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commanded me to write." Then followed two years of preparation and illumination before it may be said that he was gifted with a full state of inspiration and a perception of the inmost or celestial sense of the Word.
From 1748 to 1756 the Arcana Coelestia' in eight vols., quarto, was published in London. This work, the first of Swedenborg's Theological and Doctrinal series, sets forth the internal sense of Genesis and Exodus as it was revealed to him, he declares, immediately by the Lord alone. Then followed (1758) Heaven and Hell, describing the spiritual world and the life of man after death, as well the happy state of the blessed as the miserable lot of the infernal. In the same year appeared The White Horse'; 'The Earths in the Universe'; 'The Last Judgment'; 'The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine.' During 1757-59 Swedenborg was engaged upon an explanation of the spiritual sense of the Apocalypse, which work he left uncompleted after writing 1,992 pages. It was published in 1785-89. The Last Judgment describes that event itself which, as he testifies, Swedenborg witnessed in the spiritual world in 1757. The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine' teaches that the New Jerusalem means the New Church now being established both in the natural and spiritual worlds, the doctrine of which is called Heavenly because it is received by angels and will be received on earth by men of angelic minds. In 1763 appeared The Four Doctrines of the New Jerusalem: The Lord, The Sacred Scripture, Life and Faith,' which as revealed in the Word are fundamental teachings of the Church; and 'The Divine Love and Wisdom' treating of the Lord as the Sun of heaven, the Creator of the Universe; of the nature of the Divine and its method and order in bringing ultimate finite and human creatures into existence and being. In 1764 The Divine Providence was published, showing how the created universe is perpetually sustained and setting forth the laws of God by which he governs man in even the least things of his life to eternity. (The Apocalypse Revealed' (1766), discloses the internal and real meaning of the "Apocalypse" or "Revelation," describing the New Jerusalem as to its quality of life among all who receive the Heavenly Doctrine in this world and by obedience to its teachings are inaugurated by the Lord into his New Church. 'Delights of Wisdom Concerning Conjugal Love' (1767-68) setting forth the laws of spiritual and eternal marriage which must exist between the souls of wedded consorts. Disclosing the insanities and horrors of adultery together with a prescription of laws for the preservation of the conjugal quality in the mind, in the heart and in the life of the man who is unmarried but who regards marriage as a heavenly and blessed estate and condition. "The Brief Exposition of the Doctrine of the New Church' (1768-69) wherein is shown the utter variance of the theological dogmas prevailing throughout what is known as the Christian world, both in the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, from the genuine doctrine of the Scriptures. In the preparation of this work Swedenborg had especially in view the clergy of the Christian church and he distributed the book to them and to theological semi
naries in Europe. The last and crowning work of this series of philosophical and doctrinal expositions of the Internal Sense of the Word and of the nature of the Spiritual World is The True Christian Religion or the Universal Theology of the New Church' (1771). In this book is presented a general view of the Doctrines of the New Church fully explained together with wonderful accounts of things seen and heard in the Spiritual World related by Swedenborg as a witness thereof.
Among the writings of Swedenborg published since his decease may be specially mentioned The Spiritual Diary) (1748-65), comprising a chronicle in the form of notes about persons and things in the Spiritual World, memorable for one reason or another, which he either met or was in some way concerned with on account of his mission.
In another posthumous little work, The Consummation of the Age,' etc., Swedenborg explains that now is the end of the Christian Church, the Second Advent of the Lord and the beginning of the New Church which is signified by the "New Jerusalem" in John's Apocalypse.
Bibliography. Complete edition of works issued in England by the Swedenborgian Society of London, also concordance by J. F. Polk (6 vols., 1888 et seq.). There is also the edition of Rotch (32 vols., Boston 1907).
