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mal, international ratification. Furthermore, the future; that, moreover, the present situathe necessity, or even the utility, of such a tion of the papacy is certainly abnormal, and restoration is a point concerning which there is that the increase of moral influence is due in considerable divergence of opinion even among great part to the fact that the popes have mainRoman Catholics. It is a question concerning tained a firm attitude, refusing to become the which no authoritative dogmatic pronouncement allies of the Italian government. Not a few has been formulated by the Church; however, are of the opinion that in the present political the firm and unmistakable attitude of the popes status of the civilized world a system of intertoward it cannot be looked upon by Catholics national guaranties would be a much more otherwise than deeply significant. All, even the effectual means of securing for the Pope the most ultra-montane, must, of course, admit that . permanent free exercise of his spiritual juristhe possession of a temporal sovereignty is not diction than could result from a restoration of an essential prerogative of the successor of the temporal power. However that may be, the Saint Peter, since for so many centuries before most thoughtful statesmen allow that the probit was established the Church was able to de- lem is complicated and delicate — that no soluvelop, and fulfil so efficiently her mission in the tion thus far arrived at or suggested is free world, Yet this temporal sovereignty is re- from grave practical difficulties. The temporal garded by many as the means providentially es- power of mediæval and later times was certablished to protect the necessary independence tainly not without grave drawbacks and disadof the Pope and the free exercise of his func- vantages as regards the interests of both rulers tions as spiritual head of the Church. Others, and subjects. That it has been the occasion of while admitting the main principle involved many evils and abuses, that it has often been a (namely, that the Pope should be free in his real impediment to the spiritual efficiency of spiritual capacity) take a somewhat different the papacy few impartial students of history view of the case. They remind us that the will venture to deny; yet it will doubtless be as temporal power was the outcome of peculiar readily admitted that being given the circumand to a great extent abnormal conditions. It stances of the period the temporal power was was the best and perhaps the only solution at a most useful, even necessary, factor in the evothe time, and for centuries afterward of a lution of Christianity; and whatever may be vexed problem, partly political, partly reli- thought of its adaptability to future contingious; but at the same time it is not proved that gencies it will not be a matter for surprise to had the conditions been otherwise some other find that so many are still convinced of its perrégime of papal supremacy just as satisfactory manent necessity, at least until something better would not have developed. But be that as it shall have been devised to meet the exigencies may, it is claimed that at least in the present of the case, and shall have demonstrated its social and political conditions of the Christian superiority by actual experience. world, so different from those of the Middle Bibliography - Barry, W. F., "The Papal Ages, the desired independence in spiritual Monarchy from Saint Gregory the Great to matters can be secured without imposing on Boniface VIIP (New York 1902); Brosch, the Pope the burden of a temporal as well as (Geschichte des Kirchenstaates) (2 vols., Gotha a spiritual sovereignty. When, however, it is 1882); Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Emasked how this can be done, no very clear or pire! (new ed., New York 1911); Cæsare, R. satisfactory answer is forthcoming. It is plain de, in North American Review (Vol. CLXXI, from the nature of the case, as well as from p. 869, 1901); Crispolti (Marquis), Filippo, in past experience - notably the sojourn of the International Quarterly (March-June 1904); papacy at Avignon — that to have the Pope Döllinger, J. J. I. von, Papstthum und Kirunder the control or protection of any secular chenstaat (Munich 1861); Duchesne, L. M. O., prince is dangerous for the best interests of re- Beginnings of the Temporal Sovereignty of ligion. If the head of the Church be not him- the Popes, A.D. 754_1073! (Chicago 1908); self an independent sovereign, it is hard to Greenwood, A. D., “The Empire and the Papacy conceive a situation in which he would be free in the Middle Ages) (London 1902); Gustine, from undue political or national influence, es- G., 'La loi des garanties) (Paris 1901); Gugpecially if he is to be either the subject or genberger, A., The Papacy and the Empire guest of some temporal ruler. It is for a (Saint Louis 1911); Hassett, M., in Catholic similar reason that the founders of the Ameri- University Bulletin (January 1904); Hergencan Republic wisely determined that the seat of röther, Joseph, Der Kirchenstaat seit der the central or federal government should be französischen Revolution (Freiburg 1860); located not in any of the States, but in a sepa- Ireland, John, in North American Review (Vol. rate independent district, exempted from State CLXXI, p. 337, 1901); Manning, H. E., (Temjurisdiction, thus insuring greater freedom of poral Power of the Pope (London 1871); action to the governing body whose duty it is to Pastor, Ludwig, History of the Popes from the legislate impartially in the interests of the en- Close of the Middle Ages? (English trans. by tire nation. These and other reasons are urged Antrobus and Kerr, 12 vols., London 1906–12); by the advocates of the temporal power and Probyn, J. W., Italy from 1815 to 1890. (Lonwhen it is not unreasonably objected that dur- don 1891); Reumont, A. von, Geschichte der ing the third of a century that has elapsed Stadt Rom? (Berlin 1870); Stillman, W. J., since the occupation of Rome by Victor Em- (The Union of Italy, 1815–1895_(new ed., New manuel the Pope has always enjoyed full free- York 1909); Tout, F. T., (The Empire and the dom in the exercise of his spiritual jurisdiction; Papacy 913–1273) (new ed., London 1901); that never before has the moral influence of Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'occithe papacy been so powerful and far-reaching, dent' (Paris 1896-1902). etc., the answer is made that while all this is

