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He was


fession of medicine.

devoted es- acres. In addition there have been granted to pecially to the study of insects; and his Gen- the States 744,385.23 acres as indemnity for eral History of Insects and other works laid lands which had been disposed of to settlers the foundations of the modern science of en- prior to the time when the several grants betomology. These works include "Tractatus de came effective and also a cash indemnity in lieu Respiratione usuque Pulmonum' (1667; All- of lands which would otherwise have been gemeene verhandeling van bloedeloose dierjes) granted, amounting to $2,095,466.70. Com(1669); (Biblia Naturæ, sive Historia Insecto- paratively small additional claims are coming rum in certas classes Redacta) (1737–38). in under these grants. SWAMP. See Bog.

In spite of these liberal grants of land and

money the States have not drained the great SWAMP ANGEL, in the American Civil body of land actually granted and in many War the popular name of an 8-inch Parrott cases the proceeds from the sales of the lands gun, so called by the Federal soldiers. It was have been used for other purposes. The same mounted on a battery constructed on piles

for reclaiming these lands which driven into the swamp near Charleston, S. C., formed the original basis for these grants, and was used in the siege of that city. It burst therefore, still exist and the United States 22 Aug. 1863, and was sent with a lot of old government has in recent years spent considmetal to Trenton, N. J. The gun was rescued erable sums to aid in the development of plans from its impending fate and set on a,granite for the reclamation of small bodies of these base on the corner of Perry and Clinton streets swamp lands. There has also been a widein the city of Trenton.

spread sentiment that something definite should SWAMP DEER, or BARASINGHA, an be done to make these lands available for East Indian deer (Cervus duvaucelli), about agricultural purposes as the area of actual four feet in height, rich light yellow in color, swamp land in the United States is estimated found in large herds in moist situations. The at from 75,000,000 to 80,000,000 acres. antlers are large, with a long beam which

MORRIS Biex. branches into an anterior continuation of the SWAMP LOCUST. See LOCUST. main portion, and a smaller posterior tine which is bifurcated.




SWAMPSCOTT, swõmp'skót, Mass., town SWAMP HICKORY. See HICKORY. in Essex County, on Massachusetts Bay, and on

SWAMP LAND GRANTS. The need of the Boston and Maine Railroad, about 12 miles reclaiming the swamp and overflowed lands northeast of Boston and two miles northeast of within the territory of the United States was

Lynn. The town contains the villages of Beach brought to the attention of Congress in the Bluff, Mountain Park, Phillips Beach and early part of the 19th century. It was not,

Swampscott. It is a favorite watering place, however, until the Act of 2 March 1849 that and has an excellent beach and good accommoCongress made provision for the reclamation dations for transient guests. There are several of such lands. This Act applied exclusively churches, a town high school, district schools, a to the State of Louisiana, and provided that

public library and several private schools. in order to aid the State in constructing the

Most of the inhabitants are employed in Lynn. necessary levees and drains to reclaim the

Pop. (1920) 8,101. swamp and overflowed lands therein the whole SWAN, James, American soldier and auof such lands that may be found unfit for thor: b. Fifeshire, Scotland, 1754; d. Paris, 18 cultivation were granted to the State with the March 1831. He came to Massachusetts at an proviso that the proceeds of the sales of all early age, became an artillery captain, a memsuch land shall be applied exclusively as far ber of the legislature in 1778, and was subseas necessary to the construction of levees and quently adjutant-general of the State. He went drains for their reclamation.

to Paris in 1787 where he wrote Causes qui This was followed by the Act of 28 Sept. sont opposées au Progies du Commerce entre 1850 which provided for a similar grant to the

la France et les Etats-Unis de l'Amérique State of Arkansas. This act contained a sec- (1790). He returned to America in 1795 only ion which extended its benefit to each of to go back to France in 1798. In 1815 he was the other States of the Union in which such arrested and imprisoned for 15 years at the swamp and overflowed lands may be situated. suit of a German with whom he had had busi