Biographies: Wilkinson, J. J., ‘Emanuel Swedenborg' (Boston 1849); Hitchcock, E. A., 'Swedenborg; the Hermetic Philosopher' (New York 1858); 'Swedenborg: Harbinger of the New Age (Philadelphia 1910); Emerson, R. W., Swedenborg, or the Mystic in Representative Men' (Century Edition, Boston 1903); Trobridge, George, 'Life of Emanuel Swedenborg' (Boston 1913); Bernheim, Pauline, 'Balzac and Swedenborg (Berlin 1914). Documents concerning Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg,' collected and translated and annotated by R. L. Tafel (3 vols., London 1875-77); Hyde, J. J. G., Bibliography of the Works of Emanuel Swedenborg) (New York 1906); Stroh, A. H., Abridged Chronological List of Works of Emanuel Swedenborg' (Upsala 1910). Edition de luxe issued by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences.
SWEDEN, or SVERIGE, sva're-gě, a northern European state, forming with Norway (q.v.) a united kingdom, occupying the whole of the peninsula known in ancient times by the name of Scandinavia. Sweden is situated between lat. 55° 20′ and 69° N.; and long. 11° 40′ and 24° E.; and is bounded north and west by Norway; southwest by the Skager-Rack, Kattegat and Sound; south by the Baltic; east by the Baltic and the Gulf of Bothnia; and northeast by the Tornea and its affluent the Muonio, separating it from Finland. In addition to the mainland it has a great number of islands, most of small dimensions, lying close to the coast. The largest, and also the most distant, is Götaland, or Gothland, in the Baltic.
Sweden consists of the three historical divisions of Swealand or Sweden proper in the middle, Götaland, or Gothland, in the south and Norrland in the north. For administrative purposes it is divided into läns or governments. The area is estimated at 173,035 square miles, of which 3,700 are occupied by the larger lakes;
the population in 1917 was estimated at 5,757,566, of whom 2,817,950 were males and 2,939,616 females. The average density is 33.3 per square mile. For 1916 the total recorded births numbered 121,214; deaths, 77,683; and marriages, 35,156. The same year 10,571 persons emigrated, 7,268 going to the United States. The recent increase in population chiefly affected the larger cities. In 1917 Stockholm numbered 111,823 inhabitants; Göteborg, 191,535; Malmo, 35,783; Norrköping, 55,623; Kälsingborg, 35,783; Gäfle, 36,623; Orebro, 34,453; Eskilstuna, 30,111, and Karlskrona, 28,556.
Between 1860 and 1916 the town population had risen from 434,519 to 1,617,116, showing an increase of from 11 per cent of the total population of Sweden in the first-named year to 28 per cent in 1916; and between 1840 and 1910 the number of persons dependent on commerce and industry had risen from 10.75 per cent to 45.39 per cent. At the present time the proportions are about equal.
Topography. The coast-line, above 1,400 miles in length, is serrated rather, than deeply indented; its bays and creeks, though very numerous, having neither the width nor tortuous lengths by which the fiords of Norway are characterized. The west coast is very rocky, but seldom rises so high as 30 feet. Along the south and southeast coast low shores alternate with precipitous cliffs, which, however, are of no great elevation. As above stated many islets are scattered near the shores, and these where they form the archipelago of Stockholm are especially numerous. The whole of the upper part of the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia consists of sandy alluvial deposits, which are brought down by the rivers in such quantities that they seem destined at no distant period to convert a large portion of the gulf into dry land. It would appear, however, that alluvium is not the only agent employed in carrying on this process of shallowing, since it has been proved that the whole coast of Sweden is continually rising, the rise being greatest in the north,
The interior of Sweden is by no means generally mountainous, and its surface has far less of a highland than of a lowland character. The most elevated portion of it commences in the west near the parallel of 62°, and is continued north along the frontiers of Norway, not so much in a continuous chain as in isolated mountain-masses rising from an elevated table-land, which, where loftiest, is at least 4,000 feet, and forms the base of several summits which rise more than 6,000 feet above sea-level, and owing to their high altitude are covered with perpetual snow. The two loftiest mountains, Sarjektjakko and Kebnekaisse, both in Swedish Lapland, attain a height of about 7,000 feet. Other lofty peaks are Sulitjelma and Sylfjellen, between lat. 63° and 67° on the Norwegian frontier. These mountains and their table-land slope east toward the Gulf of Bothnia, sending down numerous torrents, which in their course often expand and form chains of lakes and dreary swamps. The same slope is continued south of 62° N., but besides it there is a south slope which attains its lowest level near lat. 59° N., on the shores of the magnificent lakes which there stretch almost continuously across the country east to west. To the south of 59° N. the country is generally flat, though in many
parts finely diversified. This region has several fertile and well-cultivated tracts, but a good Ideal of it is covered by barren sand or stunted heath, though interspersed with forests, green meadows and cornfields. What is called the Plain of Scania, occupying the whole of the south peninsula between the Sound on the west and the Baltic on the south and east, is generally a fine tract of land.
Hydrography. The rivers and lakes are numerous; the latter in particular on a large scale, giving to the scenery of the country several of its grandest features. The rivers all belong to the basins of the Baltic Sea and the German Ocean. The former receives the far larger share. To it belongs the Torneå, which, rising in the Norwegian mountains, pursues its course south-southeast for nearly 290 miles, augmented by numerous large affluents, and falls into the northern extremity of the Gulf of Bothnia; the Luleå, Piteå, Skellefteå, and united Windel and Umeå, which flow precipitously southeast into the same gulf; the Angermann, which flows 230 miles, and in the lower part of its course becomes so wide and deep that vessels of 600 tons can ascend nearly 70 miles from the sea; and the eastern and western Dal, which, uniting their streams, receive the discharge of numerous lakes, and pursue a more circuitous course than usual in Swedish rivers. The principal rivers belonging to the basin of the German Ocean are the Klar and the Göta, the former of which, issuing from Lake Fämund, on the edge of the Doverfield Mountains, furnishes Lake Wener with its chief supply of water; while the latter, which may be considered only as its continuation, discharges it into the ocean. The lakes not only add to the beauty of the scenery but yield large supplies of fish, and both by their natural depth and the canals which have been cut to connect them are of vast navigable importance and furnish a long line of internal communication. In this way a direct channel has been opened from Göteborg on the west to Söderköping on the cast coast, and communicating_with the important towns of Wenersborg, Carlstad, Mariestad, Jönköping and Linköping. In the same manner the capital has been enabled to extend its connections with the interior. In general, however, the rivers are too rocky for navigation. The largest lake is Lake Wener (area, 2,014 square miles); the next in size Lake Wetter (715 square miles). Lake Mälar, better known than the other large lakes, from having the capital on its shores, is also remarkable for the number of islands which so crowd its surface that it is scarcely possible to find a square mile of open water. Hjelmar, which has both a natural and an artificial communication with Lake Mälar, has an area of 188 square miles.
Geology and Minerals.-The mines of Sweden are rising in importance as rapidly as new mining machinery is being introduced. In 1916 they already engaged 48,166 persons and yielded large quantities of iron and other ores, as well as lead, silver, copper and gold. In the year mentioned the amounts in tons were: iron ore, 6,986,298; coal, 414,825; zinc ore, 60,700; sulphur pyrites, 27,848; copper ore, 13,895; manganese ore, 8,894; silver and lead ore, 3,707; pig iron, 732,734; bar iron, 526,353. Besides, there were produced 230 tons of gold ore,
3,707 tons of silver and lead ore, and 8,894 tons of manganese ore. Almost the whole of the country is composed of gneiss, partially penetrated by granite. Patches of porphyry and greenstone, of Silurian rocks, of oolite, and of cretaceous rocks, appear in various localities. Iron not only occurs in beds of immense thickness, enclosed in strata of gneiss, but forms the principal mass of whole mountains. The most celebrated iron-mines are those of Danemora in län Upsala, where the iron worked is perhaps the best in the world, and is admirably adapted for steel. The quantity produced, however, is much smaller than in some other districts where the quality is also excellent.
Climate. The climate of Sweden varies considerably with the latitude and elevation. There is hardly any spring or autumn intervening between the heat of summer and the cold of winter, but in the north the winter lasts for nine months, in the south only for seven. Speaking generally, the climate of Sweden, though modified by the proximity of the sea, so as to be milder in all respects than the interior of the northern parts of the Russian and Asiatic continents, is much more extreme than that of our own islands, even where the two countries are in the same latitude, and experiences greater degrees both of cold and heat. Hence at Stockholm the thermometer has been known to descend 26° below zero in January, and to rise in July to the almost tropical heat of 96.8°. The climate, however, is favorable to health, and no country furnishes more numerous instances of longevity.