JAMES F. DRISCOLL, D.D., irue, there is nevertheless no sufficient guaranty Rector, Saint Gabriel's Church, New Rochelle, that this liberty will continue to be granted in N. Y.

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TEN COMMANDMENTS. See DECA- tween Siam and the Bay of Bengal. Area, LOGUE.

36,086 square miles. It is for the greater part TEN KATE, Jan Jacob Ludewijk, Dutch a mountainous wilderness. Within its territory poet: b. The Hague, 1819; d. 1889. See KATE are the Mergui Archipelago. Maulmain is the Jan Jacob LUDEWIJK TEN.

chief town on the north and Tavoy in the cenTEN THOUSAND A YEAR, a novel by the mountains are rich in minerals. The natives

tral area. The chief product is rice, though Samuel C. Warren (q.v.) published in 1841. This story, though regarded by critics as

are chiefly Burmese Buddhists. Pop. about ridiculously exaggerated and liable to the sus

1,400,000. picion of being a satire on the middle classes,” TENCH, a small cyprinoid fish (Tinca vulhas held a certain place in fiction for more than garis), familiar in European fresh waters, eshalf a century. The plot is ingenious, the legal pecially slow-running and muddy rivers. The complications are managed in a way that won color is a greenish olive, tinted with a golden the admiration of accomplished lawyers and the hue; the average length about 12 inches. The story with all its faults contrived to arouse and

flesh is soft and rather insipid. maintain the reader's interest. In 1902 it was TENDA PASS, or COL DE TENDA, reissued in an abridged form as (Tittlebat Italy, a pass of the Maritime Alps, Piedmont, in Titmouse.)

the province of Cuneo, between Tenda and TENACITY, the property or quality of re

Limone, on the carriage road from Nice to sistance to disrupting force; the quality by

Cuneo. Its highest point is 6,195 feet above which the molecules of a body resist either

sea-level. tensile or crushing strain. When the tenacity TENDER, in law, a formal offer of comis slight the object may be brittle, when it is pensation or damages made in a money action, great it adheres together firmly. Compare A tender may be made through an authorized TENSILE. See STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.

agent, and to make it valid the money must be TENAFLY, N J., borough in Bergen actually produced. Making a tender may have County, 16 miles northwest of New York, on

the effect of freeing the defender from subsethe Erie Railroad. The Happy Land and Beth- quent expenses if the tender is found sufficient. more summer outing homes for children are A tender made to one of several joint claimants situated here as well as the Mary Fisher Home is held as made to all. A legal tender is one of for the Aged. It is a residential town, form- legal money of the country, originally confined ing a suburb of New York, and there are manu

to coin, but extended to authorized paper factures of decorative burlaps. Pop. (1920) 5,650. money. A payment in foreign notes or "trade) TENAINO, te-ni'no. See SHAHAPTIAN

dollars, or a large sum in bronze pennies, is INDIANS.

not a legal tender.

