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In the year 1716, and also afterward, I had 1721 Emanuel Swedenborg set forth again on many convexations with Charles XII, king of a Continental tour of 15 months, publishing the Sweden, who greatly favored me, and the same same year at Amsterdam treatises on (Chemyear offered me an assessorship in the College istry,'' on Iron and Fire,' and astronomical of Mines, which office I filled until the year and mechanical subjects. At Leipzig in 1722 he 1747, when I resigned it, retaining, however, published his Miscellaneous Observations on the official salary during my life. My sole Natural Things. Returning to Stockholm he object in tendering my resignation was that I devoted the next 11 years to his duties in the might have more leisure to devote to the new College of Mines, his office in the Diet, and in office to which the Lord had called me. A elaborating a great work on the theory of crehigher post of honor was then offered me, ation or cosmogony which he published at which I positively declined, lest my heart should Leipzig in 1734 while on a third foreign jourbe inspired with pride. In the year 1719, I was ney. This treatise, the Principia,' forms Part ennobled by Queen Ulrica Eleanora, and named I of his Philosophical and Metallurgical Swedenborg; and from that time I have taken Works, of which Parts II and III treat of my seat among the nobles of the rank of knight- Iron and Copper respectively. The same hood, in the triennial Diet of the Realm. I am year he published Outlines of a Philosophical a Fellow and Member, by invitation, of the Argument on the Infinite, etc. The next year Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm; but was devoted to duties at home, and the preparaI have never sought admission into any literary tion of an extraordinary work on the Brain.' society in any other place, because I am in an In 1736 he left Sweden for a fourth time, travangelic society, where such things as relate to eling by way of Hamburg and Amsterdam to Heaven and the soul are the only subjects of Paris, where he remained through the followdiscourse; while in literary societies the world ing year, proceeding to Rome in 1738. The and the body form the only subjects of discus- next year he returned to Paris and in 1740 pubsion. In the same letter he speaks of his lished at Amsterdam the Economy of the Anispecial mission as follows: "I have been called mal Kingdom, Part 1. The next year he pubto a holy office by the Lord Himself, who most lished at the same place the second part of this mercifully appeared before me, His servant, in remarkable work on the composition, essence the year 1743; when He opened my sight into and circulation of the blood; the arteries and the spiritual world, and enabled me to converse veins, the heart and brain; the circulation in with spirits and angels, in which state I have the fætus, etc. Swedenborg's ruling aim and continued up to the present day (1769). From end in all his work now was to discover, if posthat time I began to print and publish the sible, the soul. Says he: Bending my course various arcana that were seen by me or revealed inward continually, I shall open all the doors to me, concerning Heaven and Hell, the state that lead to her, and by Divine permission, conof man after death, the true worship of God, template the soul itself.” the spiritual sense of the Word, besides many (The Animal Kingdom,' a great work elabother most important matters conducive to sal- orating still further a rational and philosophical vation and wisdom. The only reason of my jour- view of human anatomy, was published in The neys abroad has been the desire of making Hague in 1744. It is notable that many of the myself useful, and of making known the arcana doctrines in these books, discoveries and conthat were entrusted to me. Moreover I have clusions original with Swedenborg, have since as much of this world's goods as I need, and been confirmed by modern investigation, but the I neither seek nor wish for more."
honor has been attributed to others. Among In the year 1709 Swedberg finished his such anticipations may be mentioned, the true studies at the University of Upsala. In Sep- office of the lungs; the animation of the brain, tember 1710 he went to London, where for two and of its coincidence, during formation, with years he studied astronomy, chemistry, physics, the systole and diastole of the heart, and after mathematics and other sciences. Then he jour- birth, with the pulmonary respiration; the vitalneyed through Holland to Paris and after a full ity of the blood, etc. year of studies and researches there proceeded In 1745 appeared at London his Worship to Germany in pursuit of knowledge at the and Love of God, the last of his publications universities, returning to Sweden in 1715. previous to the opening of his spiritual sight,
During the following five years Swedberg when he became a seer and revelator. He wrote 21 separate treatises and works on vari- records three manifestations of the Lord to ous scientific and practical subjects. Among him calling him to his new office. The first was these were descriptions of his own discoveries in 1743 in Amsterdam during a "preternatural and inventions in science and the mechanic arts, sleep.” The second was at Delft in Holland as the construction of air-pumps, ear-tubes and in 1744 when, as he says, the Lord manifested flying machines, improvement in mining and himself in person and spoke with him. It was smelting ores, the building of sluices and a countenance with a holy expression, and such canals, the nature of fire and color, the manu- that it cannot be described; it was smiling, and facture of salt, the regulation of the coinage, I really believe that his countenance was such and various astronomical, geological and mathe- during his life upon earth.; matical subjects, besides an important and orig- The third appearance of the Lord to him, inal little work on "Tremulation, being a the- Swedenborg relates, was in 1745 in London ory of sensation in the human body. Up to when the Lord manifested himself again in perthis time Swedberg had written in Swedish for son, commissioning Swedenborg and calling the most part, but afterward all his works were him to the office of revealing the Doctrine of published in the Latin language.
