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"Thais) (1900), a mediæval and early THIBET, ti-bět'. See TIBET.
Christian study, show a curiously subtle "piety
of imagination with impiety of thought.”

THIBODEAUX, tēb-o-do', La., town, Nearer to his own mind were 'La Rotisserie de

parish-seat of Lafourche Parish, on Bayou Lala Reine Pédauque' (1893) and 'Les opinions

fourche, and on the Southern Pacific Railroad, de Jérôme Coignard). (1893) in which the

47 miles west by south of New Orleans and 60

miles south by east of Baton Rouge. It is in ascetic, epicurean and courtesan figures of Thais reappear in 18th century dress and an

an agricultural region in which the principal abbé becomes playful mouthpiece for the ironic

products are rice, sugarcane and cotton. The expression of a scepticism more radical in

industries are connected chiefly with the cultiva

tion and shipment of cotton, rice, sugarcane France than any since Montaigne. Each book, without plot, is a chain of sparkling epigrams in

and vegetables. It contains foundries, can

neries and ice plants. There are several private which the laughing philosopher unmasks the pettinesses and inconsistencies of private and

schools, among them Mount Carmel Academy,

Thibodeaux College, and Guion Academy. public morals and life. French politics are the unobtruded theme of four notable volumes of

Pop. 3,824. Histoire contemporaine, L'orme du mail

THICKHEAD, a South American cater(1896); "Le mannequin d'osier) (1897); pillar-eating bird of the family Capitonida, so L'anneau d'améthyste (1899) and M. named because of the full-feathered and apBergeret à Paris? (1901), all jewels of grace- parently excessive size of the head. The family ful perversity. Then France's thought takes a is a large and handsome one, closely allied to more serious bent as he is drawn into the lists the puff-birds, and sometimes united with them with Zola against militarist and religious re- under the general term arbet.” In other action as revealed in the Dreyfus case. Of this parts of the world (thickhead” is applied to good evidence is seen in Crainquebille (1903); various other birds, especially in South Africa Les contes de Jacques Tournebioche (1908) to the stonecurlew (Edicnemus) of that and the political satires L'île des pingouins region, translating the local Dutch name dikkop. (1908) and Les dieux ont soif (1912) as THIEF, one who steals or is guilty of well as in La vie de Jeanne d'Arc (1908) theft; one who takes the goods or personal and in Opinions sociales) (1902). All these property of another without his knowledge or books, whatever their form, are in effect criti

consent, and without any intention of returning cism of contemporary life. He has himself them; one who deprives another of property said that he counts criticism as possibly the secretly or without open force, as opposed to a ultimate evolution of literary expression, well robber, who uses open force or violence. A suited to a highly civilized society which is burglar is a thief who forces an entrance into rich in old traditions, the last in date of all a building. literary forms and destined to absorb all. All of them illustrate an idea of style which he has

THIEF RIVER FALLS, Minn., city, put admirably in Le jardin d'Epicure (1894).

county-seat of Pennington County, on the A simple style,” he says, “is like white light;

Great Northern and the Minneapolis, Saint it is complex but does not seem so. In writ

Paul and Sainte Marie railroads, about 50 ing what appears a beautiful and pleasant sim

miles northeast of Crookton on the Red Lake plicity is really the result of careful arrange

and Thief rivers. It lies in an agricultural secment and strict economy in the use of the

tion which raises much wheat, has a flour mill, various parts of speech. In this art of hiding foundry, sash and door factory and iron works. his art France is almost supreme. See LE

The notable buildings are the Carnegie library CRIME DE SYLVESTRE BONNARD. Consultan

and the municipal auditorium. Pop. (1920) 4,685. English translation of Works edited by

THIERRY, ti-ěr'i (Fr. tē-ā-rē), Amédée Frederic Chapman (London 1908–19) already

Simon Dominique, French historian and poliembracing 27 volumes. Of separate works tician: b. Blois, 2 Aug. 1797; d. Paris, 26 March there are many other versions. For criticism