TENDON, or SINEW, a band of white TENANCY, a beneficial interest in some

fibrous tissues by which a muscle is attached form of real property, or the relation of_the

to a bone or other hard part. Tendons are dislessee of land to the lessor of the same. This

posed in elastic bands or layers flattened or relation may be established without that the lessor be the holder in fee simple of the realty

rounded, and more or less elongated. When

very much flattened and membraneous, they are in question. At the present time the status of a tenant is usually created by a form of convey. They glide smoothly in sheaths, especially in the

called aponeuproses and sometimes fasciæ. ance known as a lease; this is now required to

extremities; in some cases many are enveloped be in writing in most jurisdictions. It usually

in a single sheath, in other situations they are contains covenants or stipulations respecting the

kept in place by an annular ligament, as in the use to which the realty may be put, the rent or

wrist and ankle. One of the most important is compensation to be paid the lessor, the making

the Achilles tendon (q.v.), at the heel. One of of repairs, etc. The law al o regulates the rela

the most beautiful contrivances in the human tions of the tenant to his landlord in some im

body is the manner in which the superficial portant respects. Thus the tenant is protected

flexor tendons in the fingers stop short at the against eviction by the landlord. The tenancy

middle phalanx and divide to allow the tendons may be sub-leased unless there is a restriction in this regard in the lease. A surrender or

of the deep flexor to pass through to the terbreach of the lease terminates a tenancy. See

minal phalanx, thus securing compactness and

beauty of shape, with freedom and extent of LANDLORD AND TENANT.

motion. Contractions of tendons are frequently TENANT. See RENT, LAW OF.

remedied by subcutaneous tenotomy; torticollis TENANT-RIGHT, in British law, a right

(q.v.) is also benefited by the division of the possessed by the tenant, at the expiration of his

tendón of the sternomastoid muscles. Inflamtenancy, for reimbursement for improvements,

mation of the tendon sheaths, or tenosynovitis, and often of considerable monetary value. It is

about the wrist or ankle is a common and painlargely governed in England by statute. Ten- ful affection usually due to strain or over exerant-right prevailed in some parts of Ireland by

cise. Rest and mild counter irritation are the custom for many years, and was formally in- principal elements in the treatment. The violent corporated into the law by an act passed in 1870.

strain of a tendon, less than a rupture, is called It is also applied to the preference given to old

a sprain (q.v.). When a tendon is ruptured or tenants over strangers in leases from the cut nature makes an effort to rejoin it by Church, the Crown or corporations.

growing or depositing new tissue in the gap. TENASSERIM, tě-năs'ë-rim, India,

TENDRAC. See TANREC. maritime division of lower Burma, stretching TENEBRÆ, in


Roman Catholic in a narrow strip from the Salwin River 500 Church the matins and lauds of Wednesday, miles southward into the Malay Peninsula, be- Thursday and Friday of Holy Week, sung on


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the preceding evenings. The ceremony dates tive of the movement has been benevolent imfrom the 8th century. The services begin with pulse, but the strong forces behind it which 15 lighted candles which are extinguished one have given impulse to that initiative and have by one until the last, which is hidden, the united to carry the movement forward have church meantime being darkened. The growing been the same which have evolved sanitary and darkness as a candle is extinguished after each building regulations and are founded quite as hymn betokens the fading light of the world as much on self-interest as altruism. Christ was leaving it, while the light of the History.- The movement for tenementhidden candle brought forth at the end of the house reform in the United States naturally beservice indicates the coming resurrection and gan in New York, its largest city, where the that death could only appear to triumph over need for regulation first became apparent, and Christ. In English mediæval churches 24 can- may be said to date from 1842, when Dr. John dles were used at the service.

H. Griscome, the city inspector of the board of TENEDOS, těn'ě-dos, Asia Minor, an health, called attention to tenement conditions island in the Ægean Sea, off the Troas Coast, in a special report on the sanitation of the city. belonging to Greece. It lies at the entrance to It has since extended to almost all large cities the Dardanelles, hence has figured in naval

in which tenement houses have been erected, operations on several occasions. It is six miles and has taken the form sometimes of State law, long by three miles wide, is of volcanic forma- as in New York and Massachusetts, or more tion, with rugged surface, but highly fertile, often of city ordinance, as in Chicago and Philand celebrated for its wine. Pop. 5,000.

adelphia. The legislation in New York is the TENEMENT HOUSE, a multiple dwell

result of the investigations and recommendaing arranged for the occupation of several

tions of successive State commissions, and the families, each of which can live independently

scope of inquiry of the last commission, which and do its cooking within its apartment. The

is typical, has been «To make a careful examlegal definition varies somewhat in different

ination into the tenement houses in cities of the cities. In New York, Philadelphia, Washing

first class; their condition as to the constructon, Buffalo and other cities, it is such a house

tion, healthfulness, safety, rentals and the effor more than two families. In Chicago, Boston

fect of tenement-house life on health, education, and Saint Louis the line is drawn at more than

savings and morals of those who live in tenethree families. Tenement house is a generic

ment houses and all phases of the so-called term, including what are popularly called apart

tenement-house question in these cities that can ment houses and flat houses or flats, as well as

affect the public welfare.". The chief subjects tenements. The attempt has sometimes been of tenement-house regulation may be grouped E made in framing tenement-house laws or regu

under three general classes: protection against lations to distinguish between apartment and

fire and means of escape in case of fire, light tenement houses, but no satisfactory line of

and ventilation and sanitary protection, the latseparation has ever been suggested, nor is there ter including water supply, water-closet accomany legal regulation properly applicable to ten

modation and the prevention of overcrowding. ement houses, as popularly defined, which

