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accessories. In the museum of the Amsterdam formed the plant world into two groups : Natura Artis Magistra, there are a number Cormophyta and Thallophyta, but the division of excellent groups of birds. In the museums was very imperfect and overlapping. Later we of the American cities mentioned above the find two groupings by Linnæus under the titles: huge family groups representing the bison, Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia, the former moose, elk, caribou, musk-ox, deer, antelope, having flowers with stamens and pistils, the eland, zebra and other animals, all provided latter flowerless, seedless and propagated by with carefully-studied natural accessories, con- spores. But the designation Cryptogamia, still stitute enduring monuments to the skill of retained by a few, their generative method being American taxidermists.

no longer cryptic (occult) or hidden from our Of all museum officers who have actively present advanced knowledge. Thallophyta, promoted the development of American taxi- still remaining in general use, no longer dedermy, Prof. Spencer F. Baird and Dr. G. scribes the class formerly considered by the exBrown Goode stand first. As early as 1880 pression. Thus with ever-increasing knowlthey advocated the attainment of perfection in edge of the life-workings of the plant realm results, regardless of time or cost. It was by bringing new facts we have had to change retheir consent and co-operation that the National peatedly the system in taxonomy to bring the Museum set the pace in the development of additional facts into close relation. And so the large groups of mammals, which really began system of Ray gave way to the Endlicher, the in 1887 with the group of American bison. In latter to the greatly improved system of Linthis connection honorable mention is due Prof. næus (1735) with its 24 classes divided accordHenry A. Ward, founder of Ward's Natural ing to the number and disposition of the Science Establishment, for the far-reaching in- stamens, with variant orders according to the Auence exerted by him for the improvement of number of styles or stigmas, etc. This method taxidermic methods generally and the co- of systematization, proving its deficiencies ever operation which he extended to the Society of more with a deeper investigation of plant American Taxidermists.

nature, had to give way (1813) to the Candolle With the improvements noted in museum system, soon to be displaced by the Sachs taxidermy, equal advances have been made in method of classification with its seven divisions, the class of what is known as custom taxidermy. Protophyta, Zygophyta, Oophyta, Carpophyta, The number of trophy heads of large mammals Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia. The that are now mounted annually in the United Sachs system is much in use to this day, States cannot be less than about 1,800. About but the most recent classification of botantwo-thirds are heads of deer and the remainder ists, based on the great advances brought consist of moose, mountain-sheep, caribou, elk, about by microscopic and other researches antelope, mountain-goat, buffalo, musk-ox and

into the plant structure, which keep disclosing bear, about in the order named. Twenty-five weaknesses of the former system, are the years ago a finely-mounted head was a rarity, following four main classifying divisions : but to-day, outside of the workshops of ama- (1) Thallophyta; (2) Bryophyta; (3) teurs, a badly-mounted head is seldom seen. Pteridophyta; (4) Spermaphyta. The first The standards of excellence have risen very three belong to the Cryptograms, the latter to greatly. The demands of patrons are more in- the Phanerogams. It is an improvement gentelligent and good work is better compensated erally considered better suited to the enlarged than heretofore.

range of the botanist's vision; but already As the world's mammals, birds and other criticism is creeping in and taxonomy in plants vertebrates decrease, museums multiply, and the may be subjected soon authoritatively to a furdesire to provide fine collections becomes more ther revision. carnest and insistent. Taxidermy now offers a (1) Thallophyta. This division includes all good field for a limited number of young men of the four primary classes, the uni-cellular of real artistic instincts who can bring to it organic growth, having root, stem and leaf unadequate education and training and unlimited defined. Under this head come the algæ, capacity for hard work.

fungi, bacteria and lichens. (See BOTANY). Some important American works on taxi- (2) Bryophyta. These include the mosses and dermy, should be enumerated: Hornaday, liverworts (hepatica), with distinct sexual Taxidermy and Zoological Collecting' (1892) ; organs in some, but in this division (as above Davie, Methods in the Art of Taxidermy stated) is the liverwort and other plants of the (1894); Rowley, Art of Taxidermy? (1900); thallus type. (See BRYOPHYLLUM). (3) PteridoReed, C. K., Guide to Taxidermy' (Worcester


These are often termed vascular 1908).

cryptogams and include, chiefly, the ferns with W. T. HORNADAY, their propagation by spores. Their stem, leaf Director New York Zoological Park. and root are clearly defined. (See PTERIDOTAXING DISTRICT. See DISTRICT.