1873. As a young man he entered the service consult Michaut, G., Anatole France,', (Paris. of the Minister of Marine, and in 1828 became 1913), also works by Brandes, G. (London

professor of history at Besançon. His ideas 1908), by George, W. L. (New York 1915), being ultra-liberal, his course was suspended by and Shanks, L. P. (Chicago 1919).

the Minister of Public Instruction. In 1830 he BENJAMIN W. WELLS.

became prefect of the department of HauteTHIBAUT, tē-bo, or THEOBALD I, Saône, and in 1838 returned to Paris, where he king of Navarre: b. France, about 1200; d. 1253. was appointed master of petitions addressed to He was educated at the court of Philip the council of state. He held various other Augustus. As the Count of Champagne he is political appointments; but continued his hissaid to have been a lover of the queen of torical investigations in the special field he had Louis VIII, whose death in 1226 Thibaut was chosen: the origins of French national history; suspected of having caused. He succeeded to the early peoples and the neighboring races; the throne of Navarre on the death of his and the conquest of the Gauls by the Romans. uncle, Sancho the Strong, in 1234. Going in In 1841 he was elected a member of the insti1239 to Palestine, he suffered defeat at Gaza. tute; in 1860 he became a senator, and in 1868 He left a reputation in literature as a trouvère he received the cross of the Legion of Honor. whom even Petrarch and Dante, and other His works include 'Histoire des Gaulois great poets praised. His poems, first pub- (1828); Histoire de la Gaule sous l'administralished by Lévesque de la Ravallière ( 2 vols., tion romaine! (1840–47); Histoire d'Attila) Paris 1742), have appeared in several later edi- (1856); (Tableaux de l'empire romaine tions. Consult Delbarre, Vie de Thibaut (1862); Récits de l'histoire romaine au Ve (1850), and Lavisse, Ernest, Histoire de siècle) (1860); Saint-Jérôme (1867), and France (Vol. III, part VI, Paris 1901). Chrysostome et Eudoxie (1873).

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THIERRY, Jacques Nicolas Augustin, French historian : b. Blois, 10 May 1795; d. Paris, 22 May 1856. He was educated in the Normal School at Paris in 1811, and in 1813 became teacher in a provincial school. The following year he quit this occupation and returned to Paris, where he embraced the socialistic views of Saint Simon, and became his secretary and his coadjutor in literary work, and in 1816 published a treatise of his own, Des nations et de leurs rapports mutuels.' Perceiving the theoretical vagaries of his master, he separated from him in 1817, and became one of the conductors of the journal Le Censeur Européen. Shortly afterward he became a contributor to the Courrier Français, in which, in 1820, he published 10 letters on the history of France, which attracted attention. His celebrated work on the Norman conquest of England, Histoire de la conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands,' was published in 1825, and by the interest of the narrative, brilliance of style and novel mode of treating the subject, attained great success both in France and in England. From his close application to work M. Thierry became in the following year almost entirely blind, and at the same time was attacked by a nervous disorder, but still pursued his literary labors. An enlarged edition of the letters formerly written by him for the Courrier appeared in 1827, under the title of Lettres sur l'histoire de la France. In 1830 he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions and in 1834 published Dix ans d'Etudes historiques. About this time he was entrusted by Guizot, then Minister of Public Instruction, with the editing of the Recueil des monuments inédits de l'histoire du tiers-etat,' for the collection of documents relative to the history of France. To this publication he prefixed an Essai sur l'histoire de la formation du tiers-etat, separately published in 1853. In 1840 he published Récits des temps métrovingiens,' which gained for him the Gobert prize of the Academy of Inscriptions. There exist translations of his chief works in English. There is a complete edition of his works (10 vols., 1856-60). Consult Valentin, Augustin Thierry) (Paris 1895).