Fire Protection Protection against fire is should not equally apply to apartment houses,

almost universal. Structural provisions directed or which presumably would not be adopted by

to this end are contained in the building laws intelligent owners of such houses from motives of all cities. In New York, Philadelphia, San of self-interest.

Francisco, Jersey City, Providence, Syracuse Tenement-House Reform.-A movement to

and Nashville all tenements must have fire better the housing conditions of the working escapes. All tenements over two stories in classes in cities, which originated about the

height must have fire escapes in Saint Louis, middle of the 19th century and has gradually Baltimore, Louisville, Minneapolis, Saint Paul, become national in character in the United Denver, Toledo and Columbus. In Chicago, States and Great Britain. In the United States Cleveland and Cincinnati this rule only applies to it has taken the form of the regulation by State tenements over three stories in height. In many law or city ordinance of the construction, main- ' cities tenements must be fire-proof throughout tenance and care of tenement houses, whence its

when over a certain height. In Philadelphia this is true of all over four stories; in Washington of those over five stories; in New York, Buffalo, Louisville, Minneapolis and Denver of those over six stories in height. In Boston the limit is 65 feet.

Light and Ventilation are protected by minimum open spaces and by a limitation of the percentage of a lot which can be occupied by a building. In Philadelphia there must be open spaces at the side or rear, equal to one-fifth of the lot area, and the minimum width of all

spaces is eight feet. In Buffalo, under the local A tenement with no room opening on a court narrower

law in force before the general State act of than 12' 6", with every room light and well ventilated, 1901 was passed, the minimum width of any and with separate water-closets for each apartment and outer court was six feet in two-story buildbaths for some

ings, eight feet in three- and four-story buildtitle. In Great Britain this movement has been ings and one additional foot in width for each directed to all kinds of houses, including tene- additional story. The minimum interior court ment houses, and is usually called by its more was 8 by 10. În Boston, a clear open space at generic title of "Housing Reform. The initia- the rear must be left equal to one-half the

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width of the street on which the tenement toward tenement houses and their inmates, as
fronts and there must be two open spaces at such, which were previously divided among the
least 10 feet wide. In some cities the required other city departments.
court area is expressed in square feet, without Model Tenements.- The erection of model
regard to minimum width or length and in- tenements, so-called, of large size, from mo-
creases proportionately with the height of the tives primarily philanthropic, has been less
building. This principle is adopted in New

frequent in the United States than in Great York, where the minimum width of exterior Britain. The best known and earliest are the courts in buildings five stories high is six "Home Buildings and Tower Buildings, which feet on the lot line and 12 feet between wings were erected by Alfred T. White in Brooklyn; and the minimum area of interior courts on the first named in 1879. The erection of these the lot line in buildings of the same height buildings, which have been financially successis 12 by 24. These dimensions are increased ful from the start, was an epoch in the cause of or decreased according as the building is higher tenement reform. It led indirectly to the Teneor lower. Tenement houses in New York must ment-House Law of 1879. Among the most have an open yard at least 12 feet wide in the successful model tenements are those of the rear. The maximum percentage of lot area City, and Suburban Homes Company of New which may be occupied by the building differs, York. In the United States 616 cities now take properly, according as the lot is an interior or an active interest in housing, and in 124 model a corner lot. As respects interior lots, this housing enterprises have been launched. limitation in New York and Buffalo is 70 Great Britain.— The movement for housper cent; in Boston 65 per cent; in Philadelphia ing reform in Great Britain has had a some80 per cent. The height of rooms is almost what different direction from its American universally regulated, the minimum usually counterpart. The evils there have been more being eight feet. The height of tenements is largely slum conditions than those resulting limited in many cities. In New York it is from tall buildings and unventilated and unlimited to one and one-half times the width of

lighted rooms. The particular evils of the tall the street on which it faces.

tenement practically exist only in Edinburgh Water Supply.- In New York water must and Glasgow. Consequently English and Scotch be furnished on each floor. In Philadelphia effort has been directed mainly toward the and Buffalo, on each floor, for each set of demolition of unsanitary areas

and more rooms. In Boston, Chicago, Jersey City and recently, the erection of municipal tenements Kansas City, in one or more places in the house by the city governments themselves. These or yard. Water-closet accommodation is very movements, at first local, and authorized under generally prescribed. In Philadelphia and in local acts, such as the Glasgow Improvement New York, under the law of 1901, there must Act of 1866 and the Liverpool Sanitary Amendbe one for every apartment. Under the prev- ment Act of 1868, have been made general by ious law in New York, there must be one the Housing of the Working Classes Act of for every two families. In other cities the unit

1890 and many slum areas have been destroyed is the number of persons. It is 20 persons in and municipal tenements built in their place, Boston, Baltimore and Denver; 10 persons in notably in the cities of London, Glasgow, ManRochester.

chester, Liverpool and Edinburgh. TenementLaw Enforcement. The enforcement of house regulation in Great Britain emphasizes Tenement-House Law in American cities is the same general subjects and follows the same usually vested in existing city departments to lines as American regulation. Limitations upon which it is most germane. These provisions, height are general and more drastic than in which relate to the construction of new build- America. Such houses are limited in London ings and the alteration of old ones, are natur- to 80 feet, without special consent of the counally enforced by a building department or by cil and may not exceed the distance between whatever part of a city government has charge the front wall of the building and the opposite of the enforcement of building regulations. side of the street in streets less than 50 feet Sanitary regulations are, for a like reason, wide. In Edinburgh they are limited to one usually enforced by a board of health or by and one-quarter times the width of the street; whatever city officer supervises the enforcement in Liverpool and Glasgow to the actual width of health laws in general. In the city of New of the street; in Manchester to two stories in York previous to 1901 the enforcement of such streets of less than 30 feet in width and to regulations was divided between the building three stories in wider streets up to a width department, the health department, the fire de- of 36 feet. Tenement regulations on the Conpartment and the police department. Under tinent usually form part of the general buildsuch divided responsibility many of them were ing regulations. The regulations for Paris and not enforced at all, and the enforcement of Berlin are very elaborate, but proceed under others was extremely lax. Moreover, the tene- the same general lines as in English and Ameriment-house problem in New York was an ex- can cities. In Berlin, houses fronting on the ceptionally large one. Of its population at that street may only be as high as the width of time of nearly 3,500,000, nearly 2,500,000, or the street. In Paris a somewhat greater latimore than two thirds, lived in tenement houses tude is allowed in this particular. as legally defined. Under these circumstances No American city has imitated the English the State commission of 1900 recommended the example of building municipal tenements, nor establishment of a separate tenement-house de- has uch action ever been seriously proposed. partment in the city of New York. This de- Serious objections to any such extension of partment was established under the new charter the sphere of municipal activity would exist in of the city which went into operation in 1902 any American city. Moreover, municipal buildand centres in itself all the municipal duties ing would discourage and restrict building by

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private enterprise, which has proved sufficient ing 200 pictures in the gallery of Archduke to meet the demand. The problem is too large Leopold William to whom he had been apfor any American city to deal with it success- pointed painter. This copying degenerated into fully by the use of any amount of public funds servile imitation and he produced such perfect likely to be put at its disposal for such pur- facsimiles that they deceived even connoisseurs, poses. Halfway measures by preventing private and he has been styled the "Ape of Painting.” enterprise would only increase the evil which Yet he had also a strong vein of originality they sought to remedy.

and his paintings of low life in Flanders are Bibliography.- De Forest and Veiller, “The excellent examples of genre. Although refined Tenement House Problem(1903); Gould, in mind and manners and patronized by such (The Housing of the Working People (1895); men as Prince John of Austria, son of the Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1890); Emperor Charles V, he preferred to immorid., The Battle with the Slum' (1899); First talize by his brush the card table and drinking Report of the New York Tenement House De- party of boors and was to the last the enpartment' (1904); Veiller, Lawrence, Model thusiastic painter of the pot-house and the Tenement House Law) (1910); George, Wil- guard-room with its rollicking soldiery. There liam, The Law of Apartments, Flats and are at least 2,000 of his pictures at present in Tenements). (New York 1908); Dinwiddie, E. existence, six of them being hung in the New W., Housing Conditions in Philadelphia'; York Metropolitan Museum of Art, though Clode, W. B., The Law Relating to Tenement none of these latter excepting A Marriage Houses' (London 1889); Waldo, F. L., Good Festival, can be called representative of the Housing that Pays).(Philadelphia 1917); artist's style and quality. Like Rubens, some Aronovici, Carol, Housing Conditions in Saint of whose manner he inherited from the teachPaul' (1917); Poole, Ernest, (The Plague in ing of his father, a pupil of the former, he was its Stronghold' (New York 1903); Chicago a rapid executant; many of his works are mere School of Civics and Philanthropy, (The Hous- sketches, others elaborated with exquisite ing Problem, Literature in Chicago Libraries) virtuosity. His touch is light but sure and his (Chicago 1912); Housing Problems in Amer- coloring exceptionally fine, while for animation ica! (Proceedings of the Seventh National and power of expression he remains the first Conference on Housing, Boston, 25, 26 and 27 of Flemish genre painters. His works are Nov. 1918); Proceedings of the International highly prized and his Village Fete was sold Housing Congress (Paris 1900 et seq.); Price, in 1850 for $15,750. Consult Rosenberg, (TenG. M., The Tenement House Inspector? (New

iers der Jüngere.? York 1917).

TENNANTITE, an isometric, metallic TENERIFFE, těn-ėr-if', the largest of the mineral, isomorphous with tetrahedrite. It is Canary Islands. It is 60 miles long, 10 to 25 essentially a copper sulph-arsenite, differing miles wide and has an area of 782 square from tetrahedrite into which it passes by inmiles. The coasts are precipitous and the in- sensible gradations, only in the preponderance terior rises in the volcanic Peak of Teneriffe

of arsenic instead of the antimony which disor Pico de Teyde, to a height of 12,192 feet. tinguishes the latter. Its color and streak are This mountain has been quiescent for two usually iron-black; it often has a brilliant mecenturies. The soil is very fertile and produces tallic lustre; its hardness varies widely from dates, coco-palms, fruit, grain, cotton, sugar 3 to 4.5; its specific gravity is also quite variable, and grapes. The chief town and the capital 4.4 to 5.1. It occurs in fine specimens in the of the Canary Islands is Santa Cruz de Ten

mines of Cornwall, England, in Bolivia and erife, situated on the northeastern coast. The Colorado. When sufficiently abundant it conSpanish government has established there a stitutes a valuable copper ore. large wireless telegraph station. Pop. of the island about 180,000. See CANARY ISLANDS.


TEER STATE"), a southern-central State of the TENIERS, těn'yérz (Fr. tā-nē-ır), David, United States. Kentucky and Virginia lie to THE ELDER, Flemish artist: b. Antwerp, 1582; the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, d. there, 29 July 1649. Having studied under

Alabama and Mississippi to the south; and Rubens, he went to Rome and remained there

Arkansas and Missouri to the west. Its length 10 years. On his return to his native country

on the northern side is 436 miles; that on the he occupied himself principally in the delinea- southern side is 100 miles less. The area is tion of fairs, shops, rustic sports and drink

approximately 42,050 square miles, of which ing parties, which he exhibited with such truth,

something like 300 miles are covered by the humor and originality, that he may be con

water of streams. The southern boundary of sidered the founder of a style of painting which Tennessee was intended to follow the 35th his son afterward brought to perfection. He

parallel, but all parts of it lie from a fraction also painted some landscapes with scriptural or

of a mile to a mile south of that line, excepting mythological figures in the foreground. A pic

the 45 miles east of Tennessee River, between ture from his hand was sold in 1886 for $2,275. Alabama and Tennessee. That part of the His Dutch Kitchen in the New York Metro

northern boundary between Tennessee and Mispolitan Museum gives a fair example of his sissippi rivers is on the parallel of 36° 30'. style. This canvas is 451/2 by 39 inches and,

Immediately east of Tennessee River, the norththerefore, much larger than the majority of

ern boundary is 127/2 miles north of parallel his pictures.

36° 30'. Eastward from this point the boundTENIERS, David, THE YOUNGER (son of ary is not straight but on the whole approaches the preceding), Flemish artist: b. Antwerp, that line, coming within approximately five 15 Dec. 1610; d. Brussels, 25 April 1690. He miles of it, in the middle of Claiborne County. received his early instruction in his art from Here there is a jog of about a mile to the north. his father and his style was improved by copy

There is a similar but somewhat greater one in

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