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SUMBAWA-SUMERIAN LANGUAGES

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art of writing has been known among the Bat- SUMBAWA, soom-bä'wä, an island betaks from a date beyond the reach of tradition. longing to the Sunda group, in the Indian Their characters are peculiar, and also their Ocean, east of Java, containing 5,192 square mode of writing, for they begin at the bottom miles. The island is mountainous and of exof the page at the left-hand side, and place traordinary profile. The volcano of Tomboro letter above letter in a vertical column till they or Tombura, 8,940 feet high, is near the northreach the top, when they return to the bottom. ern coast and famous for its eruptions. The Their ancient books are written in a brilliant island consists of two parts, with two rulers or ink on paper made of the bark of trees, but sultans, who acknowledge the sovereignty of now they scratch their writings on slips of Holland. There are few streams. The chief Aattened bamboo. Among all the indigenous products are rice, cotton, tobacco, tropical fruits tribes of Sumatra the characteristic political and sappan-wood. Of domestic animals deer tendency is one that could have originated only and swine are plentiful, and the finest horses in the recesses of the mountains. Every village of the Indian Archipelago are reared here, and affects independence, but the villages form con- exported. Edible birds' nests are found on federations. The native tribes of Sumatra have the coasts; gold, silver, saltpetre and pearls no temples and no priests. They are said to be- from the mines and waters, respectively. On lieve in the existence of an evil spirit and of the north coast there is a good harbor, and demons who haunt the mountains. On the coasts here stands the town of Sumbawa. The inhabitBuddhism appears to have been introduced at are Malays and Mohammedans. Pop. an early age, but it has since been completely 75,000. superseded by Mohammedanism, which, among

SUMBUL, an East Indian name of the the Malays, however, is of a very relaxed char

spikenard (Mardostachys), and also of the acter. History.- The first European who visited

valerian, but, more particularly of Ferula sumbul, the island of Sumatra is said to have been Nic

the commercial drug also known as musk-root. colo di Conti, who came there before 1449. In

The last is an umbelliferous plant, with disthe beginning of the 16th century it was visited

sected leaves. The roots reach the pharmacists by the Portuguese, but no Europeans obtained a

in transverse segments, light and spongy in firm footing on the island until the Dutch estab

texture, with a thin, brown, wrinkled and filished a factory on the west coast at the end

brous skin, but whitish inside. The taste is

bitter and balsamic, the odor strong and like of the 16th century. In 1666 the Dutch took

musk. Sumbul is used therapeutically as a stimpossession of Padang, and soon after enlarged their territories by treaty with the Sultan of

