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oxygen and liberation of carbon dioxide. Body temperature remains about normal under many trying circumstances through the balance maintained by the nervous system between its production and its dissipation. The chief avenues of dissipation are radiation from the surface of the body, the expired air and the excreta. Febrile action or fever is believed to be due to an overproduction of heat, to an underelimination or to both. The overproduction is believed to result from an increased combustion especially of albuminous substances of the body, with an increased discharge of carbon dioxide and the nitrogeneous wastes, urea, creatine and creatinine. When fever prevails the action of the heart is accelerated, the secretions of glands are impaired and the intricate process of metabolism is deranged. Heat-regulation, effected by reciprocal changes in heat-production and heatdissipation and depending essentially upon the influence of cutaneous impulses and the temperature of the blood, is governed, it is generally believed, by two nerve-centres, one controlling heat-production, the other heat-dissipation.

THERMOTROPISM, a tendency toward warmth, exhibited in the reactions of animals. An example is found in the care with which ants move their eggs and larvæ from place to place in order to secure a proper and equable temperature for their welfare. Compare HELIOTROPISM, with which tendency this is somewhat confused.

THERMORPHA, or ANOMODONTIA, an order of extinct (Triassic and Perman) reptiles. "The dominant group among the earliest reptiles in each quarter of the globe where they have as yet been discovered," say Woodward, is directly intermediate in skeletal characters between the highest labyrinthodonts (Mastododonsaurus and its allies) and the lower mammals (Monotremata). Its members first received the name Anomodontia in allusion to the varied modifications of the dentition, so unusual among reptiles. They were afterward named Theromorphia or Theromora

in allusion to the many obvious resemblances in their skeleton to that of monotreme mammals." These similarities are chiefly of the dentition, zygomatic arch, pelvis, cruro-tarsal joint, scapula and occasional doubling of the occipital condyle. The general shape of the skull is often closely mammalian, but its details show its unquestionable reptilian features. Three suborders are recognized Pareiosauria, Theriodontia and Anomodontia.

The theromorphs were all land-reptiles with short, stout limbs and powerful jaws. Some were massive and of great size, like great alligators with turtle-like or even dog-like heads; others small and probably as agile as a weasel. They were the predatory beasts of their age, and were adapted in powers and characteristics to the pursuit of a large variety of animal prey. The most unreptile-like were those of the suborder Theriodontia.

It is a natural suggestion that the race of mammals, undoubtedly of reptilian origin, must have descended from this group, whose bones (numerous in the Triassic rocks of the western United States) show so many mammalian features; but thus far no direct connection can be shown. The dinosaurs, however, seem certainly to have descended from this stock.

Consult Woodward, Vertebrate Palæontology' (London 1898); Gadow, Amphibia and Reptiles (New York 1901), wherein many further references to details will be found.

THEROPODA, a sub-order of dinosaurs



THERSITES, ther-si'tēz, according Homer, the ugliest man in the whole Grecian army that beleagured Troy. He was a malicious and slanderous brawler whom Ulysses publicly beat and brought to tears for his insulting attack on Aganon. He was eventually slain by Achilles for piercing with his spear the eye of the dead queen of the Amazons, Penthesilea, whom he had also spoken of with contumely.

THERY, Edmund, French writer on economics: b. Ragnac, France, 1854. He is a commander of the Legion of Honor, member of numerous societies interested in his line of work and has represented his government in various economic missions to several countries. His writings include 'Europe et Etats-Unis d'Amérique (1899); 'La France economique et financière pendant le dernier quat de siècle' (1900); La Banque de France de 1897 a 1909) (1910); L'Europe économique' (1911); 'Le regime actuel des chemins de fer en Russie' (1913), etc.

