Slike strani

Bentinck, governor-general of India, in December 1829, and may now be said to be extinct, though perhaps rare cases still occur.. Until then the British government had permitted it, provided the act was perfectly voluntary (which the religion of Brahma also prescribes), and if notice of such resolution had been previously given to a magistrate, who was required to see that the suttee was public and that all the requisitions of the law were fulfilled. The ceremonies of a suttee were various and lasted from a quarter of an hour to two hours. Sometimes the widow was placed in a cavity prepared under the corpse of the husband; sometimes she was laid by the body, embracing it. If the husband died at a distance from home, anything which belonged to the deceased-his garments, slippers, walking-staff - might be substituted for the corpse. Consult Bose, J. C., "The Hindus as they Are' (2d ed., London 1884), and Tylor, E. B., Primitive Culture) (4th ed., 2 vols., New York 1903).

SUTTER, John Augustus, American pioneer: b. Kandern, Germany, 15 Feb. 1803; d. Washington, D. C., 17 June 1880. He was graduated at the Bern Military Academy in 1823 and came to America in 1834, locating at Saint Louis. Receiving favorable accounts of California he crossed the Rocky Mountains in 1838; sailed down the Columbia River and thence to Hawaii. After going to Sitka, Alaska, he cruised along the Pacific Coast and was stranded at the site of San Francisco in July 1839. During that year he established the first white settlement on the site of Sacramento. In 1841, after receiving a large tract of land from Mexico, he built a fort which he named New Helvetia on the site of the present Sacramento, Cal.; was made governor of the frontier country by Mexico, but was held in suspicion by the Mexicans owing to his friendly feelings toward the United States. In 1848, when California was ceded to the United States, he owned many thousand head of cattle, much land and other property, but owing to the discovery of gold his estates were overrun by miners, and his workmen left him, and not being able to secure others he was financially ruined. He appealed to the Supreme Court, but was not sustained. Later the legislature of California granted him a pension of $250 a month. He moved to Littz, Pa., in 1873. (See SACRAMENTO, CAL.). Consult Dellenbaugh, F. S., 'Frémont and '49> (2d ed., New York 1914).

SUTTNER, Bertha, BARONESS VON, Austrian author and worker for universal peace: b. Prague, 9 July 1843; d. Vienna, 21 June 1914. She was the daughter of Count Franz Kinsky, an Austrian field-marshal, who died in her infancy. She was excellently educated, traveled extensively, and in 1876 she was married to Freiherr Arthur Gundaccar von Suttner, the novelist, who died in 1902. She was for a time secretary to Alfred Nobel, and for the greater share of her life was an indefatigable worker for world peace. She was widely known as a writer of fiction, on social science and on a world union to ensure peace. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905. Author of 'Inventarium Einer Seele (1882); 'Die Waffen Nieder) (1889); Hanna' (1894); 'Krieg und Frieden' (1896); Schack der Qual (1898); 'Die haager Friedenskonferenz'


(1900); When Thoughts Will Soar) (1914); Der Kampf um die Vermeidung des Weltkriegs (2 vols., 1917), etc. Consult her 'Memoirs (Stuttgart 1908; Eng. trans., Boston 1910).

SUTTON, Mass., village and township in Worcester County, eight miles southeast of Worcester, on the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. There are manufactures of cotton goods. Pop. town, 2,829.

SU TUNG P’O, or SOO TUNG PO, also known as SU SHIH, Chinese poet, essayist and statesman: b. 1031-36; d. 1101. He was educated under the care of his mother and for his degree. He was at various times the passed first on the list when he was examined holder of high offices at court, but was several times banished through the jealousy of enemies. He was a brilliant writer of verse and essays, and holds a high place in Chinese literature. Consult Giles, H. A., Gems of Chinese Literature) (1884); A History of Chinese Literature' (1901).


SUTURE, a line along which two things are joined, as by sewing, etc., so as to form a seam. or something resembling a In anatomy a suture is the immovable junction of two parts by their margins. The sutures of the skull are the lines of junction of the bones of which the skull is composed. Various types of suture exist, as the serrated or dentated suture, the squamous or scaly suture and the harmonic suture or harmonia. Arranged according to their situation, there are coronal, frontal, fronto-parietal, occipito-parietal and many other sutures. In surgery a suture is the uniting of the lips or edges of a wound by stitching. In zoology sutures are the outlines of the septa in the Tetrabranchiata, so named from their resemblance to the sutures of the skull. When these outlines are folded the elevations are called saddles and the intervening depressions lobes. In botany a suture is the line formed by the cohesion of two parts. If the suture formed by the carpellary leaves in a pistil face the centre of a flower it is called the ventral suture; if it face the perianth, the dorsal suture. The former corresponds to the margin and the latter to the midrib of the carpellary leaf. Consult Da Costa, J. C., 'Modern Surgery (7th ed., Philadelphia 1914).

SUVA, soo'vä, the capital of the British colony of the Fiji Islands (q.v.). It is about 1,100 miles distant from Auckland, New Zealand. It has a population of over 1,300 Europeans.

SUVALKI, Soo-väl'ke, Poland, (1) capital of the province of the same name, on the Czarna-Hancza, near the Prussian frontier, 152 miles northeast of Warsaw. It contains two churches, municipal buildings and a large market-place, various schools of primary and grammar grades, two breweries, etc. Pop. about 33,000. The town was taken by the German forces in 1915. (See WAR, EUROPEAN). (2) The province of Suvalki lies in the extreme northeastern part of Poland. In the north is covered by thickly-wooded plains and on the Prussian frontier by forests, swamps and lakes. The fertile region is at the south. The chief streams are the Niemen, Bohr, Scheschupe and Pissia. Agriculture is the principal occupation.

There are numerous factories, including tanneries, distilleries and mills. There are some schools. Area, 4,763 square miles. The population is about 700,000, of whom 50 per cent are Lithuanians.


soo-vō'rof rim-nyik'ski, Alexander Vasoilievitch (PRINCE ITALIESKI), a celebrated Russian general: b. in Moscow according to one account, in Finland according to another, 24 Nov. 1729; d. Saint Petersburg, 18 May 1800. He entered the army as a private, fought bravely in the war against Sweden and by his distinguished conduct during the Seven Years' War gained the rank of colonel (1762). He participated in the suppression of the Polish uprising of 1768–72, capturing Cracow in the first year of the conflict and attaining the rank of major-general. When war with Turkey broke out in 1773, Suvoroff as general of division achieved notable victories at Turtukai and Hirsuva, and in conjunction with a force under Kainenskvi completed the overthrow of the Turkish armies at Kosludji beyond the Danube. Subsequently he fought against the pretender Pugatcheff, whose overthrow was largely due to his exertions, and made successful campaigns in Crimea, against the Kuban Tatars and against the mountain tribes of the Caucasus. Upon the renewal of war with Turkey in 1787 he was entrusted with the chief command, and after inflicting decisive defeats upon the enemy at Kinburn, Otchakov and Tokshani, performed the most splendid feat of arms of the entire war by effecting the rescue of the Austrian army under the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, which was surrounded on the banks of the Rymnik by a vastly superior Turkish force, which Suvoroff utterly overthrew, gaining thereby the title of Rimnikski and the rank of count. In 1790 he stormed Ismail, where his troops were guilty of the most bloody excesses. Sent in 1794 against the Polish insurgents he gained the title of field-marshal by his storming of the Praga, suburb of Warsaw, and the occupation of the Polish capital. After five years of retirement, he was summoned to take command of the Russian forces which were to co-operate with the Austrians against the revolutionary armies of France in Italy. At 70 Suvoroff was to achieve the most notable triumphs of his career. Arriving in Italy in April 1799 he succeeded within four months in driving the French from the northern part of the country, after he had defeated their armies at Cassano, 27 April, on the Trebbia, 17-19 June and at Novi, 15 August. Thereupon he crossed into Switzerland to effect a junction with a second Russian army under Korsakoff. The crossing of the Saint Gotthard pass was accomplished only after fearful hardships, with the loss of one-third of his army and all his guns. In Switzerland he found that Korsakoff had been defeated by Masséna and that the French were masters of the country. He thereupon began a retreat through the Grisons and Vorarlberg, in which he displayed some of the highest qualities of his generalship. Setting out on the way to Russia, after he had been named commanderin-chief of all the Russian forces with the title of Prince Italieski, he lost the favor of the Emperor Paul before his arrival in Saint Petersburg, where after a short ailment he died. Consult Smith, F., 'Suworow's Leben und

Heerzüge (Vilna 1833-34); also his Autobiography, edited by Glinka (1819); and biographies by Polevoi (1853); Spalding (1890). Consult also Macready, E. N., A Sketch of Suwarrow and his Last Campaign' (London 1851), and Reding-Biberegg, 'Der Zug Suworows durch die Schweiz) (Zürich 1869).

SUWANNEE, sū-wä’nē, a river in southern Georgia, in the Okefinokee Swamp, which flows in a winding, generally south-southwest course through Florida into the Gulf of Mexico, about 10 miles north of Cedar Keys. It is the subject of the popular ballad, 'Old Folks at Home, beginning "Way Down on the Suwannee River." Its total length is about 240 miles.

SUWARROW, soo-vä'rov, or SUVAROF, a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, between Samoa and the Manihiki Islands, is generally included in the Tokelan Islands. It has important pearl fisheries. Great Britain annexed the islands in 1889.

SUYEMATSU, Kencho, VISCOUNT, Japanese statesman, son-in-law of Marquis Hirobumi Ito (q.v.): b. Bunzen, Kiusiu, August 1855. He served in the Satsuma Rebellion as civilian staff officer to the commander-in-chief of the army, and later engaged in journalism on the staff of Nichi Nichi. In 1890-95 he was a member of the Japanese House of Commons, and after he was created baron in 1895 he served in the House of Peers. He was director of the Legislative Bureau in 1892-1905; Minister of Communications in the Ito Cabinet in 1898; and held the portfolio of the Interior in the Seiyukai Cabinet in 1900-01. He served as a non-official agent for Japan in London during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. He was made a viscount in 1907. He translated into English 'Genji Monogatari'; and is author of "The Risen Sun: A Fantasy of Far Japan' (1915).

SUZZALLO, Henry, American university president: b. San José, Cal., 22 Aug. 1875. He was graduated at the California State Normal School in 1895, at Leland Stanford Junior University in 1899 and took his Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1905. He was connected with the faculty at Leland Stanford Junior University in 1902-07; was professor of the philosophy of education at Teachers' College, Columbia, in 1909-15; and since 1915 has been president of Washington University, Seattle. He has edited the Riverside Educational Monographs since 1909, has lectured extensively and is a contributor to educational magazines. He was appointed chairman of the Washington State Council of Defense in 1917.

SVERDRUP, svěr'drup, Otto, Norwegian Arctic explorer: b. Harstad Farm, Helgeland, 1855. He went to sea at 17, went with Nansen to Greenland in 1888, and again in 1893, as commander of the Fram, which he brought back to Norway in 1896. He led an expedition to the northern regions in 1898, with the intention of exploring the north of Greenland. The expedition received its financial support mostly from two brothers of the name of Ringnes, and the Norwegian government renovated and equipped the Fram for his use. On reaching Smith Sound, between Ellesmere Land and Greenland, he found it impossible to force his vessel further north through the ice, and sent

two expeditions to the southwest across Ellesmere Land, which penetrated a region never before explored, and found in the southern part of Ellesmere Land a large glacier district. Later in 1899 he brought the Fram down to Jones Sound, to the south of Ellesmere Land, and from there conducted a number of sledging expeditions, exploring the southern and western portions of Ellesmere Land. On the southeast coast of Ellesmere Land, north of Jones Sound, a large bay was discovered about 100 miles in breadth and penetrating into Ellesmere. On the northern side of this bay large and complicated fiords are situated. On the west coast of Ellesmere Land, in about 89° W., a large system of fiords was discovered. To the west of Ellesmere Land, about 130 miles north of the Parry Islands, Sverdrup discovered two islands, to the north and west of which nothing was visible but rough polar ice. He returned to Norway in 1902. The discovery of the islands and the mapping of the western and southwestern coasts of Ellesmere Land are the most important results of Sverdrup's expedition. He brought back also a valuable series of meteorological reports, and a representative natural history collection. In 1914-15 he led a relief expedition to the Arctic and wintered on the shores of Kara Sea. published 'New Land: Four Years in the Arctic Regions' (1904).


SVETLA, Karolina, Bohemian novelist: b. Prague, 24 Feb. 1830. She gained the attention of the literary critics by her first novel A Double Awakening,' published in 1858. She has attained high rank in Bohemian literature, many of her novels being translated into French, German, Polish and Russian. Among them are 'Láska k básnikovi' (1860) 'Vesnicky roman) (1869); Kriz a potoka' (1871); The Atheist' (1873).

SWABIA, swa'bi-a, or SUABIA (German, SCHWABEN), capital Augsburg, now part of the republic of Württemberg, formerly a duchy in the southwestern part of Germany, occupying the area now covered by Baden, Württemberg and a part of Bavaria. It extended from the Rhine on the west to the Lech on the east, and from Switzerland northward to the Rhine Palatinate. It is a mountainous country, and probably the most picturesque portion of Germany. The region was known in ancient times as Allemannia, and received its present name from the Suevi, who entered it in the 5th century and amalgamated with the Allemanni. In the 10th century Swabia was raised into a duchy which continued in the house of Hohenstaufen until 1268, when it was resolved into a number of lesser principalities among whom there was continual feud. In 1488 these little states formed the famous "Swabian League" for the purpose of securing internal peace and giving mutual aid to each other. In 1512 the emperor, Maximilian I, made Swabia one of the 10 circles into which Germany was divided, and enlarged its territory. This division continued until 1806, when the modern kingdom of Württemberg was founded. (See BADEN; WÜRTTEMBERG). At present the name of Swabia is retained by one of the southwestern provinces of Bavaria. Consult Stalin, B. F., 'Geschichte-Württemberg) (Gotha 1882

87); Schneider, Eugene, Württembergische Geschichte (Stuttgart 1896). See WAR, EURO


SWAGE (swāj) BLOCK, a heavy iron block or anvil provided with notches and perforations, used by blacksmiths in shaping metal. The swage block is so arranged that it may be readily clamped in any desired position and may as readily be released whenever it is necessary to adjust the anvil to a different position. The block has trunnions or journals which engage open bearings formed on the top of the standards of the frame. The standards are connected with each other at their lower ends by bolts. Midway of their height they are connected by a clamping device which consists of a rod revolubly secured to one standard and threaded into a nut in the other standard. By operating a crank on this rod the upper ends of the standards may be drawn together to bind against the ends of the swage block and hold it from turning. Inwardly-directed flanges are formed on the standards just below the trunnion bearings, and these on being drawn inward form firm supports for the swage block when in horizontal position. The recesses lying between these flanges receive and securely hold the swage block when turned to vertical position. When the swage block is held at other angles the flanges sink into grooves formed in the ends of the block around the journals. The usual variety of notches, recesses, perforations, etc., are provided for assisting in upsetting bolts, shaping horseshoes and forming all other devices which a blacksmith may be called upon to make. The construction of this swage block is the extreme of simplicity.

SWAIN, swan, George Fillmore, American civil engineer: b. San Francisco, Cal., 2 March 1857. He was graduated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1877 and then studied in Berlin, Germany. In 1887 he accepted the chair of civil engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he remained until 1909. He also served as consulting engineer of the Massachusetts Railroad Commission and was member of the Boston Transit Commission and its chairman in 1913. In 1909 he was made professor of civil engineering at the Harvard Graduate School of Applied Science. He is the author of 'Notes on Hydraulics' (1885); 'Notes on Theory of Structures (1893); Report on the Water Power of the Atlantic Watershed' (in Vol. XVII of the Tenth United States Census') and Conservation of Water by Storage (1915).

SWAIN, Joseph, American college president: b. Pendleton, Ind., 16 June 1857. He was graduated at the Indiana University in 1883, was assistant professor of mathematics in 1883-86 and full professor, 1886-91. He was called to the chair of mathematics in the Leland Stanford Junior University in 1891, which he held till 1893, and was president of Indiana University, 1893-1902. Since the last-named date he has been president of Swarthmore Col lege. He is the author of numerous scientific papers. In 1913-14 he was president of the National Education Association.



SWALLOW-TAILED BUTTERFLIES, butterflies of the family Papilionidæ, typical species of which have the hinder wings extended into prolongations called "tails." See BUTTERFLY.

SWALLOWS, a family (Hirundinida) of passerine birds which are the counterpart in this order of the swifts (q.v.). This family is distinguished by the small, flat, triangular bill which has its sides gradually compressed toward the tip and the deeply cleft mouth, the margins of which bear very small bristles or none; the nostrils rounded at the base of the bill, either exposed or covered by a scale. The wings are long, while the tail is forked in nearly all species and the outer feathers may be prolonged. The feet, although small and weak, are totally unlike those of the swifts, the hind toe being never versatile, the number of phalanges not different from that of ordinary birds and the squamation normal; sometimes the tarsi and toes are feathered. In striking contrast to the somber-hued swifts, many of the swallows are adorned with rich iridescent colors and sometimes the sexes differ. Anatomically the swallows are truly passerine, but the fissirostral bill and mouth, together with their peculiar adaptations to life awing, makes them one of the most clearly circumscribed and natural families of that order. Owing to the many interesting modifications of the type the genera are numerous and many of them restricted in distribution; but the more generalized genera, like the typical Hirundo, are, like the family, cosmopolitan. About 100 species have been described. Belonging to the North American fauna are 10 species representing no less than seven genera, most of which are peculiarly American.

