of notches, recesses, perforations, etc., are provided for assisting in upsetting bolts, shaping horseshoes and forming all other devices which a blacksmith may be called upon to make. The construction of this swage block is the extreme of simplicity

SWAIN, swān, George Fillmore, American civil engineer: b. San Francisco, Cal., 2 March 1857. He was graduated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1877 and then studied in Berlin, Germany. In 1887 he accepted the chair of civil engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he remained until 1909. He also served as consulting engineer of the Massachusetts Railroad Commission and was member of the Boston Transit Commission and its chairman in 1913. In 1909 he was made professor of civil engineering at the Harvard Graduate School of Applied Science. He is the author of Notes on Hydraulics (1885); Notes on Theory of Structures (1893); Report on the Water Power of the Atlantic Watershed' (in Vol. XVII of the Tenth United States Census) and Conservation of Water by Storage (1915).

SWAIN, Joseph, American college president: b. Pendleton, Ind., 16 June 1857. He was graduated at the Indiana University in 1883, was assistant professor of mathematics in 1883-86 and full professor, 1886-91. He was called to the chair of mathematics in the Leland Stanford Junior University in 1891, which he held till 1893, and was president of Indiana University, 1893–1902. Since the last-named date he has been president of Swarthmore College. He is the author of numerous scientific papers. In 1913–14 he was president of the National Education Association.






SWALLOW-TAILED BUTTERFLIES, subis), a familiar species throughout temperate butterflies of the family. Papilionide, typical North America, distinguished

genus species of which have the hinder wings ex- (Progne) by the strong bill with curved edges, tended into prolongations called “tails. See by the moderately-sized forked tail, and by the BUTTERFLY.

strong and large feet. The sexes are quite SWALLOWS, a family (Hirundinide) of dissimilar, the male being entirely blue black, the passerine birds which are the counterpart in

female and young, dull sooty gray on the this order of the swifts (q.v.). This family is

breast. Except in the wilds where it condistinguished by the small

, fat, triangular bill

tinues to nest in hollow trees, it takes up its which has its sides gradually compressed toward

abode among the habitations of men. A comthe tip and the deeply cleft mouth, the margins

mon practice is to hang up gourds, properly of which bear very small bristles or none; the

hollowed, for its convenience in nest-building; nostrils rounded at the base of the bill, either

and in the more settled parts considerable exexposed or covered by a scale. The wings are pense is sometimes incurred in preparing for long, while the tail is forked in nearly all spe

it a suitable residence. The eggs are four to cies and the outer feathers may be prolonged.

six in number and white. In the country it The feet, although small and weak, are totally

renders essential services by attacking and unlike those of the swifts, the hind toe being

driving away crows, hawks, eagles and other never versatile, the number of phalanges not

large birds. Its note is loud and musical. The different from that of ordinary birds and the

regularity with which this species arrives from squamation normal; sometimes the tarsi and the South is noteworthy. The western variety toes are feathered. In striking contrast to the

is distinct and another species enters Florida. somber-hued swifts, many of the swallows are

Of exotic species of swallows the Hirundo adorned with rich iridescent colors and some

rustica takes the place in Europe of our barntimes the sexes differ. Anatomically the swal

swallow. On account of its frequent use of lows are truly passerine, but the fissirostral bill

disused chimneys for nesting places this speand mouth, together with their peculiar adapta

cies shares with the swifts the name of chimney tions to life awing, makes them one of the

swallow. The migration of these birds has almost clearly circumscribed and natural families

ways attracted attention from the well-known of that order. Owing to the many interesting

and unvarying character of their movements. modifications of the type the genera are nu

They fly southward at the end of October or merous and many of them restricted in dis- sometimes sooner, to winter in Africa, some tribution; but the more generalized genera, like

finding their way to India. The majority arrive the typical Hirundo, are, like the family, cos

in Great Britain in April, some stragglers later mopolitan. About 100 species have been de

and a few coming before the great body of scribed. Belonging to the North American

birds. They generally return to the nests they fauna are 10 species representing no less than

have constructed the previous year. The house seven genera, most of which are peculiarly

martin (Chelidon urbica) with the tarsi and American. The barn-swallow (Hirundo or

toes feathered is of small size. It is of smaller Chelidon erythrogaster) is abundant through

size than the common swallows, and builds its out North America and is easily distinguished

rest under the eaves of houses, in the corners by the elongated outer tail-feathers, the lus

of windows, etc., the nest being a hemispheritrous steel-blue color of the upper parts and the

cal structure of clay, with a round opening for ruddy breasts. (See Barn-SWALLOW.) The

entrance. A related species is the fairy marcliff or eaves swallow is colored much like the tin (Ç. ariel), found in South Australia, where barn-swallow, but the tail is shorter and only

it arrives in August, leaving again in Septemslightly forked; it makes retort-shaped nests

ber or October. The nest, built in some tree, outside of barns, etc., under the eaves, as it

under eaves or in rocks, is formed of mud, formerly did on the faces of cliffs.

and is of flask-like shape. Each nest appears One of the swallows which retains its origi

to be built by a number of these swallows. nal habits is the beautiful white-bellied or

The wire-tailed swallow (C. filifera) of Abystree-swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). It is of

sinia is so named from the presence of the a fine lustrous green above, pure white below,

two elongated tail-feathers, which, being unwith a tail only slightly more forked than in

provided with a web, consist of the shafts of the last. The tree swallow is abundant in most

the feathers alone, and appear as long filaparts of temperate North America, but espe

ments. The genus Atticora includes the whitecially so coastwise where great numbers nest

breasted swallow of South America (Atticora in holes of trees from New Jersey northward.

cyanoleuca), which makes its nest in the deIt is one of the first swallows to move north

serted burrows of animals. A number of other ward in the spring and is frequently forced

South American swallows have similar habits, to retreat before a belated snowstorm or cold

occupying the nests or holes of various birds snap, being, therefore, one of the species to

and mammals. which the common saying, "one swallow does

Consult Sharpe and Wyatt, Monograph of not make a summer,” is especially applicable.

the · Hirundinidae) (London 1885-94), with bibIn the West a related species, the violet-green liography and numerous colored plates; Forswallow (T. thalassina), is 'found. Another

bush, " Useful Birds and their Protection conservative member of the family is the bank

(Boston 1913); Wilson, American Orniswallow, which is found in Europe as well as

thology (Philadelphia 1828); and recent works in America. Closely resembling it is the rough

on field ornithology. wing.

SWAMMERDAM, swäm'měr-däm, Jan, Biggest, handsomest, jolliest, most domestic Dutch naturalist: b. Amsterdam, 12 Feb. 1637; of American swallows and ever ready to de- d. there, 15 Feb. 1680. He was educated for fend his home is the purple martin (Progne the ministry but turned his studies to the pro

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