THIERS, tē-ár, Louis Adolphe, French statesman and historian: b. Marseilles, 15 April 1797; d. Saint Germain, Paris, 3 Sept. 1877. He studied law at Aix, and was admitted to the bar there in 1818. Desirous of a larger theatre for his ambition he went to Paris in 1821, and hav

got an appointment on the staff of the Constitutionnel, then the leading Parisian journal, he soon attracted attention by his articles in that paper. Journalism soon ceased, however, to supply sufficient stimulus to his active intellect, and he undertook his Histoire de la Révolution française, having as colleague Felix Bodin, whose name appeared with his in the first two volumes. The work was completed in 10 volumes in 1827. On the formation of the Polignac Cabinet, Thiers founded with Armand Carrel and Mignet, the National, whose first number appeared on 1 Jan. 1830. The new democratic organ exercised a decisive influence on public opinion, and the famous ordinances, the signal for the revolution of July, were now issued. Upon this Thiers counseled the issuing by the journalists of a revolutionary manifesto.

It was signed by 43 names. To escape arrest Thiers fled, on the night of the 28th, to the neighborhood of Saint Denis, accompanied by Mignet and Armand Carrel. Louis-Philippe, becoming king of the French, Thiers was soon made councillor of state and attached to the department of finance. He was elected deputy for Aix, and after the death of Casimir Périer became Minister of the Interior in the Cabinet of Soult, October 1832. He next filled the offices of Minister of Commerce and Minister of Public Works and again became Minister of the Interior, but in consequence of differences with Soult and Gérard gave in his demission 11 Nov. 1834, but soon resumed office under Mortier. He again retired in February 1836, but a few days after returned to power as foreign minister and president of the council. These offices, after many vicissitudes, he again held in March 1840. Taking a strong interest in the Eastern question he declared in favor of Mehemet Ali of Egypt against Turkey; but neither the king nor the chambers wished to resort to extremities, and the policy of Thiers having received a grave check he retired from the Cabinet 29 Oct. 1840. He now devoted him, self to historical pursuits, and his "Histoire du Consulat et de l’Empire,' begun in 1845, was completed in 1862, in 20 volumes. The revolution of February, 1848, found him prepared to accept the republic; and he was a member, first of the Constituent and then of the National Assembly. After the coup d'état of 1851 he was banished from France, but returned in August, 1852. After an absence of 12 years from public life he was chosen in the elections of 1863 deputy for the department of the Seine, and relected in 1869. In this position he regained much of his early popularity. He combated energetically the project of war against Prussia, because France was unprepared, and after the disaster of Sedan visited the courts of London, Vienna, 18 Saint Petersburg and Florence to seek assistance against Prussia, but all that he could obtain was a promise that the four great powers would support the proposal of an armistice. Thiers accordingly proceeded to the headquarters of the king of Prussia at Versailles to open negotiations for peace. But he was unsuccessful, and Prussia proceeded to a war d outrance. On 17 Feb. 1871 he was elected chief of the executive power of the republic, and on the 21st opened negotiations with Bismarck, which resulted in the peace with Germany. On 31 August the title of president was bestowed upon him and his term of office fixed at three years. He resigned 24 May 1873, whereupon Marshal MacMahon was appointed president. When MacMahon began to put himself in opposition to the republic, Thiers acted in complete harmony with the republican chiefs of the two chambers, notably with M. Gambetta, to whom, on 3 Sept. 1877, he gave a meeting at Paris to read to him, and to several other politicians, a manifesto which he had just completed. But that very day he was attacked with congestion of the brain and died at night. Thiers was par excellence the representative of his country; a witty writer; and an accomplished debater. He was also genial, unselfish, large-hearted; and to establish the glory of France was the main secret of his measures and counsels.