The barn-swallow (Hirundo or Chelidon erythrogaster) is abundant throughout North America and is easily distinguished by the elongated outer tail-feathers, the lustrous steel-blue color of the upper parts and the ruddy breasts. (See BARN-SWALLOW.)


cliff or eaves swallow is colored much like the barn-swallow, but the tail is shorter and only slightly forked; it makes retort-shaped nests outside of barns, etc., under the eaves, as it formerly did on the faces of cliffs.

One of the swallows which retains its original habits is the beautiful white-bellied or tree-swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). It is of a fine lustrous green above, pure white below, with a tail only slightly more forked than in the last. The tree swallow is abundant in most parts of temperate North America, but especially so coastwise where great numbers nest in holes of trees from New Jersey northward. It is one of the first swallows to move northward in the spring and is frequently forced to retreat before a belated snowstorm or cold snap, being, therefore, one of the species to which the common saying, "one swallow does not make a summer," is especially applicable. In the West a related species, the violet-green swallow (T. thalassina), is found. Another conservative member of the family is the bankswallow, which is found in Europe as well as in America. Closely resembling it is the roughwing.

Biggest, handsomest, jolliest, most domestic of American swallows and ever ready to defend his home is the purple martin (Progne


subis), a familiar species throughout temperate North America, distinguished as a genus (Progne) by the strong bill with curved edges, by the moderately-sized forked tail, and by the strong and large feet. The sexes are quite dissimilar, the male being entirely blue black, the female and young, dull sooty gray on the breast. Except in the wilds where it continues to nest in hollow trees, it takes up its abode among the habitations of men. A common practice is to hang up gourds, properly hollowed, for its convenience in nest-building; and in the more settled parts considerable expense is sometimes incurred in preparing for it a suitable residence. The eggs are four to six in number and white. In the country it renders essential services by attacking and driving away crows, hawks, eagles and other large birds. Its note is loud and musical. The regularity with which this species arrives from the South is noteworthy. The western variety is distinct and another species enters Florida.

Of exotic species of swallows the Hirundo rustica takes the place in Europe of our barnswallow. On account of its frequent use of disused chimneys for nesting places this species shares with the swifts the name of chimney swallow. The migration of these birds has always attracted attention from the well-known and unvarying character of their movements. They fly southward at the end of October or sometimes sooner, to winter in Africa, some finding their way to India. The majority arrive in Great Britain in April, some stragglers later and a few coming before the great body of birds. They generally return to the nests they have constructed the previous year. The house martin (Chelidon urbica) with the tarsi and toes feathered is of small size. It is of smaller size than the common swallows, and builds its nest under the eaves of houses, in the corners of windows, etc., the nest being a hemispherical structure of clay, with a round opening for entrance. A related species is the fairy martin (C. ariel), found in South Australia, where it arrives in August, leaving again in September or October. The nest, built in some tree, under eaves or in rocks, is formed of mud, and is of flask-like shape. Each nest appears to be built by a number of these swallows. The wire-tailed swallow (C. filifera) of Abyssinia is so named from the presence of the two elongated tail-feathers, which, being unprovided with a web, consist of the shafts of the feathers alone, and appear as long filaments. The genus Atticora includes the whitebreasted swallow of South America (Atticora cyanoleuca), which makes its nest in the deserted burrows of animals. A number of other South American swallows have similar habits, occupying the nests or holes of various birds and mammals.

Consult Sharpe and Wyatt, Monograph of the Hirundinidæ (London 1885-94), with bibliography and numerous colored plates; Forbush, Useful Birds and their Protection' (Boston 1913); Wilson, American Ornithology) (Philadelphia 1828); and recent works on field ornithology.

SWAMMERDAM, swäm'měr-däm, Jan, Dutch naturalist: b. Amsterdam, 12 Feb. 1637; d. there, 15 Feb. 1680. He was educated for the ministry but turned his studies to the pro

fession of medicine. He was devoted especially to the study of insects; and his 'General History of Insects' and other works laid the foundations of the modern science of entomology. These works include Tractatus de Respiratione usuque Pulmonum) (1667; Allgemeene verhandeling van bloedeloose dierjes' (1669); Biblia Naturæ, sive Historia Insectorum in certas classes Redacta' (1737-38).