PHYTA). (4) Spermophyta or Phanerogams.

These are lately being divided into angiosperms TAXONOMY IN PLANTS, derived and gymnosperms and the angiosperms are subfrom the Greek words rašis taxis, meaning divided into dicotyledons and monocotyledons, arrangement, and vouos, nomos, law. Called The Spermophyta are the highest division of sometimes taxology. It is the study of classi- plants including those having true flowers and fication, especially from a biological aspect, and seeds. They are for the most part land plants, treating of the morphology of plant life. Ray while many of the former divisions are aquatic. (1703) divided the vegetable kingdom into two Their female cell (oospore) is fertilized in general classes: the Flowering and the Flower- propagation and, protected by the ovule, beless, basing everything on one single character- comes a seed, the seed formation being the istic. Endlicher, a little over a century later, characteristic of this group (termed also seed

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plants). Gymnosperms of this division have is a seed called lumbang from which an oil unisexual Powers, naked ovules with direct is made; the cocoanut is grown in large quantipollen fertilization, etc. (See GYMNOSPERM). ties. The forests contain a variety of woods Angiosperms have a closed seed vessel (carpel) for building purposes, besides gum and resin and other distinguishing characteristics. See trees; and large quantities of timber and forest PLANTS, CLASSIFICATION OF.

products are exported. The mechanical indusTAY, tā, (1) a river in Scotland, in the tries of this province are of considerable imcounty of Perth, formed by two head-streams, portance; the manufactures include hats, cigar the one issuing from the northeast end of Loch cases and boxes and native fabrics; there are Tay and the other from Loch Lyon, a small also mills for extracting cocoanut oil and a lake on the borders of Argyllshire. . The two

number of boat-building yards for the constreams unite about two miles northeast of struction of native boats. Stock-raising is Loch Tay, whence the river flows past Aber- also of some importance. The province has feldy, Dunkeld and Perth, at which last town good communication by water with all parts of it widens out into an estuary from one to three the Philippines, and is traversed by the main miles in breadth, becoming the northern bound- highway from Sorsogon to Manila; there are ary of the county of Fife. The whole length is also several other roads and trails. The inhab120 miles and the area of basin 2,250 square itants of the western part of the province are miles. Vessels of 500 tons ascend to New- Tagalogs, those of the eastern part are Bicols. burgh and those drawing nine feet to Perth. Civil government was established in March Its principal tributaries are the Tummel and 1901, in accordance with the law of the PhilipIsla on the left and the Bran, Almond and pine Commission. Pop. about 150,000. Earn on the right. During the upper part of

TAYGETUS, tä-ij'ě-tús, Greece, a moun. its course the Tay fows with a rapid current through a wild and highly romantic country

tain range running down the central peninsula

of southern Morea. It is a steep and unbroken and subsequently, after entering Strathmore,

ridge rising in Hagios Elias to a height of through the richest and finest valley in Scotland. In the summer of 1878 a railway bridge

7,904 feet. It separated ancient Sparta from spanning the estuary of the Tay at Dundee was

Messenia and was known in the Middle Ages opened for traffic, but on 28 Dec. 1879 13 spans,

as Pentedaktylon. crossing the navigable part of the river, were TAYLOR, tā'lór, (James) Bayard, Ameriblown down in a violent storm, a passenger can writer: b. Kennett Square, Pa., 11 Jan. train, which then happened to be crossing, be- 1825; d. Berlin, Germany, 19 Dec. 1878. He ing precipitated at the same time into the river. had a secondary education at West Chester and A second bridge, over two miles long, with 85 Unionville, and in 1842 was apprenticed to a spans and carrying two lines of rail, was printer in the former town, but did not serve opened in 1887. (2) A loch in the county of out his apprenticeship. In 1844 he set sail for Perth, a picturesque sheet of water 15 miles Liverpool, and during the next two years he long and about one mile broad; receiving at its traveled, chiefly on foot, in Great Britain, Belsouthwest end (near Killin) the Lochay and gium, Germany, Austria, Italy and France. He the Dochart and discharging at its northeast described his journeys for several American end at Kenmore by the Tay. It is 100 to 600 newspapers, his letters being collected and pubfeet deep and is well supplied with fish. On lished on his return under the title Views its northwest shore rises Ben Lawers.

Afoot or Europe Seen with Knapsack and TAYABAS, tä-yä'băs, Philippines, (1)

Staff' (1846). In 1847 he received an appointPueblo province of Tayabas; on Tayabas River, ment on the staff of the New York Tribune, five miles inland, 65 miles southeast of Manila. and two years later went to California as Under Spanish jurisdiction it was the capital special correspondent of that newspaper at the of the province, and is the largest town. It is gold-fields, his letters being republished in an important road centre and carries on a 1850 as Eldorado, or Adventures in the Path large trade. Pop. 15,000. (2) Province, form- of Empire. In 1851 he was again in Europe, ing the western part of southern Luzon; and before returning to the United States in bounded on the north by the Pacific Ocean, 1854 he visited Egypt, Asia Minor, India, Hongand Lamón Bay and Ambos Camarines, on the kong, China and Japan. Among the literary east by Ambos Camarines and the Visayan results of this tour were A Journey to Central Sea, on the south by the Mindoro Sea, and Africa' (1854); The Land of the Saracen? on the west by Batangas and Laguna; area, (1854), and A Visit to India, China and about 5,000 square miles. The outline is very Japan? (1855). On these traveling experiences irregular; its extreme length from Point Piapi he lectured with much success. He had by this in the northwest to Point Pagsanján in the time gained some reputation as a poet by southeast is 102 miles; and the distance from (Ximena and Other Poems) (1844); Rhymes the northeastern boundary to Sandoval Point of Travel, Ballads, and Other Poems) (1848); on the southwest is 47 miles. Its coasts are (A Book of Romances, Lyrics and Songs' indented by three of the largest bays of the (1851), and Poems of the Orient (1855); Philippines, Lamón on the north, Ragay on the and in 1855 he published a collective edition of east and Tayabas on the south. The province these under the title_Poems of Home and is generally mountainous, the main central Travel. Northern Travel (1857) contains chain extends from northwest to southeast, an account of a visit to Sweden, Denmark and and this range sends out spurs on each side. Lapland. In 1862–63 he was secretary of legaThere, are numerous small rivers and streams. tion and for a time chargé-d'affaires at Saint The soil of the valleys is fertile; on the lower Petersburg, and in 1870 he lectured at Cornell levels rice, sugar and coffee are raised and University on German literature. He became grain on the higher levels; a special product United States Ambassador at Berlin in May

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1878. In addition to works already mentioned the following may be enumerated : At Home and Abroad) (1859-62); (Byways and Europe (1869); a translation of Goethe's Faustin the original metres (1870); the novels; Hannah Thurston? (1863); John Godfrey's Fortunes (1864); "The Story of Kennett (1886);

Joseph and His Friend) (1870); "The Poet's Journal (1863), and other volumes of verse. Two collections of miscellaneous writings appeared posthumously, Studies in German Literature (1879), and Essays and Notes? (1880). It is by his translation of Faust,' one of the finest attempts of the kind in any literature, that Taylor is generally known; yet as an original poet he stands well up in the second rank of Americans. His Poems of the Orient and his Pennsylvania ballads comprise his best work. His verse is finished and sonorous, but at times over-shetorical. Consult the Life and Letters) by his wife and H. E. Scudder (1884).

