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istence. There is no mention of him by any TELL EL KEBIR, Egypt, village in the contemporaneous historian; his name is first northeastern portion of the country, on the met with in the chronicles of the second half Sweetwater Canal, 18 miles southeast of Zagof the 15th century, and none of the Tell bal- azig. It was the scene 13 Sept. 1882 of a batlads are of an earlier date. Similar stories in tle between the English forces commanded by regard to the shooting of the apple occur in Sir Garnet (later Lord) Wolseley and the Saxo Grammaticus, the Danish historian, and Egyptians under Arabi Pasha, which resulted in Icelandic literature, not to mention the old in the utter defeat of the Egyptians. English ballad of Adam Bel, Clym of the

TELLER, těl'er, Henry Moore, American Cloughe and Wyllyam of Cloudeslè. Besides,

senator: b. Granger, Allegany County, N. Y., the many contradictions between the various

23 May 1830; d. Denver, Colo., 23 Feb. 1914. personages, dates and places, and the widely

He was educated at Alfred University, New differing representations of the event, show the York, taught school, and after admission to gradual development of the legend. The untir- the bar practised law in Illinois and Colorado. ing industry of historical scholars has not been He was United States senator from Colorado rewarded by the finding of the name of Tell 1876-82, Secretary of the Interior 1882–85, and in the archives and church registers of Uri, and was a member of the national Senate from although an uninterrupted series of charters

1885, except for a brief interval 1896–97, up to exists relative to the bailiffs or governors of 1909. He was especially prominent as a silver Küssnacht in the 14th century, there is no Gess- advocate, and had the unusual experience of ler among them. The Tell chapels were erected serving his constituents as a nominee of the or called by his name generations after his Republican and later of the Democratic party. death; the document which speaks of the as- TÉLLEZ, těl'yăth, Gabriel, Spanish drasemblage in 1388 of 114 persons who knew him

matic author, better known by his pseudonym, personally, and of the erection at that time of

EL MAESTRO Tirso DE MOLINA: b. Madrid, a Tell chapel on the shore of the Lake of

between 1570 and 1572; d. Soria, 12 March Lucerne, was not known until 1759. Consult

1648. He studied at Alcala and remained for Hisely's Recherches Critiques) (1843); Roch

some time at Toledo, whence some of his works holz's 'Tell und Gessler in Sage und Ge

are dated, also in Galicia and in Seville. The schichte (1877); Gisler's Die Tellfrage: Ver

date of his profession as a Brother of Charity such ihrer Geschichte und Lösung (1895).

is unknown, but we know that he had become See SWITZERI.AND, History.

superior by 1619. In 1634 he was named DeTELL CITY, Ind., city in Perry County, finidor general of Castille. His first poetical on the Ohio River, 125 miles southwest of In- work, Los Cigarrales de Toledo (1624) is dianapolis, on the Southern Railroad. There

a collection of tales in which there is a semare deposits of coal and clay in the vicinity,

blance of the influence of Boccaccio. This inand manufactures include furniture, iron prod

fluence is clearer in Los tres maridos burlaucts, woolens, flour and tobacco. The city

dos,' which is an admirable adaptation of the was founded by the Swiss Colonization Society

Decameron. Instead of a second part of in 1857. Pop. (1920) 4,086.

the 'Cigarrales) promised by the author there

appeared in 1635 a new collection (Deleitar TELL EL AMARNA, Egypt, a district

aprovechando') of religious stories mixed with near the east bank of the Nile, 190 miles above