the New Jerusalem. From that day,” he says, In 1719, as above mentioned, the family was "I gave up the study of all worldly science and ennobled and took the name Swedenborg. In labored in spiritual things, according as the Lord
commanded me to write.” Then followed two naries in Europe. The last and crowning work years of preparation and illumination before of this series of philosophical and doctrinal ex it may be said that he was gifted with a full positions of the Internal Sense of the Word and state of inspiration and a perception of the in- of the nature of the Spiritual World is The most or celestial sense of the Word.
True Christian Religion or the Universal TheFrom 1748 to 1756 the Arcana Cælestia) in ology of the New Church (1771). In this eight vols., quarto, was published in London. book is presented a general view of the DocThis work, the first of Swedenborg's Theologtrines of the New Church fully explained toical and Doctrinal series, sets forth the internal gether with wonderful accounts of things seen sense of Genesis and Exodus as it was revealed and heard in the Spiritual World related by to him, he declares, immediately by the Lord Swedenborg as a witness thereof. alone. Then followed (1758) Heaven and Among the writings of Swedenborg pubHell, describing the spiritual world and the lished since his decease may be specially menlife of man after death, as well the happy
tioned The Spiritual Diary) (1748-65), comstate of the blessed as the miserable lot of the prising a chronicle in the form of notes about infernal. In the same year appeared “The persons and things in the Spiritual World, White Horse'; The Earths in the Universe'; memorable for one reason or another, which he (The Last Judgment'; The New Jerusalem either met or was in some way concerned with and its Heavenly Doctrine. During 1757–59
on account of his mission. Swedenborg was engaged upon an explanation
In another posthumous little work, The of the spiritual sense of the Apocalypse, which
Consummation of the Age, etc., Swedenborg work he left uncompleted after writing 1,992
explains that now is the end of the Christian pages. It was published in 1785–89. "The Last
Church, the Second Advent of the Lord and Judgment) describes that event itself which, as
the beginning of the New Church which is sighe testifies, Swedenborg witnessed in the spirit
nified by the New Jerusalemin John's ual world in 1757. The New Jerusalem and
Apocalypse. its Heavenly Doctrine teaches that the New
Bibliography.- Complete edition of works Jerusalem means the New Church now being
issued in England by the Swedenborgian Sociestablished both in the natural and spiritual
ety of London, also concordance by J. F. Polk worlds, the doctrine of which is called Heav
(6 vols., 1888 et seq.). There is also the edition
of Rotch (32 vols., Boston 1907). enly because it is received by angels and will be
Biographies: Wilkinson, J. J., Emanuel received on earth by men of angelic minds. In 1763 appeared (The Four Doctrines of the New
Swedenborg) (Boston 1849); Hitchcock, E. A.,
(Swedenborg; the Jerusalem: The Lord, The Sacred Scripture,
Hermetic Philosopher) Life and Faith,' which as revealed in the Word
(New York 1858); (Swedenborg: Harbinger of
the New Age! (Philadelphia 1910); Emerson, are fundamental teachings of the Church; and
R. W., Swedenborg, or the Mystic in Repre(The Divine Love and Wisdom) treating of the
sentative Men (Century Edition, _Boston Lord as the Sun of heaven, the Creator of the
1903); Trobridge, George, Life of Emanuel Universe; of the nature of the Divine and its
Swedenborg) (Boston 1913); Bernheim, Paulmethod and order in bringing ultimate finite and
ine, Balzac and Swedenborg' (Berlin 1914). human creatures into existence and being. In 1764 The Divine Providence was published,
Documents concerning Life and Character of
Emanuel Swedenborg,' collected and translated showing how the created universe is perpet- and annotated by R. L. Tafel (3 vols., London ually sustained and setting forth the laws of · 1875–77); Hyde, J. J. G., Bibliography of the God by which he governs man in even the least
Works of Emanuel Swedenborg? (New York things of his life to eternity. The Apocalypse
1906); Stroh, A. H., Abridged Chronological Revealed! (1766), discloses the internal and
List of Works of Emanuel Swedenborg) real meaning of the "Apocalypseor “Revela- (Upsala 1910). Edition de luxe issued by the tion, describing the New Jerusalem as to its Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. quality of life among all who receive the Heav
SWEDEN, or SVERIGE, svā'rē-gě, a enly Doctrine in this world and by obedience
northern European state, forming with Norway to its teachings are inaugurated by the Lord
(q.v.) a united kingdom, occupying the whole into his New Church. Delights of Wisdom
of the peninsula known in ancient times by the Concerning Conjugal Love) (1767–68) setting
name of Scandinavia. Sweden is situated beforth the laws of spiritual and eternal marriage
tween lat. 55° 20' and 69° N.; and long. 11° 40' which must exist between the souls of wedded
and 24° E.; and is bounded north and west by consorts. Disclosing the insanities and horrors
Norway; southwest by the Skager-Rack, Katte. of adultery together with a prescription of laws
gat and Sound; south by the Baltic; east by the for the preservation of the conjugal quality in Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia; and northeast the mind, in the heart and in the life of the man by the Tornea and its affluent the Muonio, sepawho is unmarried but who regards marriage rating it from Finland. In addition to the as a heavenly and blessed estate and condition. mainland it has a great number of islands, most The Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the of small dimensions, lying close to the coast. New Church' (1768-69) wherein is shown the The largest, and also the most distant, is Götautter variance of the theological dogmas pre- land, or Gothland, in the Baltic. vailing throughout what is known as the Chris- Sweden consists of the three historical divi. tian world, both in the Roman Catholic and sions of Swealand or Sweden proper in the Protestant churches, from the genuine doctrine middle, Götaland, or Gothland, in the south and of the Scriptures. In the preparation of this Norrland in the north. For administrative purwork Swedenborg had especially in view the poses it is divided into läns or governments. clergy of the Christian church and he distrib- The area is estimated at 173,035 square miles, uted the book to them and to theological semi- of which 3,700 are occupied by the larger lakes ;
the population in 1917 was estimated at 5,757,- parts finely diversified. This region has several 566, of whom 2,817,950 were males and 2,939,615 fertile and well-cultivated tracts, but a good females. The average density is 33.3 per square deal of it is covered by barren sand or stunted mile. For 1916 the total recorded births num- heath, though interspersed with forests, green bered 121,214; deaths, 77,683; and marriages, meadows and cornfields. What is called the 35,156. The same year 10,571 persons emi- Plain of Scania, occupying the whole of the grated, 7,268 going to the United States. The south peninsula between the Sound on the west recent increase in population chiefly affected and the Baltic on the south and east, is generthe larger cities. In 1917 Stockholm numbered ally a fine tract of land. 111,823 inhabitants; Göteborg, 191,535; Malmo, Hydrography.— The rivers and lakes are 35,783; Norrköping, 55,623; Kälsingborg, 35,- numerous; the latter in particular on a large 783; Gäfle, 36,623; Orebro, 34,453; Eskilstuna, scale, giving to the scenery of the country sev30,111, and Karlskrona, 28,556.
eral of its grandest features. The rivers all Between 1860 and 1916 the town population belong to the basins of the Baltic Sea and the had risen from 434,519 to 1,617,116, showing an German Ocean. The former receives the far increase of from 11 per cent of the total popu- larger share. To it belongs the Torneå, which, lation of Sweden in the first-named year to 28 rising in the Norwegian mountains, pursues its per cent in 1916; and between 1840 and 1910 course south-southeast for nearly 290 miles, the number of persons dependent on commerce augmented by numerous large affluents, and and industry had risen from 10.75 per cent to falls into the northern extremity of the Gulf of 45.39 per cent. At the present time the pro- Bothnia; the Luleå, Piteå, Skellefteå, and portions are about equal.
united Windel and Umeå, which flow precipiTopography.- The coast-line, above 1,400 tously southeast into the same gulf; the Angermiles in length, is serrated rather than deeply mann, which fows 230 miles, and in the lower indented; its bays and creeks, though very part of its course becomes so wide and deep numerous, having neither the width nor tor- that vessels of 600 tons can ascend nearly 70 tuous lengths by which the fiords of Norway miles from the sea; and the eastern and westare characterized. The west coast is very ern Dal, which, uniting their streams, receive the rocky, but seldom rises so high as 30 feet. discharge of numerous lakes, and pursue a more Along the south and southeast coast low shores circuitous course than usual in Swedish rivers. alternate with precipitous cliffs, which, however, The principal rivers belonging to the basin of are of no great elevation. As above stated the German Ocean are the Klar and the Göta, many islets are scattered near the shores, and the former of which, issuing from Lake Fämund, these where they form the archipelago of Stock- on the edge of the Doverfield Mountains, furholm are especially numerous. The whole of nishes Lake Wener with its chief supply of the upper part of the shore of the Gulf of Both- water; while the latter, which may be considnia consists of sandy alluvial deposits, which ered only as its continuation, discharges it into are brought down by the rivers in such quanti- the ocean. The lakes not only add to the ties that they seem destined at no distant period beauty of the scenery but yield large supplies to convert a large portion of the gulf into dry of fish, and both by their natural depth and the land. It would appear, however, that alluvium 'canals which have been cut to connect them are is not the only agent employed in carrying on of vast navigable importance and furnish a long this process of shallowing, since it has been line of internal communication. In this way proved that the whole coast of Sweden is con- a direct channel has been opened from Göteiinually rising, the rise being greatest in the north, borg on the west to Söderköping on the cast
The interior of Sweden is by no means gen- coast, and communicating with the important erally mountainous, and its surface has far less towns of Wenersborg, Carlstad, Mariestad, of a highland than of a lowland character. The Jönköping and Linköping. In the same manner most elevated portion of it commences in the the capital has been enabled to extend its conwest near the parallel of 62°, and is continued nections with the interior. In general, however, north along the frontiers of Norway, not so the rivers are too rocky for navigation. The much in a continuous chain as in isolated moun- largest lake is Lake Wener (area, 2,014 square tain-masses rising from an elevated table-land, miles); the next in size Lake Wetter (715 which, where loftiest, is at least 4,000 feet, and square miles). Lake Mälar, better known than forms the base of several summits which rise the other large lakes, from having the capital more than 6,000 feet above sea-level, and owing on its shores, is also remarkable for the number to their high altitude are covered with perpetual of islands which so crowd its surface that it is snow. The two loftiest mountains, Sarjekt- scarcely possible to find a square mile of open jakko and Kebnekaisse, both in Swedish Lap- water. Hjelmar, which has both a natural and land, attain a height of about 7,000 feet. Other an artificial communication with Lake Mälar, lofty peaks are Sulitjelma and Sylfjellen, be- has an area of 188 square miles. tween lat. 63o and 67° on the Norwegian fron- Geology and Minerals.- The mines of tier. These mountains and their table-land Sweden are rising in importance as rapidly as slope east toward the Gulf of Bothnia, sending new mining machinery is being introduced. In down numerous torrents, which in their course 1916 they already engaged 48,166 persons and often expand and form chains of lakes and yielded large quantities of iron and other ores, dreary swamps. The same slope is continued as well as lead, silver, copper and gold. In the south of 62° N., but besides it there is a south year mentioned the amounts in tons were: iron slope which attains its lowest level near lat. 59° ore, 6,986,298; coal, 414,825; zinc ore, 60,700; V, on the shores of the magnificent lakes which sulphur pyrites, 27,848; copper ore, 13,895; there stretch almost continuously across the manganese ore, 8,894; silver and lead ore, country east to west. To the south of 59° N. 3,707 ; pig iron, 732,734; bar iron, 526,353. Bethe country is generally flat, though in many sides, there were produced 230 tons of gold ore,
3,707 tons of silver and lead ore, and 8,894 tons Agriculture.--About 9.1 per cent of the of manganese ore. Almost the whole of the otal area under crop, 3.3 in natural meadow country is composed of gneiss, partially pene- and 54.7 per cent in forest, the latter furnishing trated by granite. Patches of porphyry and a staple industry. Only a small portion of the greenstone, of Silurian rocks, of oolite, and of arable land, and that mostly in the south, is cretaceous rocks, appear in various localities. favorable for the growth of wheat; but there Iron not only occurs in beds of immense thick- is now a considerable export of oats and some ness, enclosed in strata of gneiss, but forms of other cereals to Great Britain. Until rethe principal mass of whole mountains. The cently the grain grown in Sweden did not suffice most celebrated iron-mines are those of Dane- for domestic consumption. Potatoes are grown mora in län Upsala, where the iron worked is in almost all parts of the country, and form one perhaps the best in the world, and is admirably of the main articles of food among the lower adapted for steel. The quantity produced, classes. The most important auxiliary crops are however, is much smaller than in some other beet-root for sugar, hemp and flax, the latter of districts where the quality is also excellent. excellent quality; on a few favored spots to
Climate.-- The climate of Sweden varies bacco, hops and madder are grown. Cherries, considerably with the latitude and elevation.