ulant and nervine, and was of importance long

before its botanical history was known. Achin. Since that time they have gone on continually consolidating and increasing their do- SUMERIAN LANGUAGES. The prisminion much more by negotiation than by force tine, agglutinous language spoken by the earliof arms. Their last important accession of in- est, prehistoric people of Mesopotamia, a region fluence on the island was gained by a treaty generally referred to in surviving documents as with the kingdom of Siak, concluded in 1868, mat Shumeri u Akkadi, i.e., land of the Sumerby which they obtained the virtual control of ians and Akkadians, probably the biblical Shinar that state. In 1685 the British formed a settle- or Shin'aar. It was a non-Semitic people thus ment in Benkulen, and in 1811 they seized the dwelling in the lowlands between the Euphrates Dutch possessions on the island. These were, and Tigris, as comparative philology has of however, restored in 1815, and in 1824 Benku- recent years proved beyond a doubt. True, the len was given over to the Dutch in exchange eminent French scientist, Joseph Halévy, in for Malacca. A treaty concluded between the 1876, and certain of his followers, contended Dutch and English governments in 1834 left for the non-existence of any such early nonthe Dutch free to make what treaties they Semitic population. Halévy attempted to acpleased with the native powers in the island count for the early Sumerian documents in of Sumatra, the same liberty being allowed to cuneiform characters by assuming a Semitic, the British on the Malay Peninsula; but the priestly, secret style of writing, a cryptography, right of the Dutch to make advances in the and cited as a parallel the Egyptian hierarchical island by conquest and annexation was not writing. However, this has since been amply then recognized. This right was, however, con- disproved. The meaning of the word Sumerian, ceded in the treaty of February 1871, in return or rather Shumerian, refers to the word “reed,” for the cession to the British of the Dutch pos- (reedy in that idiom, evidently because of the sessions on the Gold Coast; and in accordance marshy, reedy landscape. The Sumerians and with this permission the Dutch despatched an the Akkadians seem to have formed one people, expedition against Achin. In April 1873, the though originally they may have come from forces of the two powers came into collision, different parts of the earth. The Sumerians, and a war ensued which dragged on for a num- at any rate, as their tongue, an agglutinous ber of years, caused severe losses to the Dutch, one, shows, must have come from the north, and terminated only in the nominal subjugation possibly the Ural region, as there were no of Achin. In August 1883 the tidal wave that words or word pictures and phrases in it symaccompanied the terrific volcanic outburst in bolizing fauna and flora of the subtropics. Krakatoa, swept with destructive effect the So far as the records go, the Sumerians south coast of Sumatra, a total change in the were the earliest nation, and their system of aspect of the Straits of Sunda also resulting writing, the cuneiform, is likewise the earliest from the eruption. Consult Bernard, A we know of. Later on, the Sumerians, by cotravers Sumatra' (Paris 1910); Breitenstein, habitation and intermarriage, were gradually H., Sumatra' (Leipzig 1902); Cabaton, A., amalgamated with the later Semitic invaders, Java, Sumatra and the other Islands of the Arab tribes originally coming chiefly from the Dutch East Indies) (New York 1914).

island of Bahrin. The Sumerian tongue like

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wise coalesced in a manner with the Semitic idiom, the latter being superimposed on the former, much as the Norman French was superimposed on Anglo-Saxon, and thus the later Babylonian was formed. Sumerian civilization and language, however, were highly developed before the coming of the Semites, as well in the construction of the latter as in its religion, its religious observances, its legislation, arts, science and social life. The Semitic Babylonians imbibed the earlier civilization.

Nevertheless, the "Sumerian problem, socalled, had for generations perplexed Assyriologists. Oppert, in 1854, first made modest, though in a measure successful attempts to unravel its mysteries. But Prof. Paul Haupt, assisted by Profs. Peter Jensen and Zimmern, somewhat profiting by these initial labors, steadily hewed his way through these etymological brambles, and it is strikingly illustrative of the value of Haupt's pathbreaking labors that all subsequent phonetic and grammatical work in Sumerian has only tended to confirm Haupt's views in almost every instance. Haupt's "Sumerian Family Laws and Akkadian and Sumerian Cuneiform Texts" laid the foundation to all later researches. In the investigation of the Sumerian idiom no comparison should be made between Sumerian vocables and those of more recent agglutinous idioms, despite_frequent tempting resemblances, such as in Turkish, for instance. Now and then, though, certain similarities are traceable with Esthonian and Finnish. Sumerian, as far as has been shown up to the present, must be held a language standing alone by itself, a "prehistoric philological remnant."

To Prof. Friedrich Delitzsch is due the merit of having clearly shown the full meaning, the derivation and development of Babylonian cuneiform signs. They were, then, at first pure picture writing and finally grew into conventionalized ideographic and syllabic sign lists. The etymological labor involved in this process of gradual elucidation was surrounded with enormous difficulties.

Sumerian cuneiform was adopted at least about B.C. 7000. By B.c. 5000 we see it already highly specialized, and between B.C. 4000 and 3000 we perceive it applied to the transmission of the invading Semitic language, the Babylonian; and since then the Semitic Assyrians, the Medes, the Turanian Susites, and the Caucasian Armenians have all habitually used the cuneiform.