THESEUM, the-se'ům, or THESEION, the-se on, a temple in ancient Athens dedicated to the commemoration of Theseus and his exploits. It stood on an elevated site north of the Areopagus (q.v.) and in early Christian times was used as the church of Saint George of Cappadocia. Within its precincts Cimon is said to have deposited the bones of the hero which he had brought from the island of Scyros, but archæologists do not support this claim. The temple was begun 465 B.C. Many consider it to have been originally dedicated to Heracles or Hephaestus, but there is no reason to doubt that it is actually a Theseum. It was constructed of Pentelic marble in the purest Doric style and is technically to be described as an amphiprostyle, hexastyle peripteral temple, with pronaos, and opisthodomos or epinaos. The façade and rear pediment have each six columns; the sides 13 each; their height being about 30 feet. A fragment of the portico and the roof of the stella are still standing. There are also some noteworthy remains of the statuary with which the building was adorned by sculptors of the school of Phidias. On the metope are set forth the exploits of Theseus and Heracles and the frieze of the cella is also in part standing. The dimensions of the building are roughly to be estimated at 104 x 45% feet. Consult Stuart and Revett 'Antiquities of Athens' (London 1762-1816); Leake, Topography of Athens' (London 1841); Dyer, Ancient Athens, Its History, Topography and Remains' (London 1873).

THESEUS, the'sūs or the'sē-us, in Greek legend, a king of Athens and national hero of Attica, son of Egeus by Ethra, the daughter of Pittheus of Trozen, in Peloponnesus. He was educated at Træezen, at the house of Pittheus, and passed for the son of Poseidon (Neptune). When he came to years of maturity he was sent by his mother to his father, and a sword and sandals were given him by which he might make

himself known to geus (q.v.) in a private manner. On arriving at Athens he narrowly escaped being poisoned by Medea, the sorceress, but his father recognized the sword, and received Theseus as his successor on the throne. He next caught alive the wild Marathonian bull; but a much more important service was the slaying of the Minotaur and the freeing of Athens from the tribute of seven youths and seven maidens annually sent to Crete to be devoured by that monster. (See MINOTAUR). Fearing his son had perished while in Crete Ægeus destroyed himself; hence Theseus on his return succeeded his father as ruler of Athens. The Athenians were governed with mildness, and Theseus made new regulations and enacted new laws. The number of the inhabitants of Athens was increased: a court was instituted, which had the care of all civil affairs; and Theseus made the government democratic, while he reserved for himself only the command of the armies. To him also the Athenians ascribed the union of the towns of Attica into a single state, with Athens at the head, and the division of the people into the three classes of Eupatridæ, Geomori and Demiurgi (nobles, husbandmen and mechanics). Perhaps the most celebrated of the events in the career of Theseus after the slaying of the Minotaur was his war with the Amazons. He is said to have invaded their territory and carried off their queen, Antiope (according to another account, that with which the readers of Chaucer and Shakespeare are familiar, Hippolyta). Amazons in their turn invaded Attica, and a battle was fought in the city of Athens itself. Theseus was victorious, and the Amazons driven out of Attica. He was absent from Athens on various expeditions, and when he returned the Athenians had forgotten his services. He retired to the court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros, who threw him down a deep precipice. In 469 B.C. his bones, as supposed, were found by Cimon in Scyros, and brought to Athens, where they received a magnificent, burial. Statues and a temple (the Theseum, q.v.) were raised; and festivals and games were publicly instituted to commemorate his actions. A portion of the temple still remains standing. What shreds of history, if any, there may be in the accounts of Theseus cannot be ascertained. Consult Harrison, J. E., Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens' (London 1890); Lübker, F., Reallexikon des Klassischen Altertums (Leipzig 1914); Schultz, A., 'De Theseo' (Breslau 1874).


THESMOPHORIA, a pagan festival of ancient Greece. It was celebrated only by women, in honor of Demeter Thesmophoros ("the lawgiver") as foundress of agriculture, and thereby of orderly social life and the marriage. At Athens the festival extended to three days, beginning with 24 October. On the first day there was a procession to the temple of Demeter at Halimos, southeast of the city; on the second a fast; and on the third day, called Kalligencia ("the bearer of a fair offspring"), general and often licentious indulgence.