By the Act of 12 March 1860 the provisions ness relations. Among other books of his are of the Swamp Acts were extended to the On the Fisheries) (1784); Fisheries of MassaStates of Minnesota and Oregon which had chusetts' (1786). been admitted to the Union since the passage of SWAN, John Macallan, English sculptor: the Act of 1850. The reasons assigned for b. Old Brentford, 1847; d. 1910. He studied at these grants were the worthless character of the Worcester School of Art and the Lambeth the lands in their present condition, the un- Art School and under Gérôme and Frémiet in healthful effects of these lands and the en- Paris. In 1885 he received honorable mention hancement in value of the adjoining govern- at the Salon, and in 1889 received the silver ment property.

medal at the Paris International Exhibition. At the time of this legislation it was es- He received the first and second gold medals timated that the area of lands involved would at Munich and the first class gold medal for be about 5,000,000 acres. However, up to 30 painting and the first class gold medal for June 1918 there had been conveyed to the sculpture at Paris, 1900. Most of his sculptures several States under these grants 64,258,731.04 are studies of animals and in representing the

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cat tribe he is particularly successful in giving and some appear to be constitutionally mute, vivacity and vitality to the rapid furtive ad- but most of them possess the most powerful vance of the leopard or tiger. His principal and sonorous voices, though none of the musiworks are (Leopard Running'; (The Prodigal cal ability attributed by poets to their death Son'; Lioness defending her Cubs'; Polar song. These great vocal powers are due to Bears Swimming'; A Dead Hero'; "The the sounding apparatus developed by the coilJaguar'; Puma and Macaw) (1900) ing of the greatly elongated trachea within the Wounded Leopard

Leopard); 'Tigers Drinking, şternum, much after the fashion of the same owned by Henry Frick, New York; "Ceylon organ in certain cranes (q.v.). Not over 10 Leopards. In 1905 he was made a Royal clearly marked species of true swans are known Academician. Consult Baldry, J. M. Swan, the world over and nearly every part of the R.A. (New York 1905).

world has its one or more species, for these SWAN, Joseph Rockwell, American ju

birds are strong of wing and wide ranging. rist: b. Westernville, N. Y., 28 Dec. 1802; d.

No species, however, breeds in Africa. They Columbus, Ohio, 18 Dec. 1884. He removed to

are arranged in four or five genera. Columbus, Ohio, in 1824 and was there ad

The North American swans belong to the mitted to the bar. He was prosecuting attorney

genus Olor, distinguished from the typical in 1830--34, and judge of the Court of Common

Cygnus by purely technical characters. The two Pleas (1834-45). In 1854 he became judge of the

species, the whistling swan (0. columbianus) Supreme Court and 1859 rendered his most im

and the trumpeter swan (O. buccinator) are portant decision. The United States District much alike in appearance, being, chiefly white, Court in Ohio had sentenced a prisoner for

but the latter is the larger, attaining a length of violating the Fugitive Slave Law. Under a

five feet and a spread of eight feet. And the writ of habeas corpus the Supreme Court of the

tail contains 24 quill feathers, whereas the State sought to set aside the sentence, but it

whistling swan has but 20. The former is the was sustained by Judge Swan, who declared

more widely distributed and the one usually that the State could not reverse the decisions of

seen on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the United States courts. His pụblications in

while the trumpeter swan is most characterisclude Treatise on · Justices of the Peace and

tic of the Mississippi Valley, up and down Constables in Ohio (1836); Statutes of

which it migrates, breeding in the upper parts Ohio) (1841); Manual for Executors and Ad

and wintering along the Gulf coast. "The ministrators' (1843); Practice in Civil Ac

whistling swan reeds only in the far north tions and Proceedings at Law in Ohio and

entirely beyond the limits of the United States. Precedents in Pleading! (1845); Swan's

It winters in considerable numbers in ChesaPleadings and Practice (1851); "Com

(1851); Com- 'peake Bay and the sounds of North Carolina. mentaries on Pleadings under the Ohio Code'

They associate with wild geese and like these (1860).

feed largely upon water plants. Oņ account of

their large size they are considered great prizes SWAN, Sir Joseph Wilson, English inventor: b. Sunderland, 31 Oct. 1828; d. 1914.

among gunners, but the younger birds, disHe invented the carbon process of making

tinguished by the duskiness of their plumage

and their less brazen voices, are preferred for autotypes, and with Woodbury introduced

table use.

The nests are on the ground and are Woodburytype. To him also is due the in

lined with dried grass and down. The two to vention of the dry plate, which has revolution

five eggs are about four and one-half inches ized photography. His name is, however, best

long and of a yellowish-white color. Except known in connection with a form of incan

for the differences resulting from its distribudescent electric lamp devised by him, which

tion and fresh-water habitat the habits of the was the earliest in date of the many electric

trumpeter swan are essentially similar. lamps now in use. His other inventions in

The common domesticated white or mute clude a miner's electric safety-lamp. and vari

swan (Cygnus olor) is a native of Europe, Asia ous improvements in photo-mechanical printing

and Africa. Those of Great Britain are all of and electro-metallurgical deposition. He was

the introduced domesticated variety. The swan a knight of the Legion of Honor, and in 1898

has, from a very early date, been especially pro99 he was president of the Institution of

tected by both legal and regal interference. In Electrical Engineers. He was knighted in 1904.

Henry VII's reign the theft of a swan's egg SWAN, a sub-family (Cygnina or Oloride) was deemed an offense punishable by a year's of the duck family, characterized by great size imprisonment; and the theft of a swan itself and length of neck. The swans have the leg's was very severely punished. Swans at a prior (tarsi) short and reticulated, the front toes date were declared to be exclusively "royal" or being stronglv webbed, while the hind toe is not "king's” property; and no subject was entitled webbed, and has no lobe; and the loral region to hold possession of these birds, save under (between the eyes and the bill) is naked. special favor from the sovereign. To such

In the water the swans are the type of grace subjects as possessed the permission to keep and beauty of figure, the long arched and flex- swans a special “swan” mark was attached, and ible neck, the elevated wings, and their buoyancy this mark was cut on the bill of the birds as a and skill in turning and gliding over the sur- distinctive badge of ownership. The process face, all contributing toward this effect. On of marking is known as “swan-upping) or land, however, the very posterior position of "hopping, and the ceremony in the Thames the legs renders them awkward and slow. Un- on the part of the Crown and of the Dyer's and like the fussy ducks and geese there is a Vintners' companies takes place on the first calmness and dignity about the behavior of Monday in August. At the present time but swans which has always excited admiration and few swanneries remain, but in some places has caused these birds to figure much in poetic cygnets are carefully raised and bred for the literature. Swans are generally quiet birds market and a few of these birds are kept for




ornamental purposes in most large parks. Sev- SWANK, James Moore, American econoeral other wild species occur in the Old World mist: b. Westmoreland County, Pa., 12 July and one true swan in South America. The 1832; d. 21 June 1914. He founded the Johnsblack swan (Chenopsis atrata) is an Australian town Tribune, 1853; was chief clerk Agriculspecies, first discovered in 1698; the general tural Department, 1871-72; secretary American plumage is black, the bill being deep red, the Iron and Steel Association 1873-85. He is primary wing-feathers white and the trachea the author of History of Iron in all Ages'; does not enter the sternum. It is well known Iron Making and Coal Mining in Pennsylin the United States as an ornamental bird. vania,' and over 50 tracts on the tariff question. Consult Beebe, C. W., (The Swans? (in Tenth

SWANSEA, swõn'sē, or ABERTAWE, Annual Report of the New York Zoological

Wales, an important seaport, capital of the Society,' New York 1906); Stejneger, Pro

county of Glamorgan, on the right bank of the ceedings U. S. Nat. Mus. (Washington 1882);

river Tawe, at its mouth in Swansea Bay, 35 Newton, Dictionary of Birds? (Vol. IV, Lon

miles west-northwest of Cardiff. The town condon 1896); Grinnell, American Duck Shoot

tains a fine town-hall with a Corinthian façade; ing' (New York 1901).