THIEVES' ISLANDS - THIRD CENTURY

553

Besides the works already named Thiers with one of the thimbles, the performer prowas the author of Histoire de la loi? (1826, ceeds to shift the thimbles, covering the pea English trans. 1859) ; De la propriété) (1848); now with one, now with another, and offers to L'Homme et la matière (1875). Consult bet any bystander that no one can tell under Atkinson, F. M., Memoirs of M. Thiers) which thimble the pea is. The person betting (New York 1916); Belot, C., Le pouvoir exéc- is seldom allowed to win, the pea being abutif sous le gouvernement de M. Thiers) (Bijon stracted by sleight-of-hand. In the United 1908); Le Goff, François, The Life of Louis States the trick is commonly known as the Adolphe Thiers (New York 1879); Hanotaux, shell-game and is frequently played at raceG., Le gouvernment de M. Thiers) (Paris track meetings, rural fairs and other gatherings. 1903); Marcère, E. de, L'Assemblée nationale de 1871 (ib. 1904); Simon, P. F., Adolphe

THIONVILLE, tē-ôn-vēl, or DIEDEN

HOFEN, dē'dēn-ho-fěn, Lorraine, an importThiers : chef du pouvoir exécutif et président de la République Française (Paris 1911);

ant railway centre, 18 miles north of Metz. It

stands in a level plain on the Moselle River. Zevort, Edgar, Thiers) (ib. 1892); Mazade, M. Thiers: cinquante années d'histoire con

Its manufactures comprise gloves, thread and

nets; and there are sawmills and tanneries. temporaine (1884); Simon, Thiers, Guizot,

Thionville is the seat of the Lorraine iron inRémusat” (1885); Rémusat, P. L. E. de, A. Thiers) English trans. 1892).

dustry. There is some trade in corn, hemp,

flax, fruit, vegetables, grain, wine and wood. THIEVES' ISLANDS. See LADRONES.

An important fair is held annually. In the

Franco-German War of 1870–71 Thionville was THILLY, Frank, American writer and invested after the battle of Gravelotte, and after educator: b. Cincinnati, Ohio, 1865. He was the fall of Metz it was besieged with vigor. educated in the Ohio University where he grad- On 25 Nov. 1870, it was occupied by the Geruated in 1887, and completed his studies in Ber- mans. It suffered severely by the siege. It lin and Heidelberg. For several years he de- was restored to France under the terms of the voted himself to teaching philosophy in Mis- armistice of 11 Nov. 1918 and confirmed by the souri University (1893–1904); psychology at Treaty of Paris of 1919. Pop. 14,184. Princeton (1904-06); philosophy at Cornell

THIRD CENTURY. The central interes: from 1906 on, finally becoming dean of the College of Arts. He edited the International Jour

of this period lies in the fact that the Roman nal of Ethics (1909) and was president of the

Empire at the climax of its power and extent, American Philosophical Society (1912). He is

just when presumably it ought to be consolidatthe author of Leibnitz' Controversy with

ing itself for a still greater future, began Locke (1891); Introduction to Ethics)

slowly but surely to crumble under the attacks (1900); The Proceeds of Inductive Infer

of the barbarians. Toward the end of the ence (1904); A History of Philosophy)

century the Goths in Dacia gave the first hints (1914). He also has translated Weber's His

of that power to defeat Roman armies which tory of Philosophy! (1896); Poulsen's Intro

portended so clearly the fall of the empire. In duction to Philosophy (1885) and A System

the last decade the Saracens, a predatory Arab of Ethics (1899).

tribe, who are usually supposed to come into

history much later than this, began to make THIMBLE, a small metallic sheath or cap themselves felt. Inspired by Mohammed and used to protect the end of the finger in sewing: unified by religious fanaticism in the 7th cenSeamstresses use a thimble having a rounded tury, they were to prove more fatal to the end. Those used by tailors are open at the end. empire than even the Goths. The success of In the manufacture of thimbles coin silver is the barbarians was favored by the disorder mostly used, generally silver dollars, which are consequent on elections of emperors by the melted and cast into solid ingots. These are Prætorian guards. Septimius Severus (emrolled into the required thickness, and cut by a peror 193–211) halted the barbarians for a stamp into discs of any required size. A solid while but Rome's decline and fall was inevimetal bar the size of the inside of the intended table. Severus reigned with vigor as became thimble, moved by powerful machinery up and "the soldiers' emperor," defeating his comdown in a bottomless mold of the size of the petitors Niger and Albinus, but cruelly putting outside of the thimble, bends the circular discs to death large numbers of the adherents of his into the thimble shape as fast as they can be rivals, thus further demoralizing the time. His placed under the descending bar. The work of reign came in the midst of a financial crisis for brightening, polishing and decorating is done the empire during which the government reon a lathe. Thimbles are said to have been sorted to debasement of the coinage to bolster found at Herculaneum, and were used by the up its credit. Severus was the first of Rome's Chinese at a very early period. Their invention rulers to lay the foundation of a great private in Europe is traditionally ascribed to Nicholas fortune. As emperor he was an extremely van Benschoten, of Amsterdam, in the 17th hard worker, always at work by dawn, and decentury. In mechanics, the name thimble is voted long hours every day to the duties of his applied to various fixtures, such as a tubular position. On his return to Rome in 202 he was lining through which a bolt passes, etc.

greeted with a popular reception but refused a THIMBLE-EYE, a fish, the chub-mack

triumph and in spite of his fortune always lived very modestly. Like Marcus Aurelius

he attempted to found a dynasty and when he : THIMBLE RIG, or SHELL-GAME, a died at York (Britain), he bequeathed the emsleight-of-hand or gambling trick, performed pire to his two sons, Caracalla and Geta. by means of three thimbles and a pea or three Caracalla, having killed his brother, gave a nåt shells and a small wooden tube or box. frightful example of imperial misrule. Un

pea being placed on a table and covered doubtedly insane,- nothing else could account

erel (q.v.).

The

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for his utter cruelty,- Gibbon terms him a herself Queen of the East and bade defiance common enemy of mankind.” During their to Rome. The ruins of Palmyra were among father's lifetime the two sons had used the the first to be excavated and studied in modern family fortune in racing and gaming, caring times and this gave the town a special interest. only to associate with gladiators and chariot The Arabs had for long told wonderful tales of drivers from the circus. To distract them a ruined city in the Syrian Desert, but their Septimius planned the conquest of Caledonia description was of remains so extensive and and it was this that brought him to Britain, magnificent that it seemed that there must be where he erected the wall known by his name Oriental exaggeration in their accounts. At between the Forth and the Clyde. After the end of the 17th century, European travelers Caracalla had expended the family fortune he reached the site of Palmyra, however, and went to the greatest length of cruelty and in- found that the Arabian stories minimized justice to secure inore. One good result of his rather than exaggerated the truth. There was, desire for money was the granting of Roman for instance, a colonnade stretching almost a citizenship to all the provinces so as to secure mile in length and many of the marble columns the right to levy direct taxes and imposts on constituting it are still standing amid the sand inheritances (215). In imitation of his father of the desert. Caracalla visited the various provinces of the Palmyra, as the inscribed monuments show, empire, but instead of benefiting from his came into prominence about the beginning of stay, each in turn became the scene of his the 2d century. Adrian took the city under his rapine and cruelties. Having heard that the protection and on the occasion of his visit the citizens of Alexandria disapproved his mode name was changed to Adrianopolis. It was of life he ordered a general massacre of the in- extremely prosperous a century later, its posihabitants. He was finally put to death by his tion between Parthia and Rome enabling it to soldiers in the East and was followed by a trade with both. Under Caracalla, Palmyra series of emperors in rapid succession, most received the jus italicum and became a Roman of whom met violent deaths. Macrinus, who colony. After this, it was known as an imsucceeded Caracalla, was put to death within a portant military post on the eastern confines. year by the soldiers. A feminine intrigue then When the emperors in the 3d century led seated Heliogabalus, an Oriental priest, on the armies to the eastern frontiers, Palmyra was a throne. He was worse, if possible, than Cara- favorite stopping place. Some of the citizens calla and his name has become a byword for received even the honors of Roman senatorship utter viciousness. After four years he was and one of them, in the disturbed times after succeeded by Alexander Severus, who meant the middle of the 3d century, made himself well and accomplished much, but the rule of ruler of the city and came to be recognized Rome was now become a difficult task. He even by the Romans as having a certain indetried the expedient of paying an annual tribute pendence. Odeanthus made himself extremely to the Goths to keep them from molesting the useful in the wars against the Persians and empire. This token of weakness had, as might the Syrians and was rewarded by a tacit have been expected, exactly the opposite effect. recognition at least of his domination over all Severus was murdered by a mutiny in the the country from Armenia to Arabia. When army (235) and was succeeded by Maximinus absent on his expeditions, his wife, Zenobia, adwho bravely led his army against the Dacians ministered the government of Palmyra very and defeated them, but was assassinated by his successfully.. Indeed, Aurelian, in one of his own people near Aquilia the next year. Bal- letters, ascribes to her the chief part in all her binus and Gordian reigned very briefly, though husband's successful

She Gordian defeated the Persians under Sapor Arabian of dark beauty, black flashing eyes, before meeting death from Philip the Arabian pearly teeth and a strength which enabled her who succeeded him in 244.

to accomplish. marvels of physical endurance, In 248 Philip was succeeded by Decius who She was as famous, however, for her intelbitterly persecuted the Christians and was slain lectual talents as for her beauty. She knew by the Goths who invaded the empire the fol- a number of Eastern languages as well as Latin lowing year:

The Huns on the Caspian Sea and Greek. Longinus, the famous Greek come into history at this time as new set of rhetorician whose Essay on the Sublime is so enemies for the empire. Emperors continued well known, had been ber tutor in Greek. He to succeed each other nearly every year — - Gal- had been invited to the court and remained lus (251), Æmilianus (253), Valerian (254) faithful to her even in her misfortunes, sufferwho five years later defeated, made ing death for his fidelity. prisoner and flayed alive by the Persians. Odeanthus was assassinated probably at the Then came Gallienus and the era of the Thirty instigation of the Roman Emperor Gallienus, Tyrants, none of whom deserve particular men- and Rome proceeded to subdue the Palmyrenes tion.

who had ventured defiantly to style their ruler The most interesting character of the 3d "King of Kings and Restorer of the State.) century is Zenobia, queen of Palmyra (died Zenobia, nothing daunted, and used to admin274). Her husband, Odeanthus, had set him- istrative emergency, took up the unequal contest self up as ruler of Palmyra during the weak- with the Roman Empire. She held Egypt, ness of the empire in the time of the Thirty Syria, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor as far as Tyrants, and she survived to continue his rule. Ancyra. Other portions of the East were about Zenobia claimed to be a descendant from to join her when the Roman army under Cleopatra and her beauty was such that, if Aurelian made its appearance and prevented tradition be true, she far outrivaled the Egyp- further defections. In two great battles that tian queen. For a time during the disturbed were fought, Romans in Zenobia's forces bore state of the Roman Empire, she exercised the brunt of the losses. Summoned to sursway over a large territory, boldly proclaimed render after the second defeat, she made light

career.

was

an

was

THIRD ESTATE- THIRD-RAIL SYSTEM

555

revolt.

of her losses, saying that so far all who had the Greek historian of Rome, both flourished fallen were Romans. Finally, she had to with- during the first quarter of the century. Dio's draw within the walls of Palmyra and Aure- whole work in 80 books was in existence lian, in spite of the handicap of the desert, in the 10th century, only some 25 books succeeded in maintaining the siege of the city. XXVI to LX now remain nearly complete Finding further resistance hopeless, Zenobia at- with but fragments of the others. tempted to escape, hoping to find a refuge in

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE THIRD CENTURY. Persia, but betrayed by the influence of Roman gold she was captured. Then Palmyra capitu

208. Septimus Severus invades Caledonia after conquest and

establishment of military government in Britain. lated. All the treasures of the city were seized 211. Septimus Severus builds wall across Britain to exclude but the inhabitants were spared. Zenobia was the Northern Picts. taken to Rome to grace the conqueror's triumph

217. Assassination of Caracalla.

222. Heliogabalus slain. Alexander Severus reigns. but after this, instead of being put to death, 226. Parthian Empire dissolved. Sassanian Persian Empire she was given a villa outside of the city of founded.

230. Death of Dio Cassius, the Greek historian of Rome. Rome where she lived peacefully, with her

235. Alexander Severus slain. Maximinus, a herdsman, children till her death, making many friends becomes emperor. among the Roman nobility of the time. It is 249. Goths invade the Roman Empire, defeat and kill the

emperor Decius. probably to her taste that is due the construc

259. The Persians take Valerian prisoner and flay him alive. tion of the beautiful architectural monuments 261. The Persians capture Antioch. of Palmyra which have made the city the sub- 268. Germans invade Italy. Claudius defeats the Goths.

Persians invade Asia Minor. Odeanthus and Zenobia ject of so much of interest, while her own life tinged it with romance.

270. Death of Plotinus, Neoplatonic philosopher, author of The end of the 3d century, after a long

the 'Enneads.'

272. War with Zenobia, queen of the East. period of_anarchy, was occupied by the firm

273. Longinus, philosopher and counsellor to Zenobia put to reign of Diocletian, a self-made man, the son death by Aurelian. of poor parents, who owed his advance to his

274. Aurelian subdues Zenobia; yields Daria to the Goths.

284. Diocletian and Maximinus joint emperors. The second military genius. He reigned for some 21

Roman embassy reaches China. yours (284–305) and then (see Fourth CEN- 287. The Celts or Franks settle on the left bank of the Rhine. TURY) resigned and retired to a pleasant country

292. Galerius and Constantius_become coadjutors to Dio

cletian and Maximinus. The Roman empire divided estate not far from Dioclea, his birthplace in into four parts. Asia Minor. When in the midst of the critical 297. Siege of Alexandria. times for the empire which followed his abdica

JAMES J. WALSH, tion, Maximilian, one of his successors, urged

Author of The Thirteenth Greatest of Cenhim to take up the imperial mantle again, he re

turies.' plied: If you could but see the cabbages which THIRD ESTATE. See TIERS-ETAT. Í raise in my garden with my own hands, you THIRD ORDER. See TERTIARIES. would no longer talk to me of abandoning this

THIRD PARTIES. happy spot for the Empire.” As might well be

See VOTE, VOTERS,

VOTING. expected, the man who was capable of this could and did give the Roman Empire years of

THIRD RAIL. See ELECTRICAL TERMS. peace and prosperity, stained unfortunately by THIRD-RAIL SYSTEM, in electric railthe persecution of the Christians, but that did way construction, a method of supplying trains not come until the beginning of the 4th cen- on an electric railway with current sent through tury and under the influence of those who a conductor located on the track and termed shared the empire with him.

a third rail. Being the first electric system for While the 3d century produced no great handling heavy traffic, it possesses unusual inauthors a series of men wrote books that have terest. In starting a train of five cars by elecattracted attention ever since. Plotinus (204 tricity, from 500 to 1,200 amperes are required. 270), the well-known Neoplatonic philosopher who studied at Alexandria and afterward taught philosophy in Rome, wrote his (Enneads about the middle of the century. He was an eclectic, borrowing from many sources, and is a Neo-Aristotelