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THE LIBRARY

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Government. The crown is hereditary in consisted of 2,657 officers, 537 non-commisthe male line. The king must be a member of sioned officers, 16,370 volunteers and a the Lutheran Church, and has to swear fidelity tingent of recruits. The total (including conto the laws of the land. His prerogatives con- scripts) was 83,000 men. The naval strength sist of the right to preside in the high court includes 15 armored coast defense vessels, of justice, to grant pardons, to conclude treaties four old torpedo gunboats, 10 torpedo-boat with foreign powers, to declare war and peace, destroyers, 45 torpedo boats and submarines. to nominate to all appointments civil and mili- Ethnology.-Almost all the inhabitants of tary and to veto absolutely any decree of the Sweden, with the exception of the Laplanders Diet or Parliament of the kingdom. He also and Finns, found only in the north, are of Teupossesses a power of administrative legislation. tonic origin, and preserve the original features The princes of the blood-royal are excluded of the race in great purity, particularly in the from all civil employments. The Diet consists central and southern provinces, where they are of two chambers, which are both elected. The characterized by a tall, robust stature, light first or upper chamber consists of 150 mem- hair, blue eyes and light complexion. They bers. The members are elected by 25 provincial are active and enterprising, and manifest a landstings (or provincial assemblies) and the marked predilection for scientific pursuits. The corporations of Stockholm, Göteborg, Norr- state of morality is on the whole favorable. köping, Malmö and Gefle. All the members Heinous crimes are few, but a great number of must be above 35 years of age, and a property minor delinquencies figure in the calendar and qualification is required to the taxed value of are evidently accounted for by the far too prev50,000 kronor, or $13,885 in real property, or alent use of ardent spirits; but a considerable an annual income of 3,000 kronor or $830. improvement in respect of the consumption of They are elected for six years. The second intoxicants seems to have taken place in recent chamber, elected on- universal male suffrage times. for three years, contains 230 members, 150 Religion and Education. Almost all the elected by the rural population, being one for inhabitants belong to the Evangelical Lutheran each 40,000 inhabitants; and 80 by the towns, Church, which is the religion of the state, at being one for every 10,000 inhabitants. Mem- the head of which is the archbishop of Upsala. bers of both houses are paid 1,200 kronor or Other religions are tolerated; but appointments $335 per session of four months, in addition to in the public service can be held by Lutherans traveling expenses. The election is by ballot only. Education is gratuitous and compulon a basis of proportional representation. The sory. Primary education is well diffused. In executive power is in the hands of the king, 1916 there were 704,000 pupils in the elementary under the advice of a council of state consist- schools. The proportion of illiterates among ing of 11 members, eight of whom are depart- recruits is 0.16 per cent. The University of mental heads. The eight departments are: Upsala (2,344 students in 1916) has done much The Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of For- to foster the cultivation of the higher departeign Affairs, the Ministry of War, the Min- ments of science and scholarship. There is also istry of Marine, the Ministry of the Interior, a university at Lund (1,341 students in 1916). the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Edu- Language and Literature.— See SWEDISH cation and Ecclesiastical Affairs and the Min- LANGUAGE; SWEDISH LITERATURE. istry of Agriculture. All the ministers are re- History.--- In the case of Sweden, as of sponsible for the acts of the government. The many other countries, the industry of chroniadministration of justice is controlled independ- clers has supplied details about ages with ently of the government by the Justitie Kansler, which they were unacquainted. These early appointed by the king, who acts for the Crown; chronicles, called Sagas, contain lists of kings and the Justitie Ombudsman, appointed by the at variance with each other, and stories of adDiet, who exercises a supervision over the law- venture of the kind to which the epithet heroic courts.

is usually applied, in which it is impossible to Finances. A large part of the revenue is separate the fabulous from the historical. The derived from national property, including rail- first dynasty of Swedish kings, according to ways; the remainder from customs, excise, in- the legendary chronicles, belonged to a family come tax, etc. The total estimated revenue for called Ynglings, from their founder, Freyer 1917 amounted to $107,000,000 and the expendi- Ingve, the reputed grandson of Odin, from ture was rather more. Part of the expendi- whom the family claimed to be descended. The ture -- civil, military and ecclesiastical is de- last of them was expelled by Ivar Widfadm, frayed from Crown lands and does not appear representative of the Danish family of the in the publie accounts. The public debt is Skioldings, also descended from Odin, who over $225,000,000. Sinking funds are provided united Sweden and Denmark under one rule. for the payment of the debt.

This event is referred to about 630 A.D. Near The Riksbank, or National Bank of Sweden, the end of the following century Ragnar Lodbelongs entirely to the state and is managed by brok, the reigning representative of this house, directors elected for three years by the Diet, fell in battle on the English Coast, and his except one, the president, who is designated by second son, Biorn Ironside, inherited Sweden, the king.

which was again separated from Denmark. Army and Navy.- The army has hitherto Christianity was introduced under his grandconsisted of enlisted troops, a milítia maintained son, Biorn II; but it was first established by by landowners and Crown domains, and con- Olaf, who reigned in the beginning of the 11th scription troops, drawn by annual levies; but it century (1001–26 a.d.). Until the beginning of is now undergoing reorganization, which will the 12th century the chronicles contain rival take some years to complete, the result being lists of kings. From the first appearance of an increase in numbers. Military service is Sweden in history two rival tribes or confedcompulsory. The active military force in 1916 eracies, both of German origin, the Goths and