TAYLOR, Bert Leston, American author: b. Goshen, Mass., 13 Nov. 1866; d. Chicago, 19 March 1921. His column headed A Line o'Type or Two' in the Chicago Daily Tribune, attracted much popularity. He

wrote (The Well in the Wood? (1904); "The Charlatans? (1906); (A Line-o'-Verse or Two! (1911); The Pipesmoke Carry

Carry) (1912); Motley Measures (1913); also two booklets, The Bilioustine) and (The Book Booster (1901).

TAYLOR, Brook, English mathematician: b. Edmonton, 18 Aug. 1685, d. 29 Dec. 1731. He was educated at Saint John's College, Cambridge; in 1712 chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in January 1714 appointed its secretary. The most important of Taylor's works, published in 1715, is entitled Methodus Incrementorum Directa et Inversa.) It contains, among other theorems of less consequence, a celebrated one, which is hence called “Taylor's Theorem,' the importance of which was first recognized by Lagrange, who proposed to make it the foundation of the differential calculus. His other works include two treatises on linear perspective, besides contributions to the Philosophical Transactions.

TAYLOR, Charles Fayette, American surgeon: b. Williston, Vt., 25 April 1827; d. Los Angeles, Cal., 25 Jan. 1899. He was educated in the public schools and was graduated (1856) at the University of Vermont. He next settled in New York studying the new (Swedish movement system which he learned from Dr. Roth in London. His specialization became treatment of the deformed and crippled in which he achieved a great reputation and founded the New York Orthopedic Dispensary, He invented the Taylor Splint for spinal diseases, also the long extension hip splint: Among his works are The Theory and Practice of the Movement Cure,' Mechanical Treatment of Hip Joint Disease,' etc.

TAYLOR, Charles Henry, American journalist : b. Boston, 14 July 1846; d. there 22 June 1921. He started as a printer and reporter and was private secretary to the governor of Massachusetts for three years. He served during the Civil War with the 38th Massachusetts Regiment and was lieutenant-colonel on the staff of Governor Claflin. He was member of

the legislature in 1872, and in 1873 became manager and editor of the Boston Daily Globe. He built up the property and made it one of the most influential journals of New England.

TAYLOR, Charles Jay, American artist: b. New York, 11 Aug. 1855. Attended College City of New York, afterward graduated at Law School, Columbia University (1874), LL.B. subsequently studied art, National Academy Design, Art Students League and in London and Paris. Has illustrated many books, contributed drawings to prominent periodicals and exhibited at the National Academy of Design, Pennsylvania Academy Fine Arts, World's Fair, Chicago; Exposition Universelle, Paris; Pan-American, Buffalo, where awarded medal; Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, and at Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco. He served on advisory committee on Fine Arts for the Panama-Pacific, representing Pennsylvania; also one of the International Jury of Awards, Section of Fine Arts, for the same exposition. From 1911, professor of fine arts, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh.

TAYLOR, David Watson, American naval constructor: b. Louisa County, Va., 4 March, 1864. He was graduated at the United States Naval Academy in 1885. with the highest record ever made there. At Greenwich, England, in 1885, he received the highest honors of the Royal College, repeating the record in 1888. He was made captain, United States navy, in 1901 and, by 1917, was promoted to rear-admiral. In 1914 he became chief constructor of the United States navy and chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair.

TAYLOR, Edward Thompson, American Methodist missionary: b., Richmond, Va., December 1793; d. Boston, Mass., 6 April 1871. At the age of seven he ran away to sea, and followed the sea until the age of 17. During the War of 1812 he was captured on a privateer of war, the Black Hawk, and was taken to England, being confined in Dartmoor prison. Being converted, he acted as chaplain in the prison and after his release, for a time was a tin and iron peddler, then a buyer of rags and a farmer. În 1819 he became a Methodist minister, and in 1828 was appointed missionary to the Seamen's Bethel in Boston, where he served for many years, attaining a wide reputation. Here he was called "Father Taylor) and was greatly loved by the sailors. In his sermons, which he delivered in the common language of his day, he made free use of nautical terms, and possessed a genial wit. In 1832 he visited Europe, and delivered many addresses. In 1842 he visited Palestine, and was chosen chaplain of the United States frigate Macedonia, when it sailed with relief in 1846, for famine stricken Ireland. Consult Father Taylor the Sailor Preacher? (1872).