THESMOTHETE, thěs'mō-thēt (from a Greek word meaning lawgiver), one of the six inferior archons at Athens who presided at the election of the lower magistrates, received

criminal informations, decided civil causes, took the votes at elections and performed other duties.

THESPESIUS, also called Claosaurus, a dinosaur whose fossil remains found in the upper Cretaceous strata in Wyoming, Montana and Colorado show it to have resembled the Iguanodon. It was upwards of 30 feet long and stood from 10 to 25 feet high. Like others of its species it was herbivorous and balanced its long forward body by its heavy tail. Complete sketches of the animal are found in the principal museums. (See DINOSAUR). Consult Marsh, O. C., The reconstruction of the Cretaceous Dinosaur' (in Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences, Vol. XI, New Haven 1902).

THESPIS, Greek author. He was a native of Icaria, a deme of Attiça, lived in the time of Solon, in the 6th century B.C., and is considered the inventor of tragedy, as he added to the dithyrambic choruses of the feats of Bacchus an actor, who, when the chorus was silent, generally recited a mythical story; and probably carried on dialogues with the leader of the chorus, appearing successively in different characters in a piece. This was a decided step toward the drama.

THESSALONIANS, Epistles to the. Authorship. While Paul's authorship of the First Epistle to the Thessalonians has occasionally been questioned, the consensus of critical opinion is at the present time so nearly unanimous in favor of its genuineness that it seems needless to argue the question at all. The external evidence is strongly favorable; the style and vocabulary are admittedly Pauline; the doctrinal content, while not very full, is in harmony with Paul's teachings elsewhere; above all, in its whole tone and temper it is unmistakably and inimitably an outpouring of the very heart and soul of the great Apostle. As concerns the Second Epistle the case stands somewhat differently. Though the external evidence is even stronger than for the First Epistle, yet its Pauline authorship has been far more disputed. The difficulties which have been raised grow mainly out of its relation to the First Epistle, and practically reduce to three: (1) the resemblance in portions of the two letters, considered by some to be too close to permit us to think of the second as an independent composition; in answer to which it is said that this likeness covers no more than a third of the letter, and may easily be explained in any of many ways, as, for instance, that just before writing Paul might have glanced at a copy of his first letter; (2) the difference in tone and temper of the two letters, Paul seeming in the second more formal and less cordial and affectionate, a fact for which several explanations have been offered, as that if the first letter had failed helpfully to affect some of the Thessalonians, he might naturally speak in a more formal and distant way in his second letter, or, as Harnack has suggested, this letter may have been intended solely for the Jewish section of the church, while the other was for the main body of the church, which was Gentile in origin, and more loyal to Paul; and (3) the difference in the eschatological teaching, which, however, does not amount to a contradiction, but is to be regarded partly as a correction of a

misunderstanding of the teaching in the first letter, which misunderstanding seems in spite of the correction still to continue in some circles, and partly is an addition of certain elements in Paul's doctrine of the Last Things which had not come out earlier, resulting in an apparent change of emphasis, but not in a real inconsistency. Certainly the difficulties in the way of explaining the letter as a forgery have been found greater than of accepting it as genuine, and consequently the later criticism seems decisively to favor the Pauline authorship of both Epistles.

Date and Place. From the First Epistle itself in comparison with Acts it is easy to ascertain the date and place of composition. On his second great missionary journey, the second European city in which Paul worked was Thessalonica, the modern Saloniki. Here he established a church at once, but his very success caused him to be driven from the city after a stay possibly of only three weeks, almost certainly of only about as many months. From there Paul went to Greece, making a short stay at Athens and establishing himself for a year and a half at Corinth. It is plain that Timothy, who was sent back from Athens to visit, comfort and confirm the Thessalonian Church, rejoined Paul at Corinth with his report, and the first letter must have been written almost at once. According to some the second letter followed the first even without waiting for an answer and in any case the interval cannot have been long, a few weeks at most. The most common dating is in the spring of 51, but chronologists vary two or three years either way so far as the years to be assigned to the various events of Paul's work are concerned. These Epistles are accordingly among the very earliest New Testament books, only James and Galatians being considered by any to be earlier.

Conditions of Composition. It is plain from 1 Thessalonians as well as from Acts that the reception of Paul and of his teaching at Thessalonica was peculiarly prompt and cordial. In a very short time a church was established, consisting partly of Jews, but mainly of proselytes and Gentiles, including some of the principal men and women of the city. Paul turned back to Thessalonica as a place where his work had been a peculiar delight, and the mutual affection of the Apostle and his converts must have been unusual. But his stay at the longest had been brief, and in spite of his plans and endeavors he had found it impossible to return, while at the same time he had reason to fear that misrepresentations were being circulated touching both his failure to revisit them and his purposes in his missionary work and his relations to his converts. From the report of his messenger Timothy, and possibly from a letter to Paul from the church, quotations from which some have thought they found embedded in this letter, it appeared that on the one hand a certain fanaticism showing itself in immorality and on the other hand a certain doctrinal and spiritual uncertainty had grown up in the Church. It was to remedy those conditions that Paul wrote his first letter. The second is a natural pendent to the first. It is usually held that Paul's letter mainly accomplished its purposes, but that either by the return of the messenger who carried it or by

written response from the Thessalonians themselves, Paul learned that some disorders continued and that his teaching about the Last Things needed supplementing to correct misunderstandings, and thus arose the Second Epistle.

Contents. These letters are peculiar in that two of Paul's fellow-workers, Silas and Timothy, are associated with him in the address (i, 1), though it is plain that in composition and in thought as well as in personal relations it is definitely his own letter. In 1 Thess., he first gives an explanation of his failure to return to them, adding an assurance of his strong affection for them and an assurance of his confidence in their affection for him and their continuing faith in Christ, all so put as to answer any misrepresentations of him and his work which might be current (i, 2-iii, 13). Then come various moral injunctions, first, to chastity, and then to brotherly love, with which is associated the duty of diligent labor (iv, 1-12). There follows the correction of the painful misunderstanding of some of the Christians as to their friends who had lately died, by the assurance that through their resurrection they would be at no disadvantage when Christ should return, and encouragement for all in reference to the same return (iv, 13-v, 11), and, finally, warnings against various disorders, couched in brief injunctions, and a few salutations (12-28). In the second letter, after a brief greeting (i, 1, 2), Paul gives utterance to a remarkable expression of thanksgiving and prayer (i, 3-12); then corrects the misunderstanding of what he had said in his first letter, assuring them that before the "Day of the Lord” there was much history to be made, including a great apostacy (ii, 1-12); a brief encouragement to fainthearted brethren follows (ii, 13-iii, 5), and warnings to the idle and dissolute (iii, 6-15), the Epistle ending with a word of explanation of how the Apostle added to his dictated letters a certificate in his own handwriting and the benediction with which he commonly closed his letters (iii, 16–18).

Bibliography.-Frame, J. E., Commentary on the Epistle of Saint Paul to the Thessalonians (International Critical Commentary, 1912); Lake, K., 'The Earlier Epistle of Saint Paul (1911); Milligan, George, Saint Paul's Epistle to the Thessalonians) (1908); Moffatt, James, 'First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians' (Expositor's Greek Testament, 1910). DAVID FOSTER ESTES, Professor of New Testament Interpretation, Colgate University.