Autos,' of which 'El Colmenero divino) is Cairo, comprising the site and environs of the

one of the best efforts in religious drama. For ancient city of Akhenaton, known also as

a long time Téllez devoted himself to this speEkhaton and Akhet-Aton, built by Amenophis

cies of composition. In 1620 he dedicated to IV, who later was known as Akhenaton or

his friend Lope de Vega La Villana de ValIkhnaton. The city was built by Amenophis

lecas) and four years later he stated that he about 1360 B.C. as a new capital of the empire

had written well nigh 300 comedies. He exin place of Thebes after he had abandoned the

celled in the religio-theological dramas of his religion of Ammon for that of Aton. It grew period and also in historic dramas, farces and rapidly but was abandoned upon the death of comédies d'intrigue. He had a penchant for Amenophis, the court returning to Thebes as epigram but was capable of reaching the highits capital and to the worship of Ammon. The

est conceptions and frequently sounded tragic most important ruins are those of the palace

depths. Some of his works are equal to Caland the House of Rolls, and there are remains deron's or Lope's best and in recent years of the temple. About 300 clay tablets contain

critics have begun to do him full justice. An ing valuable records of the time of Amenophis eloquent proof of his merit is that some of his and his father were discovered in the House

works have been attributed for centuries to of Rolls in 1887. To the northeast and to the Lope or to Calderon. Such was the case of south of the ruined city are tombs hewn in the Ei Burlador de Sevilla y Convidado de sides of the hills which abound in sculptured

Piedra,' an admirable scenic portrayal of the scenes picturing mainly the worship of the

legend of Don Juan, which, although universungod. The tomb of Meri-Ra, high priest of sal as proved by Farinelli, has taken on the the sun, has two spacious chambers and a character of a purely Spanish legend through façade nearly 100 feet long. The tomb sup- this work of Téllez, which has been widely posed to be that of Amenophis is in a ravine imitated in other literatures. It is his best about midway between the north and the south work and in order of importance may be mentombs. Consult Petrie, F., (Tell el-Amarna' tioned La prudencia en la mujer); Marta la (1894); Davies, N. de G., Rock Tombs of piadosa'; 'El vergonzoso en Palacio'; Don Tell el Amarna' (1903-08); Petrie, W. M. F., Gil de las calzas verdes); El amor y la amisSyria and Egypt from the Tell'el Amarna tad,' and 'La villana de Vallecas. It has Letters) (1898).

been said that his feminine characters are VOL. 26 - 26

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lacking in amiable traits. He was to a great treated with sulphurous acid which precipitates extent free from the stylistic vices of his period the tellurium. and was often imitated by Calderon. It is dif- TELPHERAGE, aerial transportation, as ficult to comprehend the obscurity into which in a cable or elevated railway, by electric power, his works and reputation fell soon after his

arranged for automatic operation. Both the demise. To-day we possess about 80 of the

system and the word "telpherage,” which 400 pieces we know came from his hand. He

means “distance carrying," were introduced by also wrote historical works including La

the late Fleeming Jenkin. He recognized the Genealogia del Conde de Sástago' (1640); La

ease with which the electric motor could be Cronica) of the Brothers of Charity. (See EL adapted to automatic transportation of mateBURLADOR DE SEVILLA). The best editions of his rials and he devised a system which when put works are those of Augustin Durán, of Hart

into service gave satisfaction. This consisted zenbusch, (Teatro escogido de Tirso de Mo

of two overhead cables, mounted on stout poles, lina (12 vols., 1831-41); by Romanos (1848); along which light carriers were hauled by and Rivadeneira Comedias escogidas de fray means of one or more electric motors. To Gabriel Téllez. Consult Cotarelo, C., Tirso transmit current to the motors the cables were de Molina: Investigaciones bio-bibliográficas

cut into sections, adjacent sections of one cable (Madrid 1883); Morel-Fatio, A., Etudes sur

being insulated from each other, but crossle théatre de Tirso de Molina (in Bulletin

converted with sections of the other cable so hispanique 1900); Nueva biblioteca de autores

as to form two continuous conductors, each españoles (Madrid 1906–07); Armesto, La

lying alternately on the right and on the left leyenda de Don Juan' (ib. 1908).

of the system. The trains were somewhat TELLICHERRY, těl-1-chěr'i, or TELLI- longer than the sections of cable so that one CHERRI, India, a seaport and garrison town end rested on one conductor while the other in the Malabar district of Madras, 45 miles was on the second, thus completing the electric northwest of Calicut. The main buildings in- circuit. clude the castle - now a jail — the North Mala- Modern telpherage systems are more elabbar district court, custom-house, churches and orate than Jenkins'. As usually constructed, a government offices. The entire area, on a light steel framework supports a system of light picturesque site, covers about five square miles. elevated rails, from which buckets or carriers The principal exports are sandal wood, coffee are suspended, hanging on wheels on the rail and cardamons, spices, cocoa and cocoanuts. or rails. Small electric motors are placed on The factory of the East India Company was the carriers. The current is transmitted to the founded in 1683. There are missions and other motors by means of a small trolley wire erected schools; also Brennan College founded in 1862. over the running cable or rail. Sometimes a Pop. 27,883.

double trolley system is adopted. The telpher TELLURIUM, an element discovered by or towing vehicle is usually equipped with two Mueller von Reichenstein (1782) in a specimen

motors. These may be placed on opposite sides of gold ore from Austria. Klaproth named it

of the cable or side by side. The driving from the Latin tellus, meaning the earth. Tel

wheels are mounted directly on the motor lurium occurs free, but most commonly in shafts, as gearings are not used. The carrier company with gold, silver, lead and bismuth. way is attached to the telpher or to a trailer Native tellurium is found in considerable

and is often fitted with a third motor for hoistquantity in Boulder County, Colo. The other ing the load. When heavy loads are to be important minerals containing tellurium are

carried two supports may be used, each having sylvanite, calaverite, pelzite, hessite and tetra- one or more running wheels. When the sysdymite. They are found principally in Aus

tem is not automatic it is controlled from one tria, and in the United States in Colorado and station or an operator is carried with the train. adjacent States.

Where the weights to be transported are Tellurium is a silver white metal, atomic

light, wire cable is employed, and often the weight 127.6, melting point about 453° C. and cable is supported between the posts by a susspecific gravity 6.25. It is brittle, not changed

pension cable. In any case a rail is used inby exposure to the air and when heated a little stead of a cable when a corner is to be turned above its melting point it boils and condenses and in running through buildings where the again in the cool portion of the retort as metal

cable construction would be difficult, or where lic drops. In chemical properties it is very

the weight and traffic is sufficient to warrant like sulphur. It unites with chlorine readily,

the cost. forming TeCl, and TeCl3. The oxides Teó, The advantages claimed for the telpherage and TeO: are analogous, yet differ considerably system are economy in cost of transporting from SO, and SO.. Tellurious and telluric and a capacity for moving large quantities of acids and the salts derived from them are also

material with a low cost of construction as known. Tellurium forms a compound with

compared with a railway. Further, the system hydrogen analogous to H.S and possessing an

may be erected overhead and out of the way. even more disagreeable odor.

Telpherage systems are now used in industrial This element resembles sulphur in impart

works of all kinds for carrying materials in a ing very undesirable properties to metals even building as well as outside. The system may when present in very small amount. If tellu- also be adapted to other work, such as excavatrium and any of its compounds are introduced

ing trenches, canal construction, etc.

Consult into the human system they give the breath a

Clark, Chas. M., Telpherage; Transactions very strong and disagreeable garlic-like odor.

American Institute Electrical Engineers) (Vol. To obtain the free element the ore is digested

XIX, p. 391). first with sulphuric acid; hydrochloric acid is TELUGU, těl'oo-goo, or TELINGA, a then added in small quantity and the whole language of India, belonging to the Dravidian



group, and spoken by about 20,000,000 of people alcoholic beverages. The records of all the in Madras, Hyderabad, Mysore, Bombay, Cen- early peoples of the world contain references tral Provinces, Burma, Berar and other parts. to the evils of intoxication. The Buddhists, The Telugu are the most numerous branch of Taoists and Confucians taught temperance. the Dravidian race, 'but are less enterprising "Look not thou upon the wine when it is red than the Tamils, who occupy the country to the

At the last it biteth like a serpent, - and south of them. The language is allied in roots stingeth like an adder.” (Prov. xxiii, 31-32). to the Tamil language, but differs considerably The ancient philosophers and founders of the otherwise. See INDIA; TAMIL.

great world religions neither taught nor pracTEMBULAND, těm'boo-lănd, South Af

tised total abstinence and these conditions furrica, a district or dependency of the Cape

nished the religious reasons for advocating Colony, in the east of which it is situated, on

"temperance) rather than total abstinence) the Indian Ocean, one of the Transkei districts,

from intoxicants. With the development of adjoining Pondoland and Griqualand East; the manufacture of spirituous or distilled chief town Umtata. Pop. 232,000 (5,179 Euro

liquors, containing a much larger percentpeans).

age of alcohol than those of natural fer

mentation, the evils of intoxication multiplied TEMENOS, anciently a sacred plot of

and temperance sentiment developed and inground; a piece of land marked off and consecrated to God. Any tract of land allotted to a

creased. At first the agitation against liquor

was sporadic, yet there was a pronounced temple or sanctuary.

sentiment developed in both Europe and AmerTEMESVAR, těm'ěsh-vär, Rumania, on ica in the 18th century. In 1743 Lord Lonsdale the Bega Canal, 75 miles northeast of Belgrade.

made a speech in the English House of Lords, It comprises a citadel and suburbs — four in

urging the necessity for a temperance reform. number. Noteworthy are the castle, cathedral, In 1760 Smollett called the attention of the synagogue, bishop's residence and town-house.

English people to the signs Drunk for 1d) The manufactures include woolen goods, oil, and Dead drunk for 2d.” He made an urgent paper, tobacco, leather, etc., and there are grain- appeal for improvement in the condition of mills, distilleries, etc. The fortress has sus- the low alehouses. Yet it was not until 1829 tained many sieges; memorable is that of 1849, that record is found of a temperance society in when it was invested and bombarded by the in- Great Britain, at New Ross, County Wexford, surgents. Pop. about 72,500.

Ireland. In 1830 several temperance societies TEMPE, těm'pē, Vale of, Greece, in Thes- came into being in English cities and the Britsaly, a beautiful valley on the Peneus, flanked ish and Foreign Temperance Society was by Olympus at the north and Mount Ossa at founded in 1831. It lasted until 1850, but in the south. It has been immortalized by the the meantime its work was taken up by others. classical poets.

Father Theobald Mathew (q.v.), of Cork, IreTEMPERA. See DISTEM PER; MURAL land, began his campaign for temperance about PAINTING; PAINTING, TECHNIQUE OF.

1838 and within three years he gathered about

him more than 4,000,000 followers. The best TEMPERAMENT, in music, the system or principle of tuning voices or instruments

evidence of the thoroughness of his work is in accord with the rule of fixed tones, uni

that the consumption of liquors in Ireland fell versally adopted since the middle of the 19th

off one-half during the period of his activity.

In 1843 he was called to England and in 1850 century and first advocated by J. Sebastian Bach (q.v.) early in the 18th century. In the

to America, where he founded the numerous

Father Mathew Total Abstinence Societies. system of equal or even temperament, the

There had been considerable temperance standard interval is the mean semitone, that

agitation in the States before Father Matis the 12th part of an octave. This neutralizes

hew's arrival. The Washingtonian the "wolf” or harsh discords of uneven temperament which otherwise exist, among all

ment started in Baltimore in 1840 and John B.

Gough (q.v.) had begun his wonderful talks the tones of voice or instrument, so that the

for temperance. The influence of Mathew and only exactly true intervals become octaves and

Gough was evident in the formation of the the number of key scales 12, the relative pitch

Independent Order of Good Templars, founded of the tones of the ideal scale being fixed

in 1851 in Utica, and spreading rapidly all over with mathematical precision. The voice or in

the United States and to foreign countries. A strument using the intervals of such a scale

woman's crusade for temperance started about is said to be modulated or tuned in pure or

1870 and crystallized in the National Woman's just temperament. No further adjustment is

Christian Temperance Union. founded in required if these tones only are used. Modu

Cleveland in 1874 and now having 12,000 local lation into another key, however, requires that

unions throughout the United States. Frances some other tone than the original one shall be the keynote and one or more passing notes

E. Willard (q.v.) who was prominent in the

work, founded the world's Woman's Christian are necessary to arrive at the key desired (see

Temperance Union in 1883, and it has become MODULATION. For the superseded system of

the largest and most influential movement for uuning see MEANTONE or MESOTONE TEMPERA

temperance and prohibition. It can scarcely MENT; MODE; also WELL-TEMPERED CLAVIER).

be said, however, that the United States has Consult Groves, Dictionary of Music and Mu

led in temperance societies. Great Britain and sicians) (Vol. V, pp. 53-65, New York 1911). her colonies far exceeded America in the num

TEMPERANCE. This word has long her of societies organized, doubtless partly bebeen used to characterize the movement for cause her territory is so widely distributed. A the temperate use of intoxicants and for the list of prominent temperance societies in 1905 activities of societies of abstainers and those included United Kingdom 62, Germany 12, favoring a restriction of the use and sale of Australia 11, Switzerland 11, United States 10,


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Austria-Hungary 8, Holland 6, Sweden 6, Denmark 5, France 4, Belgium 2, etc.

Temperance agitation has influenced legislation for 75 years, but still the use of intoxicants has gone on with little interference except locally. As a result temperance agitators have gradually come out stronger and stronger for prohibition of both the manufacture and sale of intoxicants and the temperance movement has merged into the Prohibition movement, though in its inception Prohibition was the work of the more radical reformers. See PROHIBITION.

Temperance Legislation.- Legislation against the liquor evil in America dates from 1642, when the colony of Maryland passed a law making drunkenness a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of 100 pounds of tobacco. As sentiment against intoxication developed the license system was adopted, as a temperance measure, being popular in communities also because it furnished a revenue for the local government. Soon the license system won the approval of the liquor sellers, for it stopped competition in their business, resulted in uniform prices and, therefore, contributed to money-making. Though advanced and introduced by advocates of temperance, the license system was fostered and grew directly through the efforts of the liquor-sellers. Temperance workers then began to advocate no license and

vast amount of legislation developed in the different States over licenses, their revocation or suspension, at the will of the people. Restrictive legislation took the form of local option laws and after the War of 1861-65 the local struggles at the polls of half the cities and towns in the country for years were centred mainly about the question of license or no-license. The establishing of local option in a community had a tendency to drive the lovers of liquor to the neighboring towns where there was license; thus the temperance towns lost their license fees, and saw their bibulous citizens going to other places to drink and also to trade. Often the result was that the financial pressure caused a return to license. There was great wavering between license and nolicense almost all over the country. The first State to recognize that this irregular system could be overcome only by the States acting as a unit was Maine, which in 1851, under the influence of the Gough and Mathew movements, adopted State local option, and as a State continued to refuse to license the liquor traffic. Kansas and North and South Dakota followed, and in 1881 Maine placed the prohibitory clause in her constitution and ended the agitation for a return to licensed liquor-selling.

But in other States the contests at the polls continued regularly. Indiana was the first State to pass a local option law in 1832, and several other States had followed by 1850. By 1900 one-third of the country was under local option, and in 1911 local option existed by enactment in 33 of the States. Between 1890 and 1910 appears to have been the most active years with State legislatures in passing laws to restrict and regulate the liquor traffic. Most of the States passed Sunday closing laws, though allowing the hotels to sell liquor to their customers with meals. There was legislation permitting wives and children of drunkards to bring civil suits against any selling liquor to

their provider. There were laws against the locating of saloons within so many feet of churches, schools or polling places. But these laws were largely honored in the breach. Sunday closing never was effective in the large cities, except spasmodically, as some mayor or chief of police became active. Public sentiment condoned the open backdoor as a rule, and it remained to the end the common practice with saloons in large cities. In country liquor shops the selling on Sunday was confined to those who were known personally to the proprietor to be safe.

The effort to improve conditions by high license was equally ineffective. When this was proposed the argument was that nine-tenths oi the saloons would go out of business, and that the evil would be confined to those who had the liquor habit and who would drink anyway. This proved to be sophistry. The communities got more money by the high license system and it caused the liquor forces to become more active in politics, until in very many cities and towns a man could rarely be chosen to public office unless he was acceptable to the liquor interests.

A perpetual difficulty with obtaining temperance by all these various methods of legislation was that they failed to strike at the manufacture or the transportation of liquor. Though Maine prohibited liquor selling for years, the agents of the United States government obtained large sums in revenue from liquor that went into Maine, carried there with no attempt to stop it, by the express companies. And this form of nullifying the no-license law in local option communities was notoriously common. The no-license law only stopped the sale of liquor as a beverage over the counter; the individual still had a right to buy it by the barrel, and have it expressed to his home, and give it to his friends, and the best hotels were permitted to place it on their tables as part of the food supplied. The fact that some thousands of statutes in the different States were useless in attaining the end of temperance at length became apparent to the most obtuse. The manufacture and consumption of liquors in the United States had a slow and steady increase all through these years of antagonistic legislation, up to 1913, after which date there was noticed a very slight per capita reduction. The per capita consumption of malt liquors during the past 100 years in the United States slowly and steadily increased up to 1907, after which it fell off a small fraction. The per capita consumption of distilled liquors had a slight but steady decrease from 1865 to 1896. Thereafter it increased until 1907, after which it was variable. But this trifling decrease in distilled liquors was evidently but a change to malt liquors, for the latter grew as the former reduced, and the whole calculation is based on per capita use, the volume of liquors made and sold being always on the increase up to 1907, and the falling off then appeared to be due more to financial stringency than to moral suasion or obedience to law. All these experiences with legislation that accomplished little or nothing taught the public that they were being fooled, and that the powerful financial interests in the liquor trade were always able to guide legislation or block it, or prevent its enforcement, so that in the end the trade was unharmed. As a



result agitation for temperance legislation prac- certain classes of tools; the tool being ready for tically ceased, and those who opposed the use after it has been forged and allowed to cool liquor traffic worked for Prohibition (q.v.). by natural exposure to the air. In general, how

TEMPERANCE, Sons of, or THE OR- ever, a tool steel must receive special treatment DER OF THE SONS OF TEMPERANCE, in order to fit it for the work in hand; this was organized in the city of New York, 29 treatment being given after the tool has been Sept. 1842. It is composed of subordinate, forged to shape. The process of tempering then grand and national divisions. It has four na- consists of two steps, the first of which consists tional divisions -- one for North America, one

in imparting to the cutting edge of the tool a for Great Britain and Ireland and two for Aus

degree of hardness that is too great for the tralia. In the course of its existence it has

work for which the tool is to be used, while had nearly 4,000,000 members on its rolls. Its the second step consists in reducing. (or (temfundamental and inalienable principle is total pering”) this hardness, until it attains a value abstinence from all intoxicating liquors and bev

that experience has shown to be satisfactory. erages.

The tempering of an ordinary tool may be deTEMPERANCE LEGISLATION. See

scribed as follows: The finished tool is heated TEMPERANCE.

to a bright red, care being taken to have the

heat extend back some distance from the TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. See Tem

cutting edge. The cutting edge of the tool is PERANCE; TEMPERANCE, Sons of, or The ORDER

then immersed in water to a slight depth and OF THE SONS OF TEMPERANCE.

kept there until it has cooled sufficiently to TEMPERATURE. See Heat; THER- remain wet when withdrawn from the water. MOMETER; THERMOMETRY; THERMOYDYNAMICS; By this means the steel is rendered exceedingly ZERO.

hard throughout the chilled part; that is, in TEMPERATURE OF THE BODY. See the vicinity of the cutting edge. If it were used ANIMAL HEAT.

in this condition, however, the edge would be TEMPERATURE VARIETIES.

too brittle and would be likely to break in


service. To reduce the hardness to the proper

value, the tool, immediately after being withTEMPERATURES, Underground. See drawn from the water, is brightened up near UNDERGROUND TEMPERATURES.

the cutting edge with a piece of emery cloth, TEMPERING, the art of imparting to or in some similar manner, and the cleaned area metals, by means of heat treatment, a definite is then watched while the heat from the undegree of hardness. The term is now applied quenched part spreads toward the cutting edge. almost exclusively to certain kinds of steel, The oxidization of the steel, as the edge bewhich are used in the manufacture of tools. It comes hotter and hotter from conduction, causes is said that the ancients could harden and tem- a play of color to become visible, which serves per copper; but this art, if it ever really existed, as an index of the temperature. These colors is now lost. The effects of thermal changes run from the hot portion of the tool toward upon steel vary greatly with the quality of the the quenched cutting edge. In the order in steel and with the exact nature of the treat- which they proceed, they may be described as ment. It is necessary to distinguish clearly pale yellow, straw yellow, brownish yellow, light between "annealing," "hardening” and “temper- purple, dark purple and blue. When the proper ing. Any steel (except those varieties that are color reaches the cutting edge, the whole piece alloyed with silicon, tungsten and certain other is again quenched, and the tempering" is comelements) may be annealed, but it is es- plete. The colors that are used for different sential that the steel shall contain a certain implements are as indicated below: amount of carbon, in order that it may be ca- Very pale yellow (about 430° F.): Steelpable of being hardened and tempered. If steel engraving tools, turning tools, hammer faces, is raised to a red heat and is then allowed to planer tools, wood-engraving tools. cool very slowly, it becomes relatively soft, so Straw yellow (about 460° F.): Dies, taps, that it can be filed and turned in a lathe. This drills, punches, reamers, process is called "annealing, and it has usually Brown yellow (about 500° F.): Gouges, been held that the slowness of the cooling is plane irons, twist drills, cooper tools, woodthe essential thing in the softening process. boring cutters. There is excellent reason for believing, how- Light purple (about 530° F.): Augurs, surever, that the exact temperature to which the gical instruments, cold chisels, edging cutters. steel is exposed before it is cooled has a much Dark purple (about 550° F.): Axes, gimgreater influence than the rapidity of the cool- lets, needles, hack-saws, screwdrivers, springs, ing. It has been shown, for example, by the wood saws. researches of Brinel, Tschernoff, Le Chatelier, Some tools are of such a shape that they Heyn, Ridsdale, Stead and others that steel which cannot be tempered in the manner here de

acquired a dangerously crystalline character scribed, but must have their temper "drawn” from annealing for a long time at too low a to the desired color by reheating the piece betemperature in a slightly oxidizing atmosphere, tween hot iron plates, or in a hot iron ring. or from long continued heating at high tem- Springs are often tempered by a different peratures, may have its original structure and method, known as "oil tempering.” In carrying properties restored by the simple artifice of out this method, the piece is first hardened by heating it to a certain critical temperature heating to a bright red heat and then quenching (which is about 1,600° F.), and then allowing it by plunging the whole piece in water or in oil. to cool; the rate of cooling, in this case, being The article to be tempered is then wetted with a matter of comparative unimportance. Steels oil and gradually and uniformly heated until may sometimes be had which do not need the oil upon it blazes up, when the piece special treatment to render them fit for use in is again quenched in the oil. This process of

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