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the Swedes, contended for ascendency, and the the three kingdoms were formally united, each confusion of the chronicles is probably due to retaining its own constitution. Under the reign the mingling of the lines of separate chiefs of her grandnephew Erik (1412-41) the Swedes or monarchs reigning simultaneously in differ- revolted under Engelbrecht (1433). The union ent districts. Emund Slemme, the last of the was renewed 1436, but both Danes and Swedes descendants of Biorn, was defeated and killed revolted against Erik, and Charles Knutson, by the Goths in 1056, when the two nations grand mareschal of Sweden, was chosen regent. were united under Stenkil, the Gothic monarch. His rule proving oppressive, the joint crown was On the death of his descendant, Inge II, in conferred in 1441 upon Christopher of Bavaria, 1129, the Swedes raised a private individual, nephew of Erik. On his death in 1448 Charles Sverker I, to the throne. To conciliate the VIII (Knutson) was chosen king of Sweden. Goths it was agreed that Erik, a descendant of Norway also acknowledged him, but soon threw Stenkil in the female line, should succeed off the yoke. The severance of the union also Sverker, and that the two families should reign produced a war with Denmark. Charles' reign alternately. This arrangement, which seems to was stormy and his subjects repeatedly revolted indicate that the power of the monarchs was against him. He died in 1470. Christian I, merely that of leading chiefs, was continued, king of Denmark, had been crowned king of though the cause of much dissension and civil Sweden in 1458 by the party opposed to Knut-: war, for several reigns. During the reign of son, but on the death of Knutson his party Sverker the kingdom was divided into four chose his nephew, Sten Sture, administrator of dioceses (1152). Erik IX, called Saint Erik, the kingdom. Christian attempted to take possucceeded about 1155. In his reign the Finns session of the kingdom, but was defeated and were conquered and converted to Christianity; forced to retire. In 1483 John I, son of ChrisCharles VII, son of Sverker, who succeeded tian, was recognized as king of Sweden in about 1162, was defeated and killed by Knut virtue of the Union of Calmar. The country Erikson, who succeeded in 1168. Sverker II, was divided between the Danish and the nathe son of Charles, was likewise defeated and tional parties, but Sture contrived to hold the killed by Erik X, son of Knut, who succeeded administration, and raised an army to drive the him in 1210. John I, son of Sverker II, and the Russians out of Finland. In 1497 John inlast of his line, was succeeded in 1253 by Erik vaded Sweden with a powerful army. Sture XI, the last of his, who died in 1260. Waldemar was completely defeated at Rotebro, 28 October. I, nephew of Erik, was raised to the throne by John conferred on him the government of election, and founded the dynasty of Folkungar. Dalecarlia; but the Swedes again revolted and Waldemar made a voyage to the Holy Land, proclaimed him administrator in 1501. He died leaving his brother Magnus regent, in 1272; on in 1503 and was succeeded in the administration his return a civil war took place, but Waldemar by Svante Sture, who concluded peace with abdicated in favor of Magnus in 1279 and failed Russia and formed an alliance with the Hansein subsequent attempts to recover the throne. atic towns in order to prosecute the war with Magnus assumed the title of king of the Swedes Denmark. The clergy and a large portion of and the Goths. His son, Birger II, in whose the Senate favored the Danish alliance, but the reign the conquest of Finland was completed, peasantry were strongly opposed to it. Svante was expelled by the people in 1319, who chose Sture died in 1512 and was succeeded by his his nephew, Magnus Snek, an infant, as his suc- son, Sten Sture the Younger. In the following

He had already succeeded, in right of year Christian II succeeded to the crown of his mother, to the crown of Norway, which he Denmark. After the death of Sture, Gustavus gave to his son Haco in 1344. Scania, con- Vasa raised the peasants of Dalecarlia, desisting of the two southern provinces, Mal- feated the Danes, and, having embraced the möhus and Kristianstadt, which then belonged Lutheran religion, was crowned king by a to Denmark, yielded to him in 1332, but he Protestant archbishop of Upsala in 1528. The restored them on affiancing his son Haco to Lutheran religion was formally established in Margaret of Denmark. Magnus was deposed Sweden in 1529. Christian II having been by the states and obliged to carry on a civil driven from Denmark, his title was acknowlwar for the crown with his son Erik, whose edged by his successor, Frederick I, and in 1544 death again left him in possession of the king- was declared hereditary in his house. He died dom; but aiming at absolute power, he was in 1560. His son, Erik XIV, reigned only eight again deposed in 1365 in favor of his nephew, years. Erik was one of the candidates for the Albert of Mecklenburg, who had already been hand of Queen Elizabeth of England and also in possession, since 1363, of the supreme au- of Queen Mary of Scotland. thority. Albert formed a league with Schles- To balance the power of the great nobles wig, Holstein, Mecklenburg and the Hanse Erik created a secondary nobility and introtowns against Denmark and Norway. He suc- duced the titles of count and baron into Sweceeded in driving the king of Denmark out den. A war with Russia, undertaken for the of his dominions, but was defeated by the protection of the Teutonic order, resulted in king of Norway, who besieged him in his own the acquisition of Esthonia by Sweden; but capital. Peace was concluded; but Albert, aim- war having subsequently broken out with Dening, like his predecessor, at absolute power, made mark was, in the confusion caused by the king's himself unpopular with his own subjects, who insanity, ill-conducted, and resulted in repeated invited Margaret of Denmark and Norway, the disasters to the Swedes. John III, the brother Semiramis of the North, who had united the of Erik, succeeded him on his deposition. By crowns of these kingdoms, to replace him. Al- the peace of Stettin with Denmark, 13 Dec. bert, though supported by Holstein, Mecklen- 1570, Sweden renounced her claims to Norway, burg and the Hanse towns, was finally over- and surrendered a large part of Götland, income and returned to Mecklenburg. Margaret cluding the west coast to Denmark. This succeeded in 1389, and by the union of Calmar treaty was made with a view to a war with

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