THESSALY, thes'a-li, or THESSALIA, the northeastern division of ancient Greece proper, bounded on the north by the Cambunian Mountains, separating it from Macedonia; on the west by the chains of Pindus and Tymphrestus, separating it from Epirus; on the south by Mount Eta, separating it from Ætolia, Doris and Locris; and on the east by the Egean Sea. The rich plain enclosed between these mountains belongs almost entirely to one river basin, that of the Peneios (Salambria), which traverses it from west to east, and finds an outlet into the Thermaic Gulf through the vale of Tempe. It was especially famed for its fine breed of horses and its skilful horse

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men. The name of Thessaly was derived from the Thessali, a Greek people who are said to have come into this land from the west, and who became the governing class in the country. Thessaly was broken up into separate states loosely united under a tagus, and long exerted no important influence on the affairs of Greece generally; but it rose for a brief period to a position of greater consequence when (about 375 B.C.) Jason of Pheræ, having been elected tagus, brought the whole of Thessaly completely under his power, and began to threaten the rest of Greece, but the confederacy was again weakened after his assassination in 370 B.C. Thessaly afterward became dependent on Macedonia, and finally was incorporated with the Roman Empire. În 1393, after the fall of the Byzantine Empire, Thessaly came, with the rest of the imperial dominions, into the hands of the Turks, and till recently formed a part of the Ottoman Empire. The greater portion of it passed to Greece in 1881, and the remainder in 1919. The Greco-Turkish War of 1897 was tought principally within the borders of Thessaly. Consult Baedeker, K., 'Greece' (4th English ed., Leipzig 1909); Kent, R. G., A History of Thessaly from the Earliest Historical Times to the Accession of Philip V of Macedon (Lancaster, Pa., 1904); Leake, W. M., ‘Travels in Northern Greece' (4 vols., London 1835); Philippson, A., Thessalien und Epirus' (Berlin 1897); Wace and Thompson, 'Prehistoric Thessaly (Cambridge 1912).

THETFORD MINES, Canada, town in Megantic County, on the Quebec Central Railway, about 76 miles south of the city of Quebec. It is chiefly known for the deposits of asbestos in the neighborhood. There are numerous small industries. Pop. about 7,500.

THETIS, the'tis, in Greek mythology, a daughter of Nereus and Doris, therefore one of the Nereids. Her nuptials with Peleus were celebrated on Mount Pelion, and were honored by the presence of all the gods except Eris or Discord, who was not invited, and who, to avenge the slight, threw in among the company the apple of discord. By Peleus she became the mother of Achilles (q.v.).

THEURGY, from the Greek theourgia, meaning divine work, and used among the ancients to signify supernatural agency in individual human affairs, or in the government of the world. Hence the act or art of invoking Ideities or spirits, or by their intervention conjuring up visions, interpreting dreams, receiving or explaining oracles, etc.; the power of obtaining from the gods, by means of certain observances, words, symbols or the like, a knowledge of the secrets which surpass the power of reason, to lay open the future, etc. The word also means that species of magic which more modern professors of the art allege to produce its effects by supernatural agency, as contradistinguished from natural magic. Also a system of supernatural knowledge or power believed by the Egyptian Platonists to have been divinely communicated to a hierarchy, and by them handed down from generation to generation.

THEURIET, Claude Andre, French poet and novelist: b. Marly-le-Roi, 8 Oct. 1833; d. 23 April 1907. He studied law in Paris, received his licentiate in 1857 and in that year entered the

department of the Ministry of Finance. Soon, however, he turned his attention to literature. In 1896 he was elected a member of the French Academy, having received the prix Vitet in 1890. His poems include 'Le chemin des bois' (1867) 'Le Bleu et le noir) (1873); Nos oiseaux' (1886); and 'La ronde des saisons et des mois (1891). He also published Jules Bastien-Lepage, l'homme et l'artiste) (1885), but is best known by his novels, among which are 'Nouvelles intrines' (1870); Mlle. Guignon' (1874); Channe dangereux' (1891); 'La Chanoinesse (1893), etc. He was the author of some 60 works of fiction. He also wrote several dramas including Jean-Marie) (1871); 'Le maison des deux Barbeaux' (1885), and 'Jour d'été (1901).