the Royal Institution of South Wales, including SWAN, Knight of the, according to a a library, museum, etc.; a large building in which legend of the lower Rhine, a knight who comes are housed the public library, art gallery and from an unknown country in a boat drawn by a

schools of science and art; a grammar, techswan, delivers a prince's daughter from her nical and other schools; the general hospital, hated suitor and marries her himself, and after- a deaf and dumb institution, a blind asylum, ward is obliged to leave her since in spite of etc.; remains of an ancient castle dating in its his forbidding her to do so she inquires and present form from the 16th century, though learns his origin, her ignorance of which is the first built in 1099; and several public parks. sole condition of his remaining with her. This The harbor is an excellent one with ample fable, which has parallel forms in the earliest modern docks. The staple industries are the mythologies, is varied in many ways by the smelting and refining of copper, gold, silver poets and story-tellers of the Middle Ages. and pyrites, which are imported for the purpose Thus in the French variani Roman du from many countries, the manufacture of tin. Chevalier au Cygne, Godfrey de Bouillon is plate and the working of iron, steel, zinc, the hero of the story. This version is followed nickel, lead and other metals. Chemicals, by the unknown author of the tale Lohengrin'; patent fuels and alkali are also made in considwhile Conrad of Würzburg in his poem, "The erable quantity, and there are flour-mills, shipSwan Knight, places the incident in the days. building yards, etc. Swansea is also a leading

Charlemagne. Consult Hagen, Die seaport, its imports average annual value $22,Schwanensage' (1845); Müller, Die Sage vom 000,000, being chiefly the raw material for its Schwanen'; Jaffray, Two Knights of the metallurgical industries, wheat and other grains, Swan' (New York 1910); Newell, W. W., sugar and timber; and its exports average an"Legend of the Holy Grail (Cambridge, (

nual value $30,000,000, mainly coal, coke and Mass., 1902).

patent fuel, iron and iron and steel manufacSWAN, Order of the, an order of knight

tures, wrought and unwrought copper and hood created in 1440 by the Elector Frederick

chemical products (dyestuffs, sulphate of copII of Brandenburg. Its headquarters were in

per and carbide of calcium). The vessels an

nually at the port have an average total ton. a monastery on a hill near Brandenburg and in Ansbach. It was composed of members of the

nage entered and cleared of about 5,000,000 nobility and its object was to encourage more

tons. Swansea has municipal tramways worked enthusiastic homage to the Virgin Mary, and

by electricity, and the town is served by the

Great Western, London and North-Western, perseverance in works of mercy. The order was abolished at the time of the Reformation,

Midland and some local Welsh railways. The

first charter of the borough was granted by but was revived by Frederick William IV of Prussia 24 Dec. 1843 in the form of a free asso

King John, and subsequent charters were conciation of men and women of all ranks and

ferred by Henry III, Edward II, Edward IIJ

and Cromwell. The copper industry of the creeds for the purpose of alleviating the moral and physical misery of others. Consult Hanle,

town began to attain importance early in the (Urkunde und Nachweise zur Geschichte des

19th century, and since about 1830 the town Schwanenordens? (1874).

has rapidly advanced in consequence of the

development of this and other industries. Pop. SWAN MAIDEN, The. See VALKYRIES. 114,663. SWAN RIVER. See AUSTRALIA, WEST. SWANSON, Claude Augustus, American SWANEVELT, svän'ě-félt, Hermann,

senator: b. Swansonville, Va., 31 March 1862. Dutch painter: b. Woerden, 1618; d. Rome,

He was graduated at the. Randolph-Macon 1690. He set out for Italy when very young,

College in 1885 and at the University of Virginia carefully studied the scenery of its beautiful

in 1886, afterward engaging in law practice at districts and, captivated by the pictures of

Chatham, Va. He served in Congress as a Claude Lorraine, became a scholar of this

Democrat in 1893–1905, when he resigned after famous master. He equaled, or perhaps sur

re-election, and in 1906–10 he was governor of passed, his master in his figures both of men

Virginia. In 1910 he was appointed United and animals, and will always hold a first place

States senator to fill the unexpired term of among the greatest of landscape-painters. His

John W. Daniel; subsequently elected to that etchings, 116 in number, partly of subjects of

office for the terms 1911-17, 1917-23, 1923–2!!, his own invention and partly of actual scenery, SWANTON, John Reed, American ethnolare very much admired. His pictures, even ogist: b. Gardine, Me., 19 Feb. 1873. He was during his lifetime, brought very high prices. graduated at Harvard University in 1896, later




studied at Columbia University and took his its extremities . or with its arms bent back Ph.D. at Harvard in 1900. He has been thus 7, and it is found invariably assoethnologist of the Bureau of American Ethnol- ciated with the worship of the Aryan sun-gods ogy, Washington, since 1900. Author of Con- (Apollo, Odin), it is believed to represent the tributions to the Ethnology of the Haida

Consult d'Alviella, Eugène Goblet, La (1905); Haida Texts and Myths) (1905); migration des symboles) (Paris 1891); de Social Conditions, Beliefs and Linguistic Re- Milloué Léon, Le Svastika) (in Annales du lationship of the Tlingit Indians' (1904–05) Musée Guimet, Vol. XXXI, Paris 1909); Wil

Tlingit Myths and Texts' (1909); Haida' son, Thomas, The Swastika, the Earliest (1911); Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Known Symbol and its Migration in United Valley and the Adjacent Coast of Mexico States National Museum, Annual Report, 1894, (1911), etc. He is joint author of Dictionary Washington 1895). of the Biloxi and Ofo Languages? (1912);

SWAT, swät, India, a territory or district (Anthropology in North America (1915), etc. of the Northwest Frontier Province, occupying

SWARTHMORE (swarth'mor) COL- the valley of the Swat River, north of Peshawar LEGE, located at Swarthmore, Pa. It was and south of Chitral. It was well known to the founded by the liberal (or Hicksite) body of ancients, but seldom visited by Europeans until the Society of Friends, and was first opened in the uprising of the frontier tribes in 1895. It is 1869. The main building was destroyed by fire a narrow valley between lofty mountains, and in 1881, but was immediately rebuilt. The col- inhabited by industrious, liberty-loving Afghan lege now confers regularly but one baccalaure- tribes. Pop. about 40,000. ate degree, that of A.B. This was the original

SWATOW, swä-tow', China, a treaty port custom until 1874, when the practice of confer

in the province of Kwang-tung, situated at the ring the three degrees of A.B., B.S. and B.L.,

mouth of the Han River, 175 miles northeast of and the special degree of bachelor of science

Hongkong. The total trade of the port amounts in civil engineering was adopted; in 1903 the

to nearly $34,000,000 annually. The chief excollege returned to its first practice. Courses in

ports are sugar, tobacco, cloth and fruits. The engineering and mechanic arts are offered, and

port was opened to foreign trade in 1858. The provision is made for a special course leading

imports reach annually the sum of about $30,to the degree of bachelor of science in civil

000,000, and the exports to $11,000,000. Pop. engineering. The A.B. course includes certain

66,000. prescribed studies, one major study in any one department in which three full years of college

SWAYNE, swan, Noah Haynes, American work must be completed, and electives to com- jurist: b. Culpeper County, Va., -7 Dec. 1804; plete the required number of hours. The pre

d. New York, 8 June 1884. He was admitted scribed studies include English, Bible study,

to the bar in 1823; settled in Coshocton, Ohio, history or economics, at least one language and in 1825; and was prosecuting attorney of the one science, and mathematics, or engineering;

county in 1826–29. In the latter year he beIn the departments of biology, chemistry and

came a Democratic member of the legislature. physics courses are planned to prepare for the