Besides other evidence tending in the same direction, perhaps the most convincing proof, from a philological point of view, that ancient Sumerian was a real idiom, of natural growth and wholly_unartificial, may be found, aside from the internal phonetic changes, in the indubitably established fact that there were two dialects of it. These were the Emeku, the man's language, the noble, virile, though harsh form, and the Emesal, the woman's language, the softer. There were no geographical boundaries to these two dialects. In R. E. Brünnow's "A Classified List of all Simple and Compound Ideographs" (1889), it is also demonstrated that the Sumerian original idiom was of unaided growth. He and others point out that there were probably eight voice tones employed in Sumerian, similar to the Chinese of

to-day, and that the intonation often deter, mined the meaning. As a possible illustration may be cited: a=water, weep, moisture, dew, tears, inundation, irrigation; ab= dwelling, sea, road, and a grammatical suffix.

After Sumerian had ceased to be a living tongue it was, up to a very late period of Babylonia's existence, greatly used as a ritual one, and was read aloud at worship in the temples, much as is, for example, early Slavonic in Russian and other Orthodox churches to-day.

Bibliography - Delitzsch, F., Assyrian Studies) (Leipzig 1874); Assyr. Wörterbuch (Leipzig 1890); "Babel und Bibel (ib. 1899); Halévy, J., Observations critiques sur les prétendus Touraniens de la Babylonie (Paris 1874); Journal asiatique (3d series, Vol. IV, pp. 461 seq., Paris 1874); Recherches critiques sur l'origine de la civilisation babylonienne (id. 1876); Précis d'allographie ass.-babyl, (ib. 1912); Haupt, M., Die sumerischen Familiengesetze (Leipzig 1879); Die akkadische Sprache) (Berlin 1883); Meyer, E., (Sumerier u. Semiten in Babyl.” (Berlin 1906); Lenormant, F., Études accadiennes) (II 2, P. 70, 3 vols., Paris 1870–79); Pinches, T. G., Language of the Early Inhabitants of Mesopotamia' (in Journal Asiatic Society, pp. 301' seq. 1884); Sumerian or Cryptography) (pp. 75 seq., 343–344, 551-552, London 1900); Prince, J. D. Journal of American Oriental Society, XXV 49-67; American Journal of Semitic Languages, XIX 203 seq.; Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon) (Leipzig 1905–07); Radan, Wm. G., Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to the God Nin-ib? (London 1911); Sayce, A. H., (Hibbert's Lectures) (pp. 415-436, 1887); Schrader, E., Keilinschriften u. Geschichtsforschung' (pp. 290, 533); Tiele, C. P., Babyl.Assyr. Geschichte (pp. 58–71, Leipzig); Zimmern, K. F., Babyl. Busspaslmen (Leipzig 1885).

WOLF VON SCHIERBRAND, Author of America, Asia and the Pacific, etc.

SUMMARY COURT. See Law, MILITARY.

SUMMARY PROCEEDING, in law, a form of trial in which the ancient established course of legal proceedings is disregarded, especially in the matter of trial by jury. In no case can a party, be tried summarily unless when such proceedings are authorized by legislative authority, as in a committal for contempt of court, the conviction of a person by justices of the peace, etc.

SUMMER, the season of the year which in the northern hemisphere generally may be said to comprise the months of June, July and August. The astronomical summer lasts in the northern hemisphere from the June solstice to the September equinox, during which time the sun, being north of the equator, shines more directly upon this part of the earth, and rises much sooner and sets later, which renders this the hottest period of the year. The period of greatest heat generally takes place in August, since the influence of the sun's rays has then been felt for a long time on the earth, and the wind blowing from the north becomes milder owing to a moderation of the temperature in the polar circle caused by the thawing of the ice. “In the southern hemisphere the summer lasts from the December solstice to the March equinox.

SUMMER DUCK - SUMMER SESSIONS

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SUMMER DUCK. See WOOD-DUCK.
SUMMER REDBIRD. See TANAGER.

SUMMER SCHOOL OF THE SOUTH, a school for teachers established at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, in the summer of 1902. It was organized to supply the ever-increasing demand on the part of southern teachers for a summer school of high grade and adequate equipment for the best normal training. It receives its financial support from the General Education Board, from the University of Tennessee, from the citizens of Knox County, and from individual donations; the registration fee is small. All the buildings and full equipment of the university are given to the use of the school. The courses number over 150. The work is arranged in the following groups: (1) Common school subjects and methods, including kindergarten and primary grades; (2) psychology and pedagogy; (3) high school and college subjects; (4) rural schools and county supervision; (5) city school supervision; (6) general lectures; (7) library work and educational exhibits; (8) campaigners' conventions. Teachers have free choice of subjects, but are advised not to take work for more than three or four periods a day. The instructors and lecturers are men and women of recognized scholarship and authority, coming from various institutions and different sections of the country. The school has a large attendance and has proved a marked success.

SUMMER SESSIONS. The summer school responds to a specific need. Professional people such as teachers, ministers, doctors and also other workers like social workers, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. secretaries and even business men and women, find the summer vacation period a suitable time to undertake advanced educational work in specially selected subjects. The other seasons of the year are devoted to exhaustive labors; the summer study is both recreative and inspirational and may be made to contribute to professional advancement. When systematically planned and extended over a period of years, such summer work may even have recognition in the form of academic credit or academic degrees.

Of the persons listed above teachers in service make the most insistent demand for summer courses. New methods and new educational movements continually call for special short courses. For example, the Montessori method, or the Direct Method in Latin, may be studied to advantage in this way. Teachers may add to their regular accomplishments certain special, perhaps new, activities, such as domestic science and art, various phases of handwork, craftswork, physical education, elocution, etc. Again, a famous teacher from a foreign land may offer courses during a summer session, affording attractive opportunity ior special investigation, or for getting a particular method or a particular form of interpretation in a known field. It is a growing practice among municipal school authorities to ofier special inducement to public school teachers to take summer courses. The elementary teacher more particularly, but the high school teacher also to some extent is tempted to stagnate. After teaching the same subject several years, the dull monotony of the process deadens

the ambition. This is especially true where knowledge of method is more important than knowledge of subject matter as in the elementary school. The opportunity for summer study is especially inspiring in such cases.

Physicians also find it desirable to investigate new treatments, to observe and learn new methods in surgery, to get a new point of view in the profession. The summer session or clinic may give the desired opportunity. Even the farmer demands special opportunities for the observation of special methods and practices and looks to a short session of the Agricultural College to supply his needs. In this case, however, the winter may offer greater advantages.

Recently efficiency experts have advocated the continuous use of educational plants. The idle recitation halls, laboratories and libraries are considered uneconomical. This idleness may continue from 15 June to 15 September, 25 per cent of the educational year. Apparently this records only, 75 per cent efficiency for faculties, plants and investments. For the faculty the inefficiency is only apparent since the fallow months are essential to the later increase in fertility and resourcefulness. Of the .plant, however, and of the invested funds, the charge of inefficiency is partly true. If a separate faculty can be provided to use the equipment during the summer, a faculty that has its fallow months at another season of the year, then an all year program becomes efficient.

The Four-Term Year.-A continuous session plan was devised at Chicago University by President William Rainey Harper, when that institution was first opened in 1892. It provides (1) four terms of twelve weeks each; (2) twelve terms completed work are required for graduation; (3) that a student may complete twelve terms in three years; (4) that a student may select any thrce terms as a year's work, devoting the other term to rest or business; (5) that a member of the faculty may elect to be absent from college duties during any one term of any calendar year.

This plan accomplishes all that summer sessions usually seek to do and much more. (1) It incorporates the summer session as an integral part of the academic year. The summer term differs in no essential respect from any of the other terms. (2) Students may begin their college or university courses four times each year. (3) The university equipment is in continual use. (4) The university can use the best men from other institutions in this country and even from foreign universities.

The continuous session plan or the fourterm year is the logical development of the summer school movement. Its sponsor, Chicago University, has used it continuously from 1892 to 1918. A quarter of a century has tested the plan thoroughly and has justified it. That few other colleges and universities have adopted it is no argument against it. It seems probable that acquaintance with its features and its satisfactory results will gradually lead to a wide if not universal use of it.

History of Summer Schools.- The Concord School of Philosophy was proposed by Ralph Waldo Emerson as early as 1840 and came to full fruition between 1879-85. The Haryard Summer School has lived from 1869

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to the present. The Chautauqua Summer 1882. In 1830 he came to the United States School began in 1874. A summer school of law where he studied for the ministry and was was opened in 1870 by the University of Vir- (admitted on trial” to the Baltimore Conference, ginia. From these beginnings have grown in- 1835. He was active in the organization of the numerable schools. Not only do most of the Texas Conference, 1840, and later was sent to colleges and universities conduct such schools the Alabama Conference. He was professor but Chautauqua schools, Y. M. C. A. and of systematic theology at Vanderbilt UniverY. W. C. A. schools, music schools, tutoring sity, dean of the faculty and pastor ex officio schools, normal schools, library schools, etc., of that university. He has published Comare meeting the growing demand for summer mentaries on the Gospels, the Acts, and the school facilities. According to the latest re- Ritual of the Methodist Episcopal Church port (1916) of the United States Bureau of (South); Seasons, Months and Days! ; Education 674 schools were in session during "Talks, Pleasant and Profitable.) Consult the summer of 1915, 47 universities, 40 col- "Life) by Fitzgerald (1884). leges, 90 normal schools, 39 other institutions,

SUMMERSIDE, Canada, town and port 458 independent schools. All colleges and universities listed offer

of entry of Prince Edward's Island, capital of academic credit for work completed in the

Prince County, on Bedeque Bay and on the

Prince Edward's Island Railroad. It is 40 summer session. Of 90 normal schools listed,

miles northwest of Charlottetown and has an only 48 offer credit. The basis for such credit

excellent harbor with anchorage for the largest is 30 hours of recitations, implying 60 hours of vessels. There are flour and saw mills, manupreparation for each credit-hour. A student

factures of plows, etc., and is the centre of the may usually earn four credit-hours in one summer session. Since a college year

recently developed fox ranch industry. Sumgiven

merside has regular communication in summer 15 credit-hours, it will require four summer by steamer with Nova Scotia and New Brunssessions to earn a full credit-year.

wick. Pop. (1921) 3,228. The process is, therefore, slow, but thousands of students persist until they earn the

SUMMERSVILLE, Ga., city in Richmond coveted credit-year. Especially is this true

County and suburb of Augusta. It lies in a of students whose college course was inter

fertile valley 25 miles north-northwest of rupted and who in this way complete work

Rome, on the Central of Georgia Railroad. for the bachelor's degree; and many college

On account of its mild winter climate it is a graduates take this means of earning a master's

popular winter resort.

It contains a governdegree.

ment arsenal and ordnance department. Pop. A. R. BRUBACHER,

(1920) 1,003. President of State College for Teachers, Al- SUMMIT, N. J., city in Union County, bany, N. Y.

on the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western SUMMERS, George William: b. Fairfax

Railroad, 20 miles west of New York and 12

miles west of Newark. It is in an elevated County, Va., 4 March 1807; d. Charleston, W. Va., 18 Sept. 1868. He entered Ohio Univer

part of the county, about 450 feet above tide

water. Summit was settled in 1795, and the sity at Athens, Ohio, in 1819 and graduated in 1826. He then studied law and was admitted

first school was built the same year. The first to the bar in 1827. In 1830 he was elected a

church building was erected in 1840. It was in

corporated as a township in 1869 and as a city member of the lower house of the Virginia

in 1899. It is a purely residential community, legislature and was later re-elected several

noted for its beautiful scenery and delightful times. In 1841 he was elected to the United

climate. The chief industries which contribute States House of Representatives, and was reelected in 1843. In 1850 he was elected to the

to the prosperity of the city are manufacturing

silk goods, cultivation of roses, farming, and Virginia Constitutional Convention and took a

the cultivation of fruit. Summit is a residenprominent part in framing the new constitu

tial city, and has many New York and Newark tion. In 1851 he was the Whig candidate for

business men among its inhabitants. The mugovernor of Virginia, in the first popular elec

nicipal improvements include gas and electric tion for governor in Virginia, but was de- lights, pure water, an excellent tide water feated by Joseph Johnson, the Democratic

sewerage system, well-organized police and fire nominee. In May 1852 he was elected judge of

departments, free postal delivery and telegraph the eighth judicial circuit of Virginia, but re- and telephone service. There eight signed his office 1 July 1858. He was a promi- churches, Y. M. C. A. building and the Arthur nent member of the Peace Conference held

Home for Blind Babies under the International at Washington in the spring of 1861 and took

Sunshine Society. The educational institutions an active part in defense of the Union. He

are Kent Place School, for girls; Summit was also elected a delegate to the Richmond

Academy, for boys; five public schools, one convention which passed the Ordinance of Seces

The sion. In the convention he made an able speech

parish school and a free public library.

two banks have a combined capital of $200,000. in defense of the Union. At the opening of the

The government is vested in a mayor and a Civil War he retired to private life upon his

council of seven members, who hold office for farm and thereafter refused to accept office

three years. Pop. (1920) 10,174. but continued the practice of his profession. He wielded a large influence in western Vir

SUMMONS, in law, an admonition to apginia.

pear in court, addressed to the defendant in a

personal action. It is the writ by which a perSUMMERS, súm'érz, Thomas Osmund, sonal action is always commenced. According American Methodist Episcopal (South) clergy- to English law it need not state the form or man: b. near Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire, Eng- cause of action, but it must contain the names land, 11 Oct. 1812; d. Nashville, Tenn., 6 May of all the defendants, and must have endorsed

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upon it the name and address of the person tak- seums, galleries and historic places, attended ing it out, whether the plaintiff himself or his the Chamber of Deputies and law courts, went attorney. It is the duty of the person taking into society and met many eminent persons. out a summons to serve it on the defendant in He next spent 10 months in England and met person; but if the judge is satisfied that reason- the famous men of the day, Carlyle, Wordsable efforts have been made to do this, and that worth, Macaulay, etc. In Italy he studied the defendant knows that the summons has been Italian literature. Then he spent several

issued against him, he may authorize the plain- months in Germany and finally returned to * tiff to go on with the action without personal America in May 1840. His foreign travel unservice.

fitted him for his chosen profession, to some SUMNER, Charles, American statesman:

extent, and still further intensified his longings b. Boston, 6 Jan. 1811; d. Washington, D. C., 11

for the scholar's career. March 1874. His family was English in origin,

During his absence abroad the slavery quesCharles being a descendant in the seventh gen

tion had become a burning issue, though up to de eration from William, who came to America

this time he had but slight interest in politics prize about 1635 and settled at Dorchester, Mass. or in the great public questions of the period. The Sumners lived in the same vicinity for

From 1841, however, his letters commence to the next 200 years and more, generally as farm- show evidence of more positive views on the

The father, Charles Pinckney Sumner slavery question and more determination to a(b. 1776; d. 1839), graduated from Harvard in oppose the further spread and influence of this

1796. He was a lawyer, was married to Relief institution. His humanitarianism showed itself Jacob of Hanover, N. H., in 1810 and had nine in his interest in popular education and in the children, of whom Charles was the eldest. support of Horace Mann, in the work for the The father took an active interest in politics,

blind, in that for the improvement of prison was clerk of the Massachusetts House of Repre- discipline and in his opposition to war under sentatives in 1806-07 and 1810–11 and from all circumstances. In 1843 he commenced to 1825 to 1839 was sheriff of Suffolk County. write against slavery, and contended, in oppoHe was interested in the temperance movement sition to many, that it was a national rather

and was strongly anti-slavery in feeling. He than merely a local evil: that the nation was est

was fond of books, conscientious, earnest, grave responsible and that it might to a large extent and stern. It was not strange, then, that he remove the evil by, abolishing slavery in the brought up his son in the old Puritan style District of Columbia and in the Territories, and the latter's career shows that he was greatly by compelling the rendition of fugitive slaves, influenced by his father's training, views and by preventing the slave trade, by, remedying character.

the laws of slave States which abridged the Charles was educated at the famous Boston right of free negroes in free States, by stipVes Latin School, having as schoolmates Robert ulating the conditions of

admitting new States and C. Winthrop and Wendell Phillips. His tastes and by amending the Constitution so as to letai were those of the scholar and he read widely abolish slavery. Sumner made his real début ve si and became proficient in the classics. He en- in public life by a Fourth of July oration in ind: tered Harvard College in 1826, where he con- Boston, 1845, on the “True Grandeur of Nahe te tinued to excel in the classics, but also devoted tions, in which he bitterly denounced wars much time to history and literature and per

of all kinds as dishonorable. Four months ; ac fected himself in oratory or “declaiming.” later he made his first anti-slavery speech at

After a year spent in private study and diligent a meeting in Faneuil Hall to protest against listo attendance on the lectures and orations of the the annexation of Texas. ir great Boston orators, Webster, Everett, Choate In 1846-47 Sumner made several speeches

and Channing, he entered the Harvard Law in favor of the Whig party adopting an antiSchool in 1831 and received the personal at

slavery attitude. He wrote for the newspapers eside tention and teaching, of Judge Story, an old against the Mexican War; declared that it

friend of Sumner's father. His plan of study was unconstitutional, unjust and detestable, op

was thus described in a letter to a friend: posed further expenditures for it, called for elece “Six hours, namely, the forenoon, wholly and the withdrawal of troops and opposed the open

solely to law; afternoon, classics; evening, his- ing of the territory to be acquired from Mexnd i tory, subjects collateral and assistant to law, ico to slavery. He joined the Free Soil party

etc. Recreation must not be found in idleness of 1848 and was nominated for Congress in

or loose reading.” In January 1834 he entered October, but failed of election. When WebArt the law office of Benjamin Rand in Boston. ster, in his speech of 7 March 1850, refused to

In February he made a journey to Washington, vote to exclude slavery from California and where he received his first impressions of slav

New Mexico, he became, in the eyes of many ery in the South. His first subscription for a in Massachusetts, an apologist of slavery and newspaper was for Garrison's Liberator. While this situation opened the door of the Senate in Washington he heard Webster, Clay and to Sumner. Calhoun speak in the Senate, but he still thought In Massachusetts the autumn campaign hinged he preferred law to politics. During the next on the question whether the State should apthree years, 1834–36, he practised law in Bos- prove the Compromise of 1850 and the course ton, but without remarkable success. His argu- of Webster in supporting it. There was bitter

were in the nature of learned essays opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law and the to rather than forcible presentations of the case manner of its enforcement. Sumner made an in a manner to convince juries.

important speech in Faneuil Hall 6 November In 1837 he went abroad and spent three years against the Fugitive Slave law and demanded traveling in France, England, Italy and Ger- its repeal. This speech made possible his elecmany. In Paris, where he lived five months, tion as senator in January 1851, for in the he attended university lectures, visited the mu- State election the combined Democrats and

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