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THIBAULT, Jacques Anatole France, critic and novelist: b. Paris, 16 April 1844. He is known wherever French is read and the Latin genius appreciated as ANATOLE FRANCE, and was called by Lemaître, one of the shrewdest of his contemporaries, "the ultimate flowering of the Latin genius." Son of a Parisian bookseller, another "France" and a veteran of the body-guard of Charles X, Anatole grew up in the bookish atmosphere which he has conveyed marvelously into several of his stories as he has also his father's character. A Parisian of the Parisians, he was named officer of the Legion of Honor in 1895 and received into the Academy in 1896. For the rest the story of his life is in his writing. Besides early verses his well-nigh 50 volumes embrace charming books. of autobiographic "truth and fiction» such as 'Le livre de mon ami' (1895), 'Pierre Nozaire (1900) and Les désirs de Jean Sévier (1912); books of philosophic criticism, themselves, as he openly professes, evidencing his own way of thinking in noting the ways of others, chief among them articles collected from Le Temps in five volumes of 'La vie litteraire (1888–93) and 'Le génie latin (1913); dramatic experiments, among which Thaïs' is best known; an extended controversial biography. 'La vie de Jeanne d'Arc' (1908); expressions of fervid patriotism in stress of war, such as Sur la voie glorieuse (1915), and, finally and chiefly, a long series of books which in the guise of fiction express all the manifold phases of his political observations, his social aspirations and indignations, his philosophic speculations and the play of his recreative imagination in evoking the thought and life of a long out-lived past. This fiction, taken chronologically, gives the clue to the development of France out from the dilettant scepticism of Renan, through epicureanism, in its higher and also its lower sense, into an earnest, though still ironic, socialism, with occasional glints of fierce intolerance for obscurantists, reactionary or clerical. Outstanding among these books is first Le crime de Sylvestre Bonnard' (1881), his second novel, whose genial sympathy with childhood and large-hearted irony have attracted writers of distinction, among them Lafcadio Hearn, to attempt its translation. 'Balthasar) (1900) and

'Thais (1900), a mediæval and an early Christian study, show a curiously subtle "piety of imagination with impiety of thought." Nearer to his own mind were La Rotisserie de la Reine Pédauque' (1893) and 'Les opinions de Jérôme Coignard' (1893) in which the ascetic, epicurean and courtesan figures of Thais reappear in 18th century dress and an abbé becomes playful mouthpiece for the ironic expression of a scepticism more radical in France than any since Montaigne. Each book, without plot, is a chain of sparkling epigrams in which the laughing philosopher unmasks the pettinesses and inconsistencies of private and public morals and life. French politics are the unobtruded theme of four notable volumes of Histoire contemporaine, L'orme du mail' (1896); Le mannequin d'osier (1897); 'L'anneau d'améthyste' (1899) and 'M. Bergeret à Paris' (1901), all jewels of graceful perversity. Then France's thought takes a more serious bent as he is drawn into the lists with Zola against militarist and religious reaction as revealed in the Dreyfus case. Of this good evidence is seen in 'Crainquebille' (1903); 'Les contes de Jacques Tournebroche' (1908) and the political satires L'Île des pingouins' (1908) and 'Les dieux ont soif) (1912) as well as in 'La vie de Jeanne d'Arc' (1908) and in Opinions sociales' (1902). All these books, whatever their form, are in effect criticism of contemporary life. He has himself said that he counts criticism as possibly the ultimate evolution of literary expression, well suited to a highly civilized society which is rich in old traditions, the last in date of all literary forms and destined to absorb all. All of them illustrate an idea of style which he has put admirably in 'Le jardin d'Epicure (1894). "A simple style," he says, "is like white light; it is complex but does not seem so. In writing what appears a beautiful and pleasant simplicity is really the result of careful arrangement and strict economy in the use of the various parts of speech." In this art of hiding his art France is almost supreme. See LE CRIME DE SYLVESTRE BONNARD. Consult an English translation of 'Works' edited by Frederic Chapman (London 1908-19) already embracing 27 volumes. Of separate works there are many other versions. For criticism consult Michaut, G., Anatole France,' (Paris 1913), also works by Brandes, G. (London 1908), by George, W. L. (New York 1915), and Shanks, L. P. (Chicago 1919).


THIBAUT, tè-bō, or THEOBALD I, king of Navarre: b. France, about 1200; d. 1253. He was educated at the court of Philip Augustus. As the Count of Champagne he is said to have been a lover of the queen of Louis VIII, whose death in 1226 Thibaut was suspected of having caused. He succeeded to the throne of Navarre on the death of his uncle, Sancho the Strong, in 1234. Going in 1239 to Palestine, he suffered defeat at Gaza. He left a reputation in literature as a trouvère whom even Petrarch and Dante, and other great poets praised. His poems, first published by Lévesque de la Ravallière (2 vols., Paris 1742), have appeared in several later editions. Consult Delbarre, Vie de Thibaut (1850), and Lavisse, Ernest, 'Histoire de France (Vol. III, part VI, Paris 1901).

THIBET, ti-bět'. See TIBET.

THIBODEAUX, tēb-o-do', La., town, parish-seat of Lafourche Parish, on Bayou Lafourche, and on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 47 miles west by south of New Orleans and 60 miles south by east of Baton Rouge. It is in an agricultural region in which the principal products are rice, sugarcane and cotton. The industries are connected chiefly with the cultivation and shipment of cotton, rice, sugarcane and vegetables. It contains foundries, canneries and ice plants. There are several private schools, among them Mount Carmel Academy, Thibodeaux College, and Guion Academy. Pop. 3,824.

THICKHEAD, a South American caterpillar-eating bird of the family Capitonida, so named because of the full-feathered and apparently excessive size of the head. The family is a large and handsome one, closely allied to the puff-birds, and sometimes united with them under the general term "barbet." In other parts of the world "thickhead" is applied to various other birds, especially in South Africa to the stonecurlew (Edicnemus) of that region, translating the local Dutch name dikkop.

THIEF, one who steals or is guilty of theft; one who takes the goods or personal property of another without his knowledge or consent, and without any intention of returning them; one who deprives another of property secretly or without open force, as opposed to a robber, who uses open force or violence. A burglar is a thief who forces an entrance into a building.

THIEF RIVER FALLS, Minn., city, county-seat of Pennington County, on the Great Northern and the Minneapolis, Saint Paul and Sainte Marie railroads, about 50 miles northeast of Crookton on the Red Lake and Thief rivers. It lies in an agricultural section which raises much wheat, has a flour mill, foundry, sash and door factory and iron works. The notable buildings are the Carnegie library and the municipal auditorium. Pop. (1920) 4,685.

THIERRY, ti-ĕr'i (Fr. tē-a-rē), Amédée Simon Dominique, French historian and politician: b. Blois, 2 Aug. 1797; d. Paris, 26 March 1873. As a young man he entered the service of the Minister of Marine, and in 1828 became professor of history at Besançon. His ideas being ultra-liberal, his course was suspended by the Minister of Public Instruction. In 1830 he became prefect of the department of HauteSaône, and in 1838 returned to Paris, where he was appointed master of petitions addressed to the council of state. He held various other political appointments; but continued his h.storical investigations in the special field he had chosen the origins of French national history; the early peoples and the neighboring races; and the conquest of the Gauls by the Romans. In 1841 he was elected a member of the 'nstitute; in 1860 he became a senator, and in 1868 he received the cross of the Legion of Honor. His works include 'Histoire des Gaulois' (1828); 'Histoire de la Gaule sous l'administration romaine' (1840-47); 'Histoire d'Attila' (1856); (Tableaux de l'empire romaine' (1862); Récits de l'histoire romaine au Ve siècle (1860); Saint-Jérôme) (1867), and 'Chrysostome et Eudoxie' (1873).

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