TAYLOR, Sir Frederick Williams, Canadian financier: b. Moncton, New Brunswick, 1863. He entered the Bank of Montreal in 1878, becoming successively, assistant inspector at head office (1897), joint manager at Chicago (1903), manager of London branch (1906), and general

at Montreal (1913). He carried through huge banking loans to Canada during his London services.


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He is a director of the Allen Line Steamship of the Chicago Commons Social Settlement and Company, Ltd., vice-president of the Canadian has been resident warden since 1894. He is Bankers' Association, etc. For valuable serv- president of the Chicago School of Civics and ices he was knighted in 1913.

Philanthropy and associate editor of The Sur

vey. TAYLOR, Frederick Winslow, American

He has written Religion in Social Acefficiency engineer: b. Germantown, Phila., 20

tion (1913), besides numerous editorial conMarch 1856; d. 21 March 1915. Educated

tributions to the Chicago Daily News, etc. at Phillips Exeter Academy, but left on TAYLOR, Hannis, American diplomat: b. account of eyesight trouble, and was grad- New Bern, N. C., 12 Sept. 1851; d. 26 Dec. uated (1883) at Stevens Institute of Technology, 1922. Educated, University of North Carolina In 1878 he entered service at the Midvale Steel and was Minister to Spain, 1893–97. From 1892 Company, Philadelphia, becoming, successively he was professor of constitutional and interna. gang-boss, assistant foreman, foreman of tional law at Columbia; special counsel for the machine shop, master mechanic, chief draughts- United States government before the Spanish man and (1889) chief engineer. In the latter Treaty Claims Commission in 1902, and counsel year he commenced his notable career of effi- for the United States before the Alaskan Bounciency expert reorganizing manufacturing dary Commission in 1903. He published The plants (shop accounting and sales departments) Origin and Growth of the English Constitution; of which the Bethlehem Steel Company, (International Public Law) (1902); JurisdicCramps' Shipbuilding Company, etc., were ex- tion and Procedure of the Supreme Court of amples. He was the inventor of the Taylor- the United States: The Science of JurispruWhite process of treating modern high-speed dence (1908); (The Origin and Growth of the tools, receiving a personal gold medal at Paris American Constitution) (1916); Cicero – A Exposition, 1900. Patents granted to him num- Sketch of His Life and Works) (1916); Due ber over 100. He was president of the Ameri- Process of Law) (1916). can Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1905–06.

TAYLOR, SIR Henry, English poet and esHe wrote Concrete, Plain and Reinforced'

sayist: b. Bishop-Middleham, Durham, 18 Oct. (1905), in collaboration with S. E. Thompson;

1800; d. Bournemouth, 27 March 1886. At 14 Art of Cutting Metals? (1905); Principles of

he entered the navy as midshipman, but reScientific Management' (1911); Shop Man

turned after a few months. In 1817–20 he held agement (1911), and contributed numerous

a small appointment in London. Returning to articles on his special topic to Proceedings of

his father's country home, he gave himself to American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

serious study, and in 1822 wrote an article on TAYLOR, George, American statesman, Moore that was published in the Quarterly one of the signers of the Declaration of Inde- Review He went to London, and in 1824 pendence: b. Ireland, 1716; d. Easton, Pa., 23 received a clerkship in the Colonial Office, with Feb. 1781. Disliking the medical profession, for which he retained his connection for 48 years. which he was destined, he came to America as He mingled with the intellectual life of the city, a Credemptioner, and on arriving bound him- contributed to the Quarterly Review and self for a term of years to an iron manufac- wrote his first tragedy, Isaac Comnenus, in turer at Durham, Pa. His education and intelli- 1827. He was favorably reviewed by Southey, gence being discovered, his employer made him but failed to attract popular notice. From 1828 his clerk, and after his death Taylor married to 1834 he was engaged upon another poetic his widow and became master of the establish- drama, Philip van Artevelde,' his principal ment. He was a member of the provincial as- achievement in literature. It was formed upon sembly in 1764–70, when he was a judge of the Elizabethan models, and its style is marked by County Court and colonel of militia. In Octo- dignity and refinement. His other works inber 1775 he was again elected to the provincial clude (The Statesman) (1836), containing assembly and was active in the promotion of prose commentaries on official life and the conrevolutionary measures. The action of some of duct of business; Edwin the Fair(1842), a the members of the Continental Congress the historical drama; (The Eve of the Conquest next year in refusing assent to the Declaration and other Poems (1847); Notes from Life! of Independence, led to the election of new (1847); “The Virgin Widow,' a comedy aftermembers, 20 July 1776, of whom Taylor was ward called A Sicilian Summer? (1850), and one. He signed the Declaration on 2 August; (Saint Clement's Eve (1862), romantic subsequently negotiated a treaty with several drama. His autobiography was published in of the Indian tribes on behalf of the United 1885. Consult his Works (1878), and Core States, and in March 1777 retired from Con- respondence,' edited by Dowden (1888). gress to private life.

TAYLOR, Henry Ling, American surTAYLOR, Graham, American sociologist: geon: b. New York, 17 March 1857. He was b. Schenectady, N. Y., 2 May 1851. He was graduated (1877) at Sheffield Scientific School graduated (1870) at Rutgers College and at the and obtained his diploma at the College of PhyReformed Theological Seminary, New Bruns- sicians and Surgeons (Columbia) in 1881. Like wick, N. J., in 1873. He was ordained for the his father, Charles Fayette Taylor (q.v.), he Dutch Reformed ministry in 1873, becoming specializes on orthopedic branches and was pastor at Hopewell, N. Y. From 1880–92 he

professor of orthopedic surgery (1902–17). at filled the pulpit of the Fourth Congregational Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital, Church, Hartford, Conn. He acted as profes- New York. He is consulting orthopedic sursor of practical theology at Hartford Theologi- geon at Mountainside Hospital, Montclair, N. cal Seminary from 1888-92, and, since 1892, has J.

, and associate surgeon at the Hospital for served as professor of social economics at the Ruptured and Crippled. He was president Chicago Theological Seminary. He was founder American Orthopedic Association in 1908. He


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has written Orthopedic Surgery for Practi- cal Illustrations of History, Ethnology and tioners' (1900).

Geography. In 1865-69 he held a curacy in a TAYLOR, Henry Osborn, American au

Bethnal Green parish, and his arduous labors thor: b. New York, 5 Dec. 1856. He was grad

there are described in The Burden of the uated from Harvard in 1878, received the de

Poor.) He became vicar of Holy Trinity, gree of LL.B. at Columbia in 1881 and that of Twickenham, in 1869, and in 1875 was preLitt.D. at Harvard in 1912. He has published

sented to the rectory of Settrington, near Mal“Treatise on the Law of Private Corporations

ton, in Yorkshire, which he retained until his (5th ed., 1902); Ancient Ideals: A Study of

death. In 1879 he first propounded the theory Intellectual and Spiritual Growth from Early

of the Greek origin of runes in a work entitled Times to the Establishment of Christianity)

Greeks and Goths: A Study on the Runes); (2 vols., 2d ed., 1913); (The Classical Heritage and he published in German a treatise Ueber of the Middle Ages (3d ed., 1912); "The

den ursprung des glagolitischen Alphabets, but Mediæval Mind? (2 vols., 2d ed., 1914); De

his magnum opus, "The Alphabet: an Account liverance – The Freeing of the Spirit in the

of the Origin and Development of Letters, did Ancient World) (1915). Mr. Taylor is a mem

not appear until 1883. In 1885 he was appointed ber of the National Institute of Arts and Let

canon of York. His other works include "The ters.

Family Pen: Memorials, Biographical and Lit

(1867); TAYLOR, Isaac (known as TAYLOR OF

erary, of the Taylors of Ongar? ONGAR), English Congregational clergyman and

'Etruscan Researches! (1874); Leaves from

an Egyptian Note-Book) (1888); (The Origin author: b. London, 1759; d. Ongar, Essex, 11

of the Aryans (1889); and Names and their Dec. 1829. He was originally an engraver, but

Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geogentered the ministry and was pastor at Colches

raphy and Topographical Nomenclature) ter, 1796–1810 and at Ongar, Essex, 1811–29.

(1896). He published many works, chiefly books for the young, among which are Advice to the Teens'; TAYLOR, Isaac Ebenezer, American phyBeginnings of British Biography'; Beginnings

sician: b. Philadelphia, 25 April 1812; d. New of European Biography'; Biography of a

York, 30 Oct. 1889. He was graduated from Brown Loaf); "Book of Martyrs for the

Rutgers College in 1830, and in medicine from Young'; Bunyan Explained to a Child”; the University of Pennsylvania in 1834. He 'Child's Life of Christ'; Mirabilia; or, The subsequently studied in Europe, settled in New Wonders of Nature and Art'; "Scenes in York, and had charge of the department of America, in Asia, in Europe, in Foreign Lands.' women's diseases at the City, Eastern, NorthTAYLOR, Isaac, English writer, son of

ern and Demitt dispensaries for seven years the preceding: b. Levenham, Suffolk, 17 Aug.

each. In 1851 he was elected physician to Belle1787; d. Stanford Rivers, 28 June 1865. His

vue Hospital, where he initiated important relife was almost entirely passed in retirement

forms, secured the foundation of the hospital at the place where he died, and is only remark

college, and became its head, 1861. He was able for the literary work which he produced.

subsequently president of the medical board of His first book entitled (Elements of

the hospital; attending physician and head of Thought (1823). It was succeeded by numer

the medical board of the Charity Hospital, and ous others, most of which are of a partly philo

obstetrical physician to the Maternity Hospital. sophical, partly religious cast. The principal

He was the first American to introduce uterine are The Natural History of Enthusiasm

auscultation, helped introduce the hypodermic (1829); The Natural History of Fanaticism

method of treatment by morphia and strychnia, (1833) ; Spiritual Despotism (1835); Physi

and was the earliest in this country to use the cal Theory of Another Life (1836); Ancient

speculum in diseases of women and children. Christianity' (1839–43); Loyola and Jesuit

He published a monograph on this subject in

1841. ism' (1849); Wesley and Methodism? (1851);

Restoration of Belief? (1855); World of TAYLOR, James Knox, American archiMind? (1857); Ultimate Civilization (1860), tect: b. Knoxville, Ill., 11 Oct. 1857. He took and Spirit of Hebrew Poetry) (1861). The a special course (1877-79) in architecture at first of these works is that by which his name the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then is chiefly known, although originally published served in New York architects' office three and anonymously. The work on ancient Christian- a half years. From 1882-92 he practised at ity was composed with the view of correcting Saint Paul and at Philadelphia from 1892–1905. the errors which the author believed many were In 1895 he was appointed senior draughtsman likely to fall into in consequence of the appeals the United States architect's office and of the writers of the Oxford tracts to the au- then, till 1897, principal draughtsman. From thority and practice of the early Church. 1897–1912 he was supervising architect and since TAYLOR, Isaac, English scholar, son of

1912 has been director of architecture at the the aư•hor of "The Natural History of Enthu

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. siasm': b. Stanford Rivers, Essex, 2 May 1829; TAYLOR, James Munroe, American edud. Settrington, Yorkshire, 18 Oct. 1901. He was cator: b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 5 Aug. 1848; d. 19 graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, Dec. 1916. Graduated at the University of and in the following year issued a translation Rochester in 1868, he was pastor of a Baptist of Bekker's Charicles. He was ordained in church in South Norwalk, Conn., 1873–82, and at 1857, and in 1860 published 'The Liturgy and Providence, R. I., 1882–86. From 1886 to Februthe Dissenters.' In the latter year he became ary 1914 he was professor of ethics and presia curate in London, and in 1864 published the dent of Vassar College. He published Psyfirst of the works by which he is chiefly re- chology (1893); New World and Old Gospel membered, Words and Places, or Etymologi- (1900); Practical or Ideal (1901); Before



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