Forestry and Flora. Most of the public forests, covering an area of over 19,000,000 acres, belong to the government and yield considerable timber. In the very northern extremity of Sweden fine trees of pine, fir and birch are found. These, however, occupy only occasional patches, and the true forest-land must be considered as having its limit near 64°. Below this latitude, and chiefly in the central and southern parts of the kingdom, the forests Occupy at least one-fourth of the whole surface, and sometimes stretch continuously for 80 miles in length by 20 miles in breadth. Many of these, however, consist of trees of stunted growth, available chiefly for domestic fuel or the supply of the smelting furnaces, and seldom of much use as timber. Forests in which oak and beech are the prevailing trees occur only in the south. The flora is of the post-glacial period, and of Finnish characteristics rather than of more southern and continental latitudes. Wild brier berries are plentiful.
Fauna. Among the larger wild animals the wolf and bear abound in the forests, and often commit great ravages. The elk and deer are also found, but in more limited numbers. Of smaller animals the most destructive is the lemming, which at intervals of years descends in immense numbers into the low country and lays it waste. Among birds the most remarkable are eagles, capercailzies and woodcocks.
Fisheries. The rivers and lakes are well stocked with salmon and trout, but the fisheries on the sea-coast have long ceased to be productive. Herrings, which used to visit the coast of the Baltic, have almost entirely disappeared, though large numbers of a fish resembling herrings are taken along the east coast. About 34,000 persons find employment in the fisheries.
Agriculture. About 9.1 per cent of the otal area is under crop, 3.3 in natural meadow and 54.7 per cent in forest, the latter furnishing a staple industry. Only a small portion of the arable land, and that mostly in the south, is favorable for the growth of wheat; but there is now a considerable export of oats and some of other cereals to Great Britain. Until recently the grain grown in Sweden did not suffice for domestic consumption. Potatoes are grown in almost all parts of the country, and form one of the main articles of food among the lower classes. The most important auxiliary crops are beet-root for sugar, hemp and flax, the latter of excellent quality; on a few favored spots tobacco, hops and madder are grown. Cherries, apples and pears are tolerably abundant in the southern districts. The principal domestic animals are cattle, sheep and reindeer. The last supply food and clothing. In 1917 there were 447,695 farms under cultivation, the products of which form a staple export.
Commerce, Manufactures, etc.- Of all the countries trading with Sweden, Great Britain is the one with which the largest amount of business is done, Germany coming next. The total value of the exports to all countries in 1916 was nearly $206,991,000, of which 5.3 per cent came from the United States, the exports to Great Britain amounting to half that amount. The total imports amounted to about $194,811,000 (United States, 27.4 per cent). The principal exports are timber, iron, butter and wood pulp; imports, iron and steel, wrought and unwrought, coal, machinery, woolen and cotton goods. Next to agriculture the most important industry in Sweden is iron-mining. Other industries now of some importance are iron-founding and engineering, the spinning and weaving of cotton and woolen goods, papermaking, brewing, sugar-refining, match-making and glass-making. In 1917 there were 9,368 miles of railways, of which 3,268 miles belonged to the state. The public telegraph and telephone lines in 1917, 341,013 miles, belong wholly to the state. A tram ferry service operates between Trelleborg and Sasnetch in Prussia.
The mercantile marine in 1917 engaged 2,801 vessels of 1,128,435 tons burden. The tonnage entered and cleared in 1915 was 28,799,114 tons. Göteborg is the principal port and Stockholm
Weights and Measures. The denomina tions of money are the öre and the krona, or crown (silver); 100 öre (each .132d.)=1 krona 1s. 1d. The greater part of the cur rency, however, is in paper, which is circulating in sums varying from 5 to 1,000 kronor. The metric system of weights and measures introduced in 1883. Among old measures are the skalpund.937 lb. avoirdupois; the centner (100 skalpund)=93.7 lbs. avoirdupois; the nyläst (100 centner) = 83.67 cwts.; the kanna