He was United States district attorney for study of medicine. The degrees of master

Ohio in 1831-41. He was an associate justice of arts and civil engineer are conferred for

of the United States Supreme Court in 1862graduate work. Swarthmore has been from

81. In the latter year he resigned owing to adthe first a coeducational college, being the sec

vanced age. ond institution east of the Alleghany Moun- SWAZILAND, swa'ze-lănd, South Africa, tains to offer instruction to men and women on a native state between the Drakensberg and Loabsolutely equal terms. Though it is a small bombo ranges, on the borders of the Transvaal. college, and not a university, it is especially well Its surface is mountainous but fertile, and it is equipped for an institution of its size, especially thought to contain rich gold and coal deposits. in the science and engineering departments. It It possesses fine prairies, which offer fine pashas a campus comprising more than 200 acres, turage, especially in winter. There are also exbordered by the gorge of Crum Creek, and in- tensive forests which contain fine timber -a cluding the farm on which Benjamin West, the rarity in South Africa. Water is plentiful, the artist, was born. The chief buildings are Par- climate is healthful. The Swazis are a Zulu rish Hall (the main building), Science Hall, tribe and were subject to the intrigues of Great the observatory, the two gymnasiums, the presi- Britain and the Transvaal. The Boers obtained dent's house and residences of the professors, supremacy in 1895, which passed with their Wharton Hall (a new dormitory). There are conquest and annexation by England in 1902. two fellowships and 17 scholarships. The pro- Authority passed to the high commissioner of ductive funds amount to about $1,600,000 and South Africa in 1906. The Roman-Dutch law the annual income to $170,000, the library con- is in force. The British resident commissioner tains 35,000 volumes, including the Friends' is located at Mbabane. Area, 6,536 square Historical Library. The students number 450 miles. Pop. 107,117. and the faculty about 50.

SWEABORG, svā'a-bõrg, or SVEABORG, SWASTIKA, a symbol of the sun in the Finland, a fortress and naval arsenal, three nature-religions of Aryan races from Scan- miles southeast of Helsingfors, which it dedinavia to Persia and India; and similar devices fends, on a series of islands in the Gulf of occur in monumental remains of the ancient Finland. The fortifications are so important Mexicans and Peruvians, and on objects, ex- as to entitle the islands (The Gibraltar of the humed from prehistoric burial mounds within North.” The principal works occupy five isthe limits of the United States. The Swastika lands which are connected by bridges. The isconsists of a Greek cross, either enclosed in a land of Bärgo contains the chief military decircle the circumference of which passes through partments, arsenal and school of marines; the

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shipping docks hewn in solid rock, powder magazine and the monument to the Swedish Field-Marshal Ehrensvärds, who erected the fortifications. The strongest fort stands on the island south from here and is called Gustavsfard. Sweaborg was taken by the Russians in 1808; in 1855 it was bombarded by the French and English allied troops. After the revolution in Russia in 1917 Sweaborg was taken by the Finns, and upon the establishment of Finland as an autonomous state it was incorporated therein. Civil pop. about 1,000.

SWEARING, Profane, the use of oaths in a light and familiar manner by way of asseveration or emphasis. . As popularly understood, "profane swearing” involves also many terms of a gross and obscene character. Profane swearing and cursing are made punishable in England by the Act of 19 Geo. II, ch. xxi, which prescribes a graded tariff of penalties for offenders according to their social rank: for each profane oath or curse a laborer, soldier or sailor incurs a penalty of a shilling; other persons under the rank of gentleman two shillings; a gentleman or any one above that rank, five shillings. In several of the States of the American Union profane șwearing is variously declared punishable by the statutes. See BLASPHEMY.