apples and pears are tolerably abundant in the There is hardly any spring or autumn interven- southern districts. The principal domestic aniing between the heat of summer and the cold mals are cattle, sheep and reindeer. The last of winter, but in the north the winter lasts for
supply food and clothing. In 1917 there were nine months, in the south only for seven. 447,695 farms under cultivation, the products of Speaking generally, the climate of Sweden, which form a staple export. though modified by the proximity of the sea, Commerce, Manufactures, etc.- Of all the so as to be milder in all respects than the inte
countries trading with Sweden, Great Britain rior of the northern parts of the Russian and is the one with which the largest amount of Asiatic continents, is much more extreme than business is done, Germany coming next. The that of our own islands, even where the two
total value of the exports to all countries in countries are in the same latitude, and experi
1916 was nearly $206,991,000, of which 5.3 per ences greater degrees both of cold and heat. cent came from the United States, the exports Hence at Stockholm the thermometer has been
to Great Britain amounting to half that amount. known to descend 26° below zero in January, The total imports amounted to about $194,and to rise in July to the almost tropical heat
811,000 (United States, 27.4 per cent). The of 96.8°. The climate, however, is favorable
principal exports are timber, iron, butter and to health, and no country furnishes more nu
wood pulp; imports, iron and steel, wrought merous instances of longevity.
and unwrought, coal, machinery, woolen and Forestry and Flora.-- Most of the public
cotton goods. Next to agriculture the most forests, covering an area of over 19,000,000
important industry in Sweden is iron-mining. acres, belong to the government and yield con- Other industries now of some importance are siderable timber. In the very northern ex
iron-founding and engineering, the spinning and tremity of Sweden fine trees of pine, fir and weaving of cotton and woolen goods, paperbirch are found. These, however, occupy only making, brewing, sugar-refining, match-nraking occasional patches, and the true forest-land
and glass-making. In 1917 there were 9,368 must be considered as having its limit near 64o. Below this latitude, and chiefly in the central
miles of railways, of which 3,268 miles be
longed to the state. The public telegraph and and southern parts of the kingdom, the forests
telephone lines in 1917, 341,013 miles, belong occupy at least one-fourth of the whole surface,
wholly to the state. A tram ferry service operand sometimes stretch continuously for 80 miles
ates between Trelleborg and Sasnetch in in length by 20 miles in breadth. Many of
Prussia. these, however, consist of trees of stunted
The mercantile marine in 1917 engaged 2,801 growth, available chiefly for domestic fuel or
vessels of 1,128,435 tons burden. The tonnage the supply of the smelting furnaces, and seldom
entered and cleared in 1915 was 28,799,114 tons. of much use as timber. Forests in which oak and beech are the prevailing trees occur only in
Göteborg is the principal port and Stockholm the south. The flora is of the post-glacial period, and of Finnish characteristics rather than
Weights and Measures.- The denominaof more southern and continental latitudes.
tions of money are the öre and the krona, or Wild brier berries are plentiful.
crown (silver); 100 öre (each=.132d.)=1
krona= ls. 1}d. The greater part of the curFauna.-Among the larger wild animals the wolf and hear abound in the forests, and often
rency, however, is in paper, which is circulating commit great ravages. The elk and deer are
in sums varying from 5 to 1,000 kronor. The also found, but in more limited numbers. Of
metric system of weights and measures was smaller animals the most destructive is the lem
introduced in 1883. Among old measures are ming, which at intervals of years descends in
the skalpund=.937 lb. avoirdupois; the centner immense numbers into the low country and lays
(100 skalpund) =93.7 lbs. avoirdupois; the it waste. Among birds the most remarkable nyläst (100 centner) = 83.67 cwts.; the kanna are eagles, capercailzies and woodcocks.
= 4.6 pints imperial; the cubic fot (10 kanna) Fisheries. The rivers and lakes are well = 5.76 imperial gals.; the cubic aln = 46 gals.; stocked with salmon and trout, but the fisheries the foot (fot) =11.689 inches imperial; the on the sea-coast have long ceased to be produc- tunneland or acre=1 acre 35 poles; the mile tive. Herrings, which used to visit the coast of 6.64 United States miles, and the square mile the Baltic, have almost entirely disappeared, :44 United States square miles; 10 linier = though large numbers of a fish resembling 1 tum; 10 tum=1 foot; 10 feet = 1 stöng herrings are taken along the east coast. About (=9.74 United States feet); 10 stänger = 1 34,000 persons find employment in the fisheries. ref; 360 ref=1 mile.