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lieutenant in the Seventh United States infantry. With the refusal of Mexico to negotiate, Polk In 1812 he was made a captain and in the determined to conquer the northern provinces War of 1812 gained distinction in defeating and in August, Taylor resumed his advance an Indian attack on Fort Harrison, for which and after a three days' battle captured the success he was breveted a major. In May city of Monterey (21-23 September). By this 1814 he received a regular commission as time Polk began to distrust Taylor on account major but left the service at the close of the of his supposed Whig affiliations. It was emwar on being reduced to the rank of captain. barrassing for a Democratic administration to He re-entered the army in 1816 and in 1819 have a Whig general reaping all the glory, and was promoted to a lieutenant-colonelcy. For with a view toward checking his operations the next few years he was stationed at differ- Polk detached most of Taylor's experienced ent frontier posts but in 1832 during the Black troops for the intended advance upon Vera Hawk War, as colonel, received the surrender Cruz under Gen. Winfield Scott. Santa Anna, of the Indian chieftain. In 1832 he was ordered the Mexican commander-in-chief, learning of to Florida in the Seminole campaign and at Taylor's weakened condition rapidly concenthe battle of Okeechobee (25 Dec. 1837) won trated 20,000 men and marched northward to a decisive victory over the Indians, for which crush him. To retire to the Rio Grande meant he was breveted a brigadier-general. Taylor a loss of all the prestige so far gained and, spent the next four years in Florida and was therefore, Taylor decided to fight. He took a then given command of the First Department position at the hacienda Buena Vista, five miles of the army with headquarters at Fort Jessup,

south of Saltillo. Here after three unsuccessLa. On 28 May 1845 Taylor, in command of ful attempts by Santa Anna, Taylor gained the the army of the Southwest, was ordered to most decisive victory of the whole war and hold himself in readiness to defend Texas from remained in undisputed possession of the a possible invasion should the latter State ac- region. Taylor's brilliant victory, handicapped cept the terms of annexation. On 30 July 1845 as he had been by the authorities in Washinghe was ordered to "occupy, protect and de- ton, suggested him as a possible Presidential fend Texas, and to approach the Rio Grande candidate to the Whig politicians. Thurlow which was claimed to be the boundary be- Weed learned from the "general's brother that tween the two countries (Texas and Mexico). Taylor had always been an admirer of Clay At the same time he was cautioned to keep and preferred home-made goods to foreign imaway from the Mexican settlements and posts. portations.” Taylor meetings became the In August, Taylor selected a position at Corpus fashion throughout the country; he was nomiChristi on the Nueces. Then followed a series nated at public assemblies in Ohio, Kentucky, of ambiguous orders from the War Depart. Virginia, Pennsylvania and elsewhere, and alment commanding him to check any Mexican though he had never even voted and had no army endeavoring to cross the Rio Grande views on political topics, supported by Weed, or any attempt to do so. Taylor reported there Crittenden and Stephens, he gained the nomiwas no concentration of Mexicans on the Rio nation at the Whig Convention (May 1848) Grande nor any signs of war; but, beginning over the claims of Webster and Clay. In the to understand what the administration de- succeeding campaign Taylor carried cight slave sired of him, asked for definite orders to ad- States while his opponent secured seven. The vance. This the War Department refused to one all-absorbing question after the inauguragive and for a few months a delay ensued tion of Taylor was the question of what should while the administration renewed its negotia- be done with slavery in the Territories. Both tions with the Mexican government. At last, parties in the campaign had side-stepped the in obedience to instructions from Washington, issue, the Whigs having adopted no platform on 11 March 1846 Taylor began his advance and the Democrats having trusted to the wellfrom Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande. On known views of their candidate, Lewis Cass. the 28th he arrived opposite the Mexican town President Taylor, although master of a plantaof Matamoras and began the construction of tion in Louisiana, admitted anti-slavery leaders Fort Texas, afterward called Fort Brown, upon in the Whig party to his counsel and William the present site of Brownsville. Taylor blocked H. Seward became his confidential adviser. the mouth of the Rio Grande with a view of The Wilmot proviso, the question of the orcutting off all supplies from Matamoras and ganization of the Territory of Oregon and the thus forcing the Mexican troops stationed there admission of California already had demanded either to withdraw or to assume the offensive. immediate attention. Accordingly the first On 12 April General Ampudia summoned him message of the President was awaited with to retire beyond the Nueces, and with Taylor's interest. Taylor already had made up his mind refusal to do so the first conflict occurred on to recommend the admission of California as a 24 April when a party of dragoons were am- free State and his fatherly message breathed bushed by the Mexicans. President Polk at with devotion to the Union. But Clay and once sent a message to Congress recommend- Webster determined to take matters into their ing a declaration of war, asserting that "Mexico own hands and in January Clay offered his has passed the boundary of the United States, plan of compromising the sectional issue. Tayhas invaded our territory and shed American lor characterized the Territorial portion of blood upon the American soil."

Clay's measures as the "Omnibus Bill and The war on Mexico began with the advance was preparing to oppose them when he died of Taylor's forces. On 8 and 9 May, Taylor on 9 July 1850. defeated the Mexicans at the battle of Palo Bibliography - Stoddard, W. O., (Zachary Alto and Resaca de la Palma and forced them Taylor'; Howard, O.O., Zachary Taylor) to cross the Rio Grande. Following in quick (ir Great Commanders Series, 1892). pursuit, Taylor occupied Matamoras (18 May)



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TAYLOR, Pa., town in Lackawanna offers two courses: bookkeeping and stenogCounty, on the Central Railroad of New Jer- raphy. The spirit of the college is markedly sey and the Delaware and Lackawanna Rail- religious, a number of graduates every year road. It is situated three miles southwest of become missionaries; and the students' reliScranton, its chief industries being coal-min- gious organizations are strong. The library ing and silk-mills. Pop. in 1900 was 4,215 and contains 7,000 volumes. The students average in 1920, 9,876.

annually 340 and the faculty 19. TAYLOR, Tex., town in Williamson TAYLORVILLE, Ill., city, county-seat of County, on the Missouri, Kanasas and Texas Christian County, on the South Fork of the and the International and Great Northern rail- Sangamon River, and on the Wabash and the roads, about 30 miles northeast of Austin, the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern railroads, capital of the State. It is in an agricultural about 24 miles southeast of Springfield and 27 and stockraising section. The chief manu- miles southwest of Decatur. It is in an agrifacturing establishments cottonseed-oil cultural and coal-mining region, and has conmills, cotton-compresses, railroad shops, flour siderable manufacturing interests. There is an and planing mills. There are about 75 manu- iron foundry, paper mill and manufactories of factories, with an annual output of over $500,- wagons, agricultural implements, chemicals, 000. There are good banking facilities and brick and tile. The chief shipments are coal, newspapers. There are large shipments of hay, livestock and manufactures. There are grain, vegetables, cotton products, fruit and eight churches, a high school, graded schools livestock. Pop. 5,965.

and a public library. There are three banks, TAYLOR INSTITUTION, Oxford Eng- one national with a capital of $80,000, and two land, connected with the university, is de- private banks. Pop. (1920) 5,806. signed mainly for the promotion of the study TAYRA, ti-ra, a brown, elongated, weaselof modern European languages. It owes its like fur-bearer (Galictis barbera) of Mexico foundation to a bequest of Sir Robert Taylor. and South America, which sometimes gathers in The building belonging to it was erected in large hands. It has a long bushy tail. 1848. The institution comprises four teacher- TAYTAY, ti-ti', Philippines, (1) pueblo, ships of modern European languages and a

province of Paragua, island of Palawan, on library, and there are in connection with it a

the northeast coast on Taytay Bay. It is the scholarship and an exhibition. It is under the

chief town of the province and is protected by management of nine curators, all of whom

a fort mounting several guns and capable of must be members of convocation. The library

accommodating a garrison of 700. Agricul. is open free to all members of the university,

ture and fishing are the chief industries. Pop. and other literary persons may be admitted

(estimated) 7,420. (2) Pueblo, province of by special permission. The curators of the in

Rizal, Luzon, 10 miles east of Manila. Pop. stitution have also the administration of a fund

6,800. bequeathed by William Thomas Horner for the encouragement of the study of the Polish and

TAYUG, tä-yoog', Philippines, pueblo, other Slavonic languages.

province of Pangasinan, Luzon, in the extreme TAYLOR UNIVERSITY, located at Up

northeast of the province, near the Agno River, land, Ind. The forerunner of the uni

34 miles east of Lingayen. It is on the high

way from San Quintin to Aseñgan. Pop versity was the Fort Wayne Female College,

19,612. organized in 1846 at Fort Wayne, Ind. In 1852 this college united with the Collegiate In- TCHAD, chäd, or CHAD, Africa, a large stitution at the same place, and became a co

lake in the Sudan, situated at the common educational school. The name was changed to

junction of Kamerun, British Nigeria and Taylor University in 1890. In 1893 a new

French Sahara, lat. 13° N., long. 14° E. It lies charter was obtained, and the university moved

about 750 feet above sea-level. Its area during to its present site, the citizens of Upland the rainy season is about 30,000 square miles, donating 10 acres of ground and $10,000. It

but in the dry season it shrinks to less than is under the control of the National Associa- 7,000 square miles, and is then surrounded by tion of Local Preachers of the Methodist vast marshes, while the remaining water is very Episcopal Church. It was named for Bishop shallow. The water is drinkable, although the Taylor, the first Methodist missionary bishop

lake has no apparent outlet; it appears to be to Africa, who had a part in its organization.

gradually drying up and liable eventually to be The departments of the university are the col

à desert. Rarely is more than 20 feet of lege of liberal arts, the academy, commissioned

water to be encountered, and the marshy areas by the State as a high school, the Reade

increase in size. theological seminary, the school of music, the TCHAIKOVSKY, chi-köf'skē, Peter, school of expression, the normal department Ilich, the greatest of Russian composers: b. and the commercial departiment. The college Votinsk, government of Viatka, 7 May (not offers two courses, classical and scientific, lead- 25 Dec.) 1840; d. Saint Petersburgh, 6 Nov. ing respectively to the degrees of A.B. and 1893, of cholera. His father, a mining engineer, B.S. A part of the work of each course is had no intention of making a musician of him, elective. The theological school offers two but had him educated at the Technological Incourses; the English Bible and the seminary stitute in Saint Petersburg, after leaving which course, leading to the degree of B.D. A very he obtained a post in the Ministry of Justice. strong school of music accredited by the State But Peter was a gifted amateur, whose playing Teachers' Training Board has separate in social circles was much appreciated. In building. The course in expression requires 1861 he wrote to his sister: "I told you I was

The commercial department studying the theory of music with considerable


four years.

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success. It is generally agreed that with my phonic works. A more heart-rending wail of uncommon talents (I hope you will not take grief than its adagio lamentoso has never been this for mere boasting) it would be a pity not heard; and as this slow movement, contrary to to try my luck in this career. Shortly there- all precedent, closes the symphony, it seemed after he entered the Conservatory, where he like an intentional farewell to the world." soon attracted the attention of Anton Rubin- “This music," says Huneker, "is a page torn stein, who relates that once gave the young from Ecclesiastes; it is the cosmos in crape." man a theme and asked him to write a set of Schubert once said that the world liked best variations on it. He expected about a dozen, those of his songs which were born of sorrow. but Tchaikovsky brought him over 200! From It was the doleful sixth symphony that made Rubinstein he also took lessons in orchestra- Tchaikovsky famous. Seldom has a work so tion; the instruments on which he practised great and deep won so instantaneous a success were the piano and the organ; also the flute, - a success so remarkable as to unduly overof which he afterward made such admirable shadow his other five symphonies except, to use in his Nutcracker Suite' and other works. some extent, the fifth, which resembles the His talent was ere long generally appreciated;

sixth in mood and music. Like Beethoven, in 1865 Laroche, afterward an eminent critic, Tchaikovsky is greatest in his orchestral works, referred to him as “the future star of Russian which include, beside the six symphonies, seven music"; this led to his being sent to Moscow in symphonic poems: The Tempest"; Francesca 1866 to teach the theory of music at the newly da Rimini'; Manfred?; Romeo and Juliet'; opened Conservatory. Although he disliked Hamlet'; Fatum'; Le Voyevode. In these, giving lessons, he proved a conscientious and which contain some of his best and most useful teacher. Thenceforth he devoted most mature music, he manifests his sympathy with of his spare time to composing; but although

Liszt and modern program music. Among he had an almost feminine craving for ap

his other orchestral works the three that have proval and encouragement, his experiences

become most famous are the 1812 overture, were little more than a series of disappoint- the Marche Slave) and the Nutcracker Suite, ments. His worldly prospects nevertheless

which contains the best musical numbers of one steadily improved and in 1877_he married, to

of his three ballets. His 1l operas are much the surprise of his friends. The hasty mar

less modern in spirit and structure than his riage had a tragic sequel. The union was not symphonic works and the only one of them a happy one, and the pair soon separated. The that has attracted much attention outside of composer was so despondent that he attempted Russia is the fourth, Eugene Onegin.' It has to commit suicide in such a way as to avoid

been said of his operas that "just as the grascandal by standing up to his chest in the icy cious beauty of Italian melody seemed doomed river one night, in the hope of catching a to pass away under a new dispensation, it was deadly cold. In the following year another

reincarnated in the works of this northern woman influenced his life, in a happier way. composer. There is much beautiful melody He did not know her, and she preferred to also in some of his 100 lyric songs; the bestkeep her identity concealed, but she put aside

known of them are the Spanish Serenade, for his benefit a sum of money which made it

None but a Lonely Heart, Why so Pale are possible for him to give up his Conservatory

the Roses. Not a few of the songs are potclasses and save his energy for his creative

boilers and the same is true of many of his work. Many master-works now came from his

pianoforte pieces, the best of which, however, pen. He had never cared for society and de- deserve to be better known. Pianists neglect tested city life, so his friends were not sur

them because of their awkward technique. prised when, in 1885, he took a house near the

Three pianoforte concertos, a violin concerto, village of Klin, where he was isolated as com- a string sextet and other pieces of chamber pletely from the world as was Wagner when he

music must be added to the list of his comwrote his Meistersinger' score in his villa near

positions. His work as a whole is characterized Lucerne. He became known as the Hermit of

by a remarkable variety; now it is classical, Klin," and refused to see any one but friends

even old-fashioned, now ultra-modern; now and such musicians as he chose now and then

Russian, now cosmopolitan. German critics to invite for a party. By constitution he was

have described his symphonies as rough, strong, wiry and not easily fatigued; he was

patchy, barbarous, nihilistic; but music lovers fond of outdoor exercise and many of his

the world over are showing a keener insight musical ideas came to him on his walks. He and are learning to love this Russian music as aged much as he neared his 50's; his scant

they learned to love the Polish music of Chopin, hair grew white and his face lined. In May

the Hungarian of Liszt, the Norwegian of 1891 he visited America and gave concerts in

Greig. The authoritative life of Tchaikovsky New York and other cities. Two years later

has been written by his brother Modest. A he conducted some of his works at Oxford

shorter volu-ne (in English) by Rosa Newand received the degree of doctor of music

march, includes extracts from his critical from the university. In the autumn of 1893

writings and diaries. Consult also Kashkin, the world was startled by the news of his

(Reminiscences); Huneker, Mezzotints in death. He succumbed to an attack of cholera,

Modern Music); Riemann, Geschichte der after a short illness. There were rumors of

Musik seit Beethoven. A Catalogue Themhis having committed suicide, but his friend

atique of the compositions is issued by Jurand biographer Kashkin discountenances them.

genson, Moscow. The suicide rumors were strengthened by

Henry T. FINCK, the character of his last symphony, which is

Musical Editor New York (Evening Post.' now known throughout the world as the TCHEKHOV, Anton P. See CHEKHOFF; (Pathetic, the most lugubrious of all sym- CHERRY ORCHARD, The; and SEA GULL, THE.

VOL. 26 -20

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TCHIKUN, an American Indian tribe of therefore, the higher grade tea, and their the Apache (q.v.) family, formerly residing at flushes come earlier, thus extending the picking Hot Springs, N. Mex.

On new plantations pruning begins TE DEUM LAUDAMUS, tē dē’úm là-dā'- when the trees are 12 to 18 months old, at which mūs, or more abbreviated, TE DEUM, is the time the centre stem is cut down to within nine beginning of the hymn of praise usually as- inches or even six inches above the ground cribed to Saint Ambrose and Saint Augustine,

the object being to produce a growth of many although it cannot be traced farther back than branches and twigs, and thus a larger bulk of the end of the 5th century, while Saint Augus

leafage which may be plucked without injury to tine died in 430. The opening words, meaning,

the plant. The second pruning takes off every"We praise thee as God, show that it was

thing to a level of 18 inches above the ground. originally a hymn to Christ, but it is now al

As much of the tea is picked by children, the ways regarded as a hymn to the Father, the height of the plants in such localities is reEnglish version beginning, "We praise thee, O stricted to 30 inches. A very small plucking is God.” In addition to its place in church sery- made the second year, and the third year the ices it is often sung on particular occasions, as yield is about 150 pounds per acre,

The full on the news of victories and on high festival yield of about 400 pounds per acre begins with days. Among the great composers of music the fifth year. The plant continues to yield for this hymn are Hasse, Naumann, Haydn and well until its 10th year, when it is cut down Handel.

and new sprouts developed from the trunk. TEA, an evergreen shrub or small tree

This process is repeated until the plantation is (Camellia thea) of the order (Ternstramiacea).

30 years old, when it is removed and new plants

set out. The plant naturally attains a height of 30 feet, but under cultivation is pruned so that it rarely

Plucking.- Plucking is an operation necesexceeds five feet. It bears lanceolate leaves

sarily done by hand, and requires judgment as about four inches long and rather large fragrant

to the amount of leafage that may be removed at white flowers singly or in twos or threes, one picking without halting the normal growth mostly in the axils of the leaves. It is a native of the plant. The plucking follows the Aush," of India and China, and has been cultivated in

that is, the springing into leafage of the terthe latter country more than 2,000 years. Of

minal buds after the winter rest. The second several recognized species, only two have be

flush in the season is the leafing out of the top commercially valuable: C. thea, var.

axillary buds on the stumps of the terminal Bohea, and C. thea, var. viridis. The latter. is bud-stems removed at the first picking. The indigenous to India, the former recognized as a

succeeding flushes are not well marked, but hybrid of Chinese species, probably with the

there are generally 10 and sometimes 15 in the original India variety.

course of the growing season. In a well-orCultivation.- The ground on which a plan

dered plantation the trees are plucked over tation of tea is to be set is dug

about 30 times during the season, with the inover in trenches to the depth of at least

tent of getting the leaves while in their very 18 inches, and 24 inches is preferred if the

best condition. The bud produces the finest expense — about double — is not deterrent. As quality of finished tea; the partly opened leaf the plantation is of a permanent character, in

next below it, being slightly less valuable, and tended for a productive period of probably 30

the next leaves below distinctly coarser. The years, every effort is made to have the soil in usual practice is to pluck the bud with the two the best of condition, and well manured. The adjacent open leaves. Plantations which proplants are taken from a nursery where they

duce only the highest grade of tea pluck the have been grown from seed for from six to 12 bud and one leaf. Many growers, however, months, and set four feet apart both ways for

pluck the bud and the first three leaves. The "hill» culture. Where the ground is especially

first few crops are thus very large, but the favorable they are set five feet apart. On poor

endurance of the plantation is seriously afsoil the "hedge system is practised, the plants

fected, and the net profits very decidedly rebeing three feet apart in the hedge, and the duced. The quality, however, does not depend hedges five feet apart. The plant has a tap-root wholly upon the plucking: much depends upon descending eight to 10 feet into the earth. From

the soil and the climate. The average yield is this the feeding roots ramify in all directions.

about two and one-half ounces of finished tea The cultivation consists in keeping the ground

per plant per season. loose and free from weeds by surface hoeing, Processing.-- The handling of the tea and once a year trenching the soil — from 18 leaves after plucking is determined by the kind inches in depth between the rows to nine inches of finished tea to be produced. In the case next the "collar” of the plants. This is done in of black tea the leaves are wilted or withered the late autumn, just after pruning, and the on trays in a draught of dry cool air often proprunings along with green manure, preferably duced by fans. This is continued until the leaf from leguminous plants, are spaded under. is soft and flaccid. The average time required These prunings are estimated to restore to the for withering is 18 hours: less than that does soil 95 pounds of combined nitrogen, 56 pounds not allow sufficient development of the peculiar of potash and 19.6 pounds of phosphoric acid enzyme required for the subsequent fermenta

The pruning is done while the plant tion upon which the flavor of the finished tea is passive, usually in December. On the hill so largely depends. Withering is followed by plantations pruning is done annually: on level rolling on tables of granite, the motion of the gardens, every other year or every third year rollers being to crush the cells of the leaf withthe practice being to prune alternately one- out breaking its structure. In this process ofi half or one-third of the plantation. The un- rolling the leaves incidentally receive the chan. pruned trees furnish the smaller leaves and, acteristic twist noticeable in finished tea. T ne


per acre.

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time occupied in rolling is from 20 to 40 minutes. The leaves are then run through a sifter which grades them into sizes, and then are spread upon glass or glazed-tile tables to ferment. During this process they are covered with cloths freshly wrung out of cold water. The time required for proper fermentation depends upon the previous development of the ferment during withering, and may take from two to six hours. The temperature is kept scrupulously to 85° F., or slightly below, and the time of completion is determined by the odor, which at first resembles chopped cabbage, but becomes fruity, resembling that of fine ripe apples. Lightly fermented tea yields when finished a pale, pungent infusion, the pungence due to an excess of unfermented tannin. Fully fermented tea yields a deep-colored, softflavored liquor of good body. The best tea is that which receives a medium fermentation and has in consequence a brisk taste, with high flavor and aroma. The final step in the process is drying the leaves rapidly to check further fermentation. The trays go first to a position near the furnace where the temperature is 260° and thence travel away from the source of heat, finishing where the heat is at 100°. In many factories a second firing is given after a few days, and this is considered to enhance the ultimate quality of the tea as it comes into the market after overseas transportation.

Before packing the finished tea is sorted over by hand, and vagrant bits of stalks and red leaves are removed. It is then sifted into grades. In the ordinary factory these are five: Broken Orange Pekoe, Orange Pekoe, Pekoe, Pekoe Souchong and Pekoe Fannings. The first is composed almost wholly of terminal buds and broken portions of the youngest and tenderest first leaves; the second is of the smallest leaves and a few buds; the third and fourth grades are of the coarser leaves, and the Souchong is usually chopped up to show a sma er range of size in the market. The Fannings are the finer fragments and dust, used chiefly in the manufacture of caffeine, or of "brick tea.”

Green Tea.- In the manufacture of green tea the freshly plucked leaves are thrown directly into a roasting pan at a temperature of 250° and

kept tossing about until flaccid, when they are emptied upon a mat of bamboo and rolled by hand. They are then dried quickly over a charcoal fire. The older leaves are deficient in proper color and are treated with small quantities of Prussian blue, indigo or soapstone. The former teas are called "natural green," or "unfinished green, in contrast with the doctored leaves, which go under the title of “true green” or “finished green.”

Oolong tea is prepared by a combination of the two methods, being slightly withered and lightly fermented and then treated as for green

Brick Tea is a condensed preparation of the coarser leaves and even the prunings of the plantation. These are panned and steamed, and then placed in piles under cloth covers. A peculiar ferment resembling, a black fungus spreads through the mass, which is then sorted, mixed with a glutinous rice paste, lightly steamed and then pressed into molds four feet long, nine and one-fourth inches wide and

four and one-fourth inches deep. Three "bricks” are made in this depth, containing when dry four and one-half pounds each. Another form of brick tea is made into tablet form, four and one-half inches square and one and one-fourth inches thick and weighing half a pound each.

Tea Culture in the United States.-- In the United States the first tea shrub was planted at Middleton Barony, S. C., in 1800 by the French botanist Micheaux. It was still living at the close of the 19th century, when it was about 15 feet high. In 1848 experiments were made upon an extensive scale by Junius Smith of Greenville, S. C., and in 1858 the government engaged Robert Fortune to collect tea seed for distribution in the South. These experiments were cut short, the former by the death of the experimenter, the latter by the Civil War. About 1880, the United States Department of Agriculture commenced experiments which were abandoned owing to various changes in the staff and the distance from the managing headquarters. About 10 years later Dr. Charles U. Shepard of Summerville, S. C., devoted his private means to tea experimentation. His opinion was that the previous experiments had not been conclusive and that the production of high grade teas at a profit to the grower could be accomplished in many Southern States and that a demonstration would attract capital to the industry. Once demonstrated as profitable he believed that the industry would furnish employment to many thousands of people, especially women and children, and would make valuable large areas of land which yielded little or nothing. In 1900 he had about 60 acres planted to this crop, a factory fully equipped, a trained band of pickers and facilities for meeting every requisite from planting to final sale. În 1900 the yield was about 5,000 pounds and when the present area reaches full bearing the annual output should be more than 12,000 pounds.

The tea plant, though a native of a subtropical climate, will succeed at high elevations in tropical countries and some of the numerous varieties will even withstand frost. In South Carolina the plants have resisted a temperature of zero, but the yield was lessened for the next two years. This is the lowest recorded temperature in that locality during 150 years. Ample water, especially during the leaf-forming season, is essential. This is supplied in the East by copious rains, but in the United States, where the rainfall is less than one-half the Eastern annual average, the deficiency is made up by improved methods of tillage or by artificial irrigation or both. In the East the tea gardens are generally planted on high ground or slopes so as to permit the excess water to seep away; in America they are planted on rather low ground such as well-drained pondbeds and swamps. Such lands are also naturally rich as a rule and, therefore, demand less initial application of fertilizers.

History.-- The history of the tea-growing industry is said to have commenced in Korea before the 4th century before Christ, and to have reached Japan more than 1,000 years later. Tea was unknown to Europeans until the 16th century when Maffel, a Portuguese, mentions it in his Historiæ Indicæ) as a product of Japan and China. Not until 1615, however, was




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