SWEATMAN, Arthur, Canadian Anglican archbishop: b. London, England, 19 Nov. 1834; d. Toronto, Canada, 24 Jan. 1909. He studied at the University of London and was graduated at Cambridge University in 1859. He was ordained priest in 1860 and in 1865 he removed to Canada where he became head master at Hellmuth Boys' College, London, Ontario, a position he occupied in 1865–72 and 1874–76. He was chaplain to the bishop of Huron, and secretary to the Synod of the diocese of Huron in 1872–79, and held other offices in the Church. He became canon of the cathedral at London, Ontario, in 1875 and was made archdeacon later in that year. In 1879 he was appointed bishop of Toronto, and in 1907 he became archbishop, metropolitan and primate of all Canada.

SWEATING SICKNESS, a febrile epidemic disease of extraordinary malignity which prevailed in Europe, particularly in England, at different periods toward the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th. It appears to have spared no age nor condition, but is said to have attacked more especially persons in high health, of middle age and of the better class. Its attack was very sudden, producing a sensation of intense heat in some particular part, which heat afterward overspread the whole body, and was followed by profuse sweating, attended with insatiable thirst, restlessness, headache, delirium, nausea, an irresistible propensity to sleep and great prostration of strength. The patient was frequently carried off in one, two or three hours from the eruption of the sweat. It seems to have first appeared in the army of the Earl of Richmond upon his landing at Milford Haven in 1485, and soon spread to London. This body of troops had been much crowded in transport vessels, and was described by Philip de Comines as the most wretched that he had ever beheld, collected probably from jails and hospitals, and buried in filth. It broke out in England four

times after this, in 1506, 1517, 1528 and 1551. The process eventually adopted for its cure was to promote perspiration and carefully avoid exposure to cold. The violence of the attack generally subsided in 15 hours. The disease is endemic in parts of Picardy, France, and in Italy, being known in the latter country as miliary fever. In 1906 there was an epidemic in France. It appears to be allied to influenza. Compare the epidemic of the latter disease in the armies operating in Picardy in 1918, whence it spread throughout the world. Consult Hecker, J. F. K., Epidemics of the Middle Ages (London 1859) and Osler, W., (Modern Medicine) (Philadelphia 1914).


SWEDBERG, svād'běrg, afterward SWEDENBORG, swe'dn-borg, Swed. svā'děn-borg, Emanuel, Swedish theologian: b. Stockholm, 29 Jan. 1688; d. London, 29 March 1772. His father, Jesper Swedberg, was a chaplain and court-preacher to the king, Charles XI. Swedberg's paternal ancestors had been opulent miners in the province of Dalecarlia, and it is also claimed that the heroic blood of Engelbrecht, who liberated Sweden from Denmark in 1434, flowed in his veins. On the side of his mother, Sarah Behm, he descended from Gustavus Wasa, king of Sweden from 1523 to 1560. The name "Swedberg, as well as Swedenborg, which was given to the family later when they were ennobled, was derived from “Sveden, by which name the homestead was called, and which means a clearing in the forest made by fire.

About all that is known of Swedenborg's childhood and early youth is contained in his autobiographical statements made in two letters, one to Dr. G. A. Beyer, a celebrated clergyman of Sweden, the other to Rev. Thomas Hartley, of the Established Church in England. In the former he writes: «From my fourth to my 10th year I was constantly engaged in thought upon God, Salvation and the spiritual ills of mankind; and several times I revealed things at which my father and mother wondered; saying that angels must be speaking through me. From my sixth to my 12th year I used to delight in conversing with clergymen about faith, saying that the life of faith is love, and that the love which imparts life is love to the neighbor; also that God gives faith to every one, but that those only receive it who practise that love. I knew of no other faith at that time, than that God is the Creator and Preserver of Nature, that he imparts understanding and a good disposition to men, and several other things that follow thence. I knew nothing at that time of that learned faith which teaches that God the Father imputes the righteousness of his Son to whomsoever, and at such times, as he chooses, even to those who have not repented and have not reformed their lives. And had I heard of such a faith, it would have been then, as it is now (1769), above my comprehension.”

In the second letter he says: "In the year 1710 I went abroad. I proceeded first to England, and afterward to Holland, France and Germany, and returned home in the year 1714.

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