SWAMP ANGEL, in the American Civil War the popular name of an 8-inch Parrott gun, so called by the Federal soldiers. It was mounted on a battery constructed on piles driven into the swamp near Charleston, S. C., and was used in the siege of that city. It burst 22 Aug. 1863, and was sent with a lot of old metal to Trenton, N. J. The gun was rescued from its impending fate and set on a granite base on the corner of Perry and Clinton streets in the city of Trenton.

SWAMP DEER, or BARASINGHA, an East Indian deer (Cervus duvaucelli), about four feet in height, rich light yellow in color, found in large herds in moist situations. The antlers are large, with a long beam which branches into an anterior continuation of the main portion, and a smaller posterior tine which is bifurcated.



SWAMP LAND GRANTS. The need of reclaiming the swamp and overflowed lands within the territory of the United States was brought to the attention of Congress in the early part of the 19th century. It was not, however, until the Act of 2 March 1849 that Congress made provision for the reclamation of such lands. This Act applied exclusively to the State of Louisiana, and provided that in order to aid the State in constructing the necessary levees and drains to reclaim the swamp and overflowed lands therein the whole of such lands that may be found unfit for cultivation were granted to the State with the proviso that the proceeds of the sales of all such land shall be applied exclusively as far as necessary to the construction of levees and drains for their reclamation.

This was followed by the Act of 28 Sept. 1850 which provided for a similar grant to the State of Arkansas. This act contained a section which extended its benefits to each of the other States of the Union in which such swamp and overflowed lands may be situated.

By the Act of 12 March 1860 the provisions of the Swamp Acts were extended to the States of Minnesota and Oregon which had been admitted to the Union since the passage of the Act of 1850. The reasons assigned for these grants were the worthless character of the lands in their present condition, the unhealthful effects of these lands and the enhancement in value of the adjoining government property.

At the time of this legislation it was estimated that the area of lands involved would be about 5,000,000 acres. However, up to 30 June 1918 there had been conveyed to the several States under these grants 64,258,731.04

acres. In addition there have been granted to the States 744,385.23 acres as indemnity for lands which had been disposed of to settlers prior to the time when the several grants became effective and also a cash indemnity in lieu of lands which would otherwise have been granted, amounting to $2,095,466.70. Comparatively small additional claims are coming in under these grants.

In spite of these liberal grants of land and money the States have not drained the great body of land actually granted and in many cases the proceeds from the sales of the lands have been used for other purposes. The same reasons for reclaiming these lands which formed the original basis for these grants, therefore, still exist and the United States government has in recent years spent considerable sums to aid in the development of plans for the reclamation of small bodies of these swamp lands. There has also been a widespread sentiment that something definite should be done to make these lands available for agricultural purposes as the area of actual swamp land in the United States is estimated at from 75,000,000 to 80,000,000 acres. MORRIS BIEN.


SWAMP SASSAFRAS. See MAGNOLIA. SWAMPSCOTT, swŏmp'skot, Mass., town in Essex County, on Massachusetts Bay, and on the Boston and Maine Railroad, about 12 miles northeast of Boston and two miles northeast of Lynn. The town contains the villages of Beach Bluff, Mountain Park, Phillips Beach and Swampscott. It is a favorite watering place, and has an excellent beach and good accommo-" dations for transient guests. There are several churches, a town high school, district schools, a public library and several private schools. Most of the inhabitants are employed in Lynn. Pop. (1920) 8,101.

SWAN, James, American soldier and author: b. Fifeshire, Scotland, 1754; d. Paris, 18 March 1831. He came to Massachusetts at an early age, became an artillery captain, a member of the legislature in 1778, and was subsequently adjutant-general of the State. He went to Paris in 1787 where he wrote 'Causes qui sont opposées au Progies du Commerce entre la France et les Etats-Unis de l'Amérique' (1790). He returned to America in 1795 only to go back to France in 1798. In 1815 he was arrested and imprisoned for 15 years at the suit of a German with whom he had had business relations. Among other books of his are 'On the Fisheries' (1784); Fisheries of Massachusetts (1786).

SWAN, John Macallan, English sculptor: b. Old Brentford, 1847; d. 1910. He studied at the Worcester School of Art and the Lambeth Art School and under Gérôme and Frémiet in Paris. In 1885 he received honorable mention at the Salon, and in 1889 received the silver medal at the Paris International Exhibition. He received the first and second gold medals at Munich and the first class gold medal for painting and the first class gold medal for sculpture at Paris, 1900. Most of his sculptures are studies of animals and in representing the

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