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heating to the ignition point of the oil and then world. More particularly, Shakespeare was quenching is repeated until it has been per- indebted to the story of a feet of ships that formed three times, after which the piece is said had set out from England in 1609, was wrecked to be "oil tempered, and is ready for use. in the Bermudas a few weeks after and

In the early days of steel-working in the finally reached the newly-established colony in United States, it was common to import water Virginia. While, as has been suggested, he in casks from Sheffield, England, for hardening might have heard from returning seamen and tempering purposes, as it was believed that stories of this wreck and of the strange hapthere is some special virtue in the water that penings in the New World, he was especially had been used for so long, and with such indebted to Silvester Jourdan's The Diseminent success, in that city. There was prob- covery of the Bermudas, published in 1610. ably little or no foundation for this belief, and Professor Alden has recently made good his yet it is known that substances that may be in contention that the real source for the desolution in the water that is used for quenching scription of the storm and for the incidents often have an important influence upon the that take place upon the strange island is product. Many artisans dissolve salt or cyanide found in a letter written by William Strachey, of potassium in the water that they use for this dated 15 July 1610, and which, though not pubpurpose, and there is considerable ground for lished until 1625, was, from contemporary evithe belief that such dissolved substances do

dence, seen by Shakespeare. The parallelisms exert an influence upon the character of the

between the play and the letter are most strikproduct, which is out of all apparent proportion ing and certainly tend to show that the author's to the strength of the solutions containing them. indebtedness to contemporary sources was far In particular, it may be noted that there is a

greater than has been generally supposed. The deeply-rooted belief among blacksmiths and ideal commonwealth suggested by Gonzalo, other artisans who work with metals that a while based upon

Florio's translation of piece of steel cannot be hardened by heating it Montaigne's essays, a new edition of which and then quenching it in water that contains was published in 1610, bears a striking resoap, even in small amounts.

semblance to conditions in the Virginia colony The art of tempering cannot be adequately as portrayed in the letter. presented in a short article, and those who are However far one may go in the acceptance skilled at it maintain (probably quite justifiably) of these parallels, the play is none the less the that the only way to learn it is by actual ex- creation of Shakespeare's genius. While it is perience in the shop. Different steels may lacking in the perfect technique of some of his require radically different treatment, and

plays, and especially in the closeness of draspecial implements (razors, for example) may matic structure, it is a great poem and it lends call for years of study before they can be tem- itself to allegorical interpretation as do few pered satisfactorily.

of the plays. Caliban is a monumental repreALLAN D. RISTEEN.

sentation of a primitive type of humanity, reTEMPEST, The. Although certain inter- joicing in unrestricted freedom and in the nal evidence, notably the verse-test, has caused

saturnalia of license. Ariel, more than Puck, most scholars to believe that "The Winter's represents the spiritual forces of nature under Tale' was the last of Shakespeare's plays,

the domination of superior wisdom and for there will always be reason in thinking that

the service of man.

Prospero, both in his “The Tempest (written in 1610 or 1611) best

magical art and in his intellectual and spiritual represents the final mood of Shakespeare as greatness, is an anticipation of the triumphant he turned from the writing of his plays to

victory of man at his best over all the forces the last years of his life in Stratford. It is

of the world. There is no greater utterance certainly one of the group of romantic of Shakespeare than the words in which comedies which Shakespeare wrote after the Prospero, looking out from the serene heights completion of his tragedies; and in the char- which he has reached, expresses the ultimate acter of Prospero we are warranted in seeing

truth about man and the universe: an adumbration of Shakespeare's personality as

"We are such stuff he looked out upon the world from the heights

As dreams are made on, and our little life

Is rounded with a sleep." of his later years. He, like Prospero, broke

EDWIN MIMS. his wand and buried his book deeper than did ever plummet sound. After all, while life may TEMPLAR, Knights. See MASONIC FRAbe tragical as presented in the series of plays TERNITY, THE from Hamlet' to "Timon of Athens, it is TEMPLE, Frederick,

Frederick, English prelate, also full of sunshine and humor and the for- archbishop of Canterbury: b. Santa Maura, giveness of enemies and the reconciliation of Ionian Islands, 30 Nov. 1821 ; d. London, 23 the forces of good and evil. "The Tempest) Dec. 1902. He was the son of an English army is such a representation of life. While some of officer who died while he was a child, and the scenes of the play suggest definitely Milan under his mother's care was well educated in and Naples, Tunis and the intervening Medi- youth, so that he obtained a double first at terranean Sea, the enchanted island upon Oxford and was elected Fellow and tutor of which Prospero lived is on none other than his college. After his ordination in 1846 he the uncharted deep that voyagers were bring- took charge of Kneller Hall, Twickenham, and ing within the compass of man's imagina- from 1848 to 1858 was school inspector. In the tion. In the grotesque figure of Caliban, the latter year he was made headmaster of Rugby magic of Prospero and the spirit-like world and became one of the most powerful and inof Ariel, there is the atmosphere of the fluential successors of Arnold. The publicastrange world that stood out in definite con- tion of Essays and Reviews, in which series trast with the fixed limits of the European Temple led off with The Education of the

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World, roused a storm of acrimonious controversy, but did not shake confidence in the headmaster of Rugby, who was appointed bishop of Exeter in 1869, was translated to London in 1885 and succeeded Archbishop Benson in 1896. Equally as schoolmaster and as bishop he was a strict disciplinarian, an untiring worker, a blunt, just and sincere man whose plainness of address did not obscure the massive learning with which his mind was stored. The great controversial storms of the century had spent their fury in the English Church before he reached the primacy, but his incumbency was not uneventful. The Tractarian movement was in its last phase of ritualism, and Temple handled ritualists with firmness and moderation. He took part in the queen's diamond jubilee (1897) and in 1902 placed the crown on the head of her successor. His writings are Sermons in Rugby Chapel and Bampton Lectures for 1884 on The Relations between Religion and Science, of which it may be said that they were up to the standard set by previous lecturers and were not unworthy of the future primate of All England. He died in harness, never recovering from the effort he made in a strong appeal in the House of Lords uttered in favor of the public education bill.

TEMPLE, Oliver Perry, American lawyer and author: b. Green County, Tenn., 27 Jan. 1820. He was graduated from Washington College, Tenn., in 1844, and admitted to the bar in 1846. He was a Union leader in East Tennessee during the Civil War; was a chancellor of Tennessee, 1866–78, and retired from the bar in 1881. His publications include (The Covenanter, The Cavalier and the Puritan) (1897); (Union Leaders of East Tennessee (1903), etc.

TEMPLE, Richard Carnac, English civil servant and antiquary: b. Allahabad, India, 15 Oct. 1850. He was educated at Cambridge University. He served in the Burma War 1887– 89 and received a medal for bravery. From 1887-93 he was engaged by the Indian government to raise and fit out volunteer regiments. He has published Wide Awake Stories (1884); Legends of the Panjab (1883–90), etc., and is a member of philological and other learned societies.

TEMPLE, Sir William, English statesman: b. London, 1628; d. Moor Park, Surrey, 27 Jan. 1699. He was educated at Cambridge, spent six years on the Continent and returning in 1654, and not choosing to accept any office under Cromwell, occupied himself in the study of history and philosophy. On the Restoration he was chosen a member of the Irish convention, and in 1661 was returned for the county of Carlow. The following year he was nominated one of the commissioners from the Irish Parliament to the king, and removed to London. On the breaking out of the Dutch War, he was employed in a secret mission to the bishop of Münster which he executed so much to the satisfaction of the ministers that in the following year he was appointed resident at Brussels, and received a baronetcy. With De Witt he concluded the treaty between England, Holland and Sweden (February 1668), with a view to oblige France to restore her

conquests in the Netherlands. He also attended, as Ambassador Extraordinary, when peace was concluded between France and Spain at Aix-la-Chapelle, and subsequently residing at The Hague as Ambassador, enjoyed the friendship of De Witt, and also of the Prince of Orange, afterward William III. A change of politics led to the recall of Temple in 1671, who, refusing to assist in the intended breach with Holland, retired from public business, and employed himself in writing his Observations on the United Provinces, and part of his Miscellanies. In 1674 Temple was again Ambassador to the States-General, in order to negotiate a general pacification. Previously to its termination in the Treaty of Nimeguen (in 1678), he was instrumental in promoting the marriage of the Prince of Orange with Mary, eldest daughter of the Duke of York, which took place in 1677. In 1679 he was recalled from The Hague, and shortly afterward was elected to represent the University of Cambridge in Parliament. In 1681 he retired from public life altogether. He was on friendly terms with William III who occasionally visited him. (For his relations with Swift see Swift, JONATHAN). His Memoirs) are important as regards the history of the times, as are likewise his (Letters,' published by Swift after his death. His Miscellanies' consist of essays on various subjects: Gardening,' The Cure of the Gout, Ancient and Modern Learning' (which provoked much controversy at the time), Health and Long Life, Different Conditions of Life and Fortune, Introduction to the History of England, Poems and Translations, etc. Consult Courtenay, Life of Temple!, (1836); Macaulay's Essay) and Forster, Life of Swift (Vol. I, 1875).

TEMPLE, Tex., city in Bell County, on the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fé and the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroads, about 220 miles northwest of Galveston, and 35 miles southwest of Waco. It was founded in 1882 by the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fé Railroad, and was chartered as a city the same year. It is in an agricultural and stock-raising region and has considerable manufacturing interests. The chief manufacturing establishments are agricultural-implement works, cottonseed-oil mills and cotton compresses, flour mills, chewing gum and candy factory and lumber mills. The city has handsome churches, public and parish schools, Saint Mary's Academy, two kindergartens, a business college, three large hospitals and a public library. The four banks have a combined capital of $580,000. Pop. (1920) 11,033.

TEMPLE, London, England, a district of the city lying between Fleet Street and the Thames, and divided by Middle Temple Lane into the Inner and the Middle Temple, belonging to separate societies (see INNS OF Court), each with its hall, library and gardens. The name is derived from the Knights Templars, who had their headquarters in England here. The two temples are separated by a wall from the rest of the city, and have entrance gates which are closed at night. The district is occupied, with few exceptions, exclusively by barristers and solicitors. In former times the members of the Temple were famous for the





masques, revels and banquets which they gave in their halls. To these entertainments there are many allusions in the old poets; kings attended them, the benchers joined in them and directed the students to dance. Among famous members of the Temple have been Beaumont, Sir Walter Raleigh, John Ford, Wycherley, Congreve, Cowper, Blackstone, Sheridan, Coke, Littleton, Clarendon, Somers and Eldon. Goldsmith and Johnson had chambers here, and here Charles Lamb was born and passed the first seven years of his life.

TEMPLE, a name applied in religious history particularly to the temple built by Solomon at Jerusalem as a House of the Lord, and to the temples which succeeded it, more especially the magnificent structure, erected by Herod the Great, which is often mentioned in the New Testament. Solomon's Temple was -built with the aid of an architect and skilled workmen from Phænicia. The temple was an oblong stone building, 60 cubits in length, 20 in width and 30 in height. On three sides were corridors, rising above each other to the height of three stories, and containing rooms in which were preserved the holy utensils and treasures. The fourth or front side was open, and was ornamented with a portico, 10 cubits in width, supported by two brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz (stability and strength). The interior was divided into the most holy place or oracle, 20 cubits long, which contained the ark of the covenant, and was separated by a curtain or veil from the sanctuary or holy place, in which were the golden candlesticks, the table of the shew-bread, and the altar of incense. The walls of both apartments and the roof and ceiling of the most holy place were overlaid with wood work, skilfully carved. None but the highpriest was permitted to enter the latter, and only the priests devoted to the temple service the former. The temple was surrounded by an inner court, which contained the altar of burntoffering, the brazen sea and lavers, and such instruments and utensils as were used in the sacrifices, which, as well as the prayers, were offered here. Colonnades, with brazen gates, separated this court of the priests from the outer court, which was likewise surrounded by a wall. This temple was destroyed about 586 B.C. by the Assyrians, and after the return from the Babylonish captivity some 70 years later, a second temple of the same form, but much inferior in splendor, was erected. Herod the Great rebuilt it, beginning the work about 20 B.C., of a larger size, surrounding it with four courts, rising above each other like ter

This being the temple of the time of Christ possesses great interest. The lower court was 500 cubits square, on three sides surrounded by a double, and on the fourth by a triple row of columns and was called the court of the Gentiles, because individuals of all nations were admitted into it indiscriminately. A high wall separated the court of the women, 135 cubits square, in which the Jewish females assembled to perform their devotions, from the court of the Gentiles. From the court of the women 15 steps led to the court of the temple, which was enclosed by a colonnade, and divided by trellis-work into the court of the Jewish men and the court of the priests. In the middle of this enclosure stood the temple, of white

marble richly gilt, 100 cubits long and wide, and 60 cubits high, with a porch 100 cubits wide, and three galleries like the first temple, which it resembled in the interior, except that the most holy place was empty, and the height of Herod's temple was double the height of Solomon's. Rooms appropriated for different purposes filled the upper story above the roof of the inner temple. This edifice was destroyed by the Romans in 70 A.D., and for many centuries the long-consecrated height has been occupied by the Mosque of Omar.

The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, and other ancient nations had temples for the worship of their gods, and the Mexicans and Peruvians, at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards in the New World, had splendid temples. On the sacrificial platforms of Aztec temples thousands of victims perished annually. The Greek and Roman temples were, as a rule, models of architectural grandeur and beauty. The word "temple is sometimes, but not often, applied to Christian places of worship as a special designation, although frequently used in a figurative sense. The Mormons designate as “The Temple,” the large structure in which they worship at Salt Lake City. Consult Fergusson, James, 'The Temple of the Jews' (1878); Smith, G. A., Jerusalem' (1908). See ARCHITECTURE.

TEMPLE, Order of the. See ORDERS. ROYAL.

TEMPLE BAR, London, England, an arched gateway which formerly stood between Fleet street and the Strand, and divided the city from the liberty of Westminster. (See LONDON). It was a structure of the Corinthian order, designed by Sir 6. Wren, and built in 1670 of Portland stone. Over the gateway, on the east side, were statues of Queen Elizabeth and James I; and on the west side, of Charles I and II. The heads of persons executed for high treason were formerly exhibited on this gate. Here, also, on particular occasions, the corporation of London received the royal family, the heralds' proclamations, or any distinguished visitors. When the sovereign came in state the lord-mayor here delivered to him the sword of state, which was returned, and after this he rode bareheaded, immediately in front of the royal procession. As the gate seriously obstructed a crowded thoroughfare, it was removed in 1878, its site now being marked by the heraldic monster, a «griffin.” The gate has been re-erected at Theobald's Park, Cheshunt.

TEMPLE UNIVERSITY, an institution of higher learning founded at Philadelphia in 1884 by Russell H. Conwell, pastor of the Baptist Temple. It was chartered by the State in 1888, and empowered to grant degrees in 1891, its name being changed from Temple College to Temple University in 1907. It was designed to offer instruction to young men whose occupations kept them busy during the day, and at first only evening instruction was offered; in 1891 a day school also was added. There are 18 departments with a range from kindergarten and academic to the highest university courses. Instruction is arranged in morning, afternoon and evening classes in all branches except medicine and dentistry, in which there are only day classes. The university is non-sectarian,




but is of a strongly religious atmosphere, and Italy and elsewhere long before any form of accomplishes a notable work in assisting those political papal sovereignty had been thought of. who could not otherwise obtain high educa- Meanwhile, through the favorable legislation tional advantages. In 1922–23 there were 408 of the Christian emperors, the political role of instructors and 8,042 students. The value of the popes and of bishops in general, was assumthe University's property was given as $760,684. ing an ever-growing importance. The bishop of TEMPO (time), in music, the relative rate

a city was not only the official protector of the of movement or degree of quickness with which

poor, of prisoners and of slaves; he had also in a piece of music is to be executed. The de

virtue of his office a voice concerning various grees of time are indicated by certain words

points of civic administration. Even in prosuch as lento (slow), adagio or largo (leisurely)

vincial affairs he enjoyed important rights and andante (walking pace), allegro (gay or quick), privileges. Thus, among other things, we find presto (rapid), prestissimo (very rapid), etc.

that appeal could be made from the decision of A tempo is the proper time. (See Music).

an imperial magistrate to the tribunal of the The word is also used in chess to indicate the

bishop. Such being the political status of bishperiod of a move, especially when the move is

ops generally, it is easy to understand that the wasted.

powers granted to and exercised by the Roman

pontiffs were still more extensive. To them, in TEMPORAL BONE See ANATOMY; particular, recourse was had against the exacSKULL.

tions of the rapacious Byzantine governors who TEMPORAL POWER (OF THE POPE). ruled in the different Italian provinces, and in By this expression, in its generally received sig- this connection, as well as in other ways, the nification, is understood the sovereign civil rule vigilant protection of the popes proved benewhich was exercised by the popes over the ficial to the people. It must be remembered states of the Church with varying vicissitudes that during this period the civil and political from the middle of the 8th century down to the situation throughout the peninsula was in a conyear 1870, when the last remnant of the papal dition bordering on the chaotic. The chronic states was annexed to the United Kingdom of state of unrest and insecurity which resulted Italy.

from the incursions of the barbarians and the The formal establishment of the temporal deplorable inefficiency of the imperial adminispower dates from the year 754, when Pepin, tration, made the interference of the popes in king of the Franks, bestowed upon Pope civil matters a real practical necessity. Theirs Stephen II (who had sought his aid against the was the only authority that commanded genoppression of the Lombards) independent sov- eral respect, and the common weal demanded ereignty over some 20 cities, thus constituting that they should look after the material as well what was henceforth known as the state or as the spiritual interests of their flock. That patrimony of Saint Peter. Though apparently such was the true condition of affairs is amply a new departure - one possibly unlooked for on shown forth in the papal correspondence of the the part of the Pope himself — this addition of time, especially in the letters of Gregory the a temporal to the spiritual rule of the bishop Great (590-604). It is also worth noting that of Rome was in reality but the natural outcome though they had ever-growing reasons to be of pre-existing civil and political conditions.

dissatisfied with Byzantine rule, the popes (even Among these may be mentioned the fact that those who succeeded Gregory) continued to the Roman Church was already in possession remain faithful to the idea of a world-wide of numerous and extensive landed estates or Christian empire, and exercised their influence patrimonies situated for the most part within to maintain in Italy its authority and prestige. ihe bounds of the Italian peninsula, and which

But, as is well known, many of the emperors were controlled or administered by the popes

of that period were more preoccupied with through their agents.

theology than with matters pertaining to civil This state of things had gradually developed administration, and their repeated attempts to from very early beginnings, for we find that impose upon the bishops of the West subtle even during the period of the persecutions, the formulas of orthodoxy led to frequent conflicts, local church of Rome (whether organized le- in some of which popes were violently dragged gally as a burial society, or simply as a body away to prison or death. Thus Silverius and corporate, holding property under the general Vigilius, Pelagius and Martin became the laws of the empire) possessed not only the victims of imperial tyranny. On the refusal of great cemeteries now known as the Catacombs, Sergius I to accept the decrees of the Emperor but also other property, as is clear from the Justinian II the latter commanded the protoedict of Milan. By a law of 321, the Emperor spatharius Zachary to arrest the Pope and bring Constantine granted to all persons capable of him a prisoner to Constantinople, but the pubmaking a will the right to bequeath property to lic spirit in Italy was already in revolt against the Church, and he himself gave an example this arrogant, high-handed policy, and the army of generosity in this respect by endowing munif- interfered to prevent the execution of the imicently the various basilicas of Rome. Similar perial mandate. Again, in 727, Leo the Isaurian bequests in one form or another were made by sent his edict against the use of images to Pope wealthy Christians throughout the empire, one Gregory II with orders for his deposition in of the principal uses to which the property thus case he should refuse to comply. Gregory reacquired was applied being to relieve the dis- sponded by denouncing the edict and excomtress occasioned by the depredations of the bar- municating the exarch; again the soldiers arose barians who began to overrun Italy from the in his defense, and the efforts of the imperial beginning of the 5th century. In this way the officers to carry out their instructions cost them Roman Church had become very wealthy, and their lives. In 733 the emperor confiscated all the popes, were already great landed proprie- the Church's estates in Sicily, Bruttium, Lutors, owning vast estates in various parts of cania, Calabria and Naples; others were con

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fiscated by the Lombards, and no security re- casional minor disturbances occurred between mained even for the inhabitants of Rome. The these events and 1848, when Pius IX, on account empire was unable to defend its subjects — of an insurrection, was obliged to flee to Gaeta worse than that, it even oppressed and plundered and Rome was declared a republic. The Pope them. The only refuge left to the Romans and was again restored to power through the armed their spiritual as well as actually temporal intervention of France, Austria, Spain and Nahead was to seek the aid of the friendly king ples, and the Austrians occupied the northern of the Franks. It is not clear whether Pope legations or Romagna on his behalf until 1859, Stephen II in taking this step had already in when their army was withdrawn. Soon after view the establishment of a civil principality the province repudiated its allegiance to the under his own rule or not, but be that as it Pope and its annexation to Sardinia was promay, just then the relations between the papacy claimed. The French still continued to hold and the emperor were further strained by the Rome in subjection to papal authority and Pius publication of a fresh edict against the use of IX, with a view to withstand any further enimages emanating from a synod of Constanti- croachments upon his dominions, raised an nople. A continuation of the old régime seemed army, which was placed under the leadership of no longer possible, the army of Pepin arrived in the able French general, Lamoricière. In the Italy in the summer of 754, and the independent meantime Garibaldi and his followers, whose state of Saint Peter was established, with the aim was the political unification of the Italian Pope as its civil ruler, in the same year. In states under the rule of Victor Emmanuel, were view of the circumstances, it may be truly said conducting a successful campaign in Sicily and that this distinction was bestowed upon the Naples. The news of this caused an outbreak bishop of Rome in recognition of a twofold in Urbino and the Marches in favor of Victor prerogative, namely, his prestige as head of the Emmanuel. The Sardinian troops came to the Church and defender of orthodoxy against aid of the insurgents and after two encounters Eastern aggression, and his character of na- with the troops under Lamoricière compelled tional benefactor.

the latter to surrender with his whole army The papal dominion as constituted by the after a week's siege in Ancona (1860). The grant of Pepin comprised the cities of Ravenna, revolted provinces of Umbria, Urbino and the Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Casena, Forli Comma- Marches, as well as the isolated provinces of chio and 15 other towns. In 1053 the duchy Benevento and Pontecorvo, situated within the of Benevento was annexed, and between that kingdom of Naples, were immediately annexed period and the end of the 13th century the au- to Sardinia. Finally, on 20 Dec. 1870, the thority of the Roman See was acknowledged by French troops having been withdrawn on acmany other free towns in Italy. In 1278 the count of the war with Prussia, Rome was enEmperor Rudolf I confirmed the acquisitions tered practically without resistance by the made thus far, defined the boundaries of the troops of Victor Emmanuel, and the last vestige papal states, and recognized the Pope's exclu- of temporal power disappeared. Victor Emsive authority over them by absolving the in- manuel having been proclaimed king over habitants from their oath of allegiance to the united Italy, took up his residence in the papal empire. The papal dominion then included Pe- palace of the Quirinal and Pius IX withdrew rugia, Bologna, Bertinoro, the duchy of Spoleto, to a life of seclusion (in the Vatican), considerthe exarchy of Ravenna and the marche of An- ing himself as a prisoner unable to leave his cona, but many of the towns were more or less retreat without compromising his dignity as independent. The Romagna was annexed at head of the Church, or even giving occasion to the end of the 15th century. Under Alexander riots and bloodshed. He never ceased to proVI and Julius II were added Faenza, Parma, test emphatically against the spoliation of his Placentia and Reggio, and the papal states re- rights as a temporal ruler and against the presceived their final additions in the 17th century, ence of the king and his court in the papal city. namely, Urbino, Ronciglione and the duchy of Leo XIII, though departing in many respects Castro. In 1797 the Romagna was seized by from the policy of his predecessor, maintained Napoleon and incorporated into the Cisalpine nevertheless throughout the same uncompromisRepublic. The following year Rome itself was ing attitude toward the question of the temtaken by the French and the papal states were poral power, and the same policy was steaderected into the Roman Republic. Pius VII fastly affirmed by his successor, Pius X. Such regained possession of his states in 1800, but are, in briefest outline, the main facts pertain they were soon retaken by the French, and ing to the origin and history of this ecclesias. finally (1809) incorporated with France, Rome tico-civil institution. It is beyond the scope being reckoned the second city of the empire. of the present article to appreciate or criticize After the downfall of Napoleon (1814) Pius the motives either of those who labored to VII returned to Rome and was formally rein- maintain it or of those who more or less stated in his office of temporal ruler by the directly sought its abolition. Still less pertreaty of Vienna, mainly through the friendly tinent to the purpose in view would be a specusupport of the non-Catholic powers Russia, lation on the probable restoration of the same Prussia and England. In 1830 a rebellion broke in the future. It must be granted that, conout in Ancona and Bologna, the reason alleged sidering the present political situation in by the insurgents being that the clerical rule in Europe, the probability of a restoration of the the provinces contrasted too unfavorably with temporal power, at least in its ancient form, the preceding French administration. This re- seems rather remote. For all practical intents volt was quelled through the aid of Austria, and purposes the different powers recognize as but another uprising occurred soon after, and a fait accompli the incorporation of the papal the Austrians took occasion thereby to occupy dominions into the kingdom of Italy; though, the northern legations, while at the same time on the other hand, it still remains true that this the French placed a garrison in Ancona. Oc- state of affairs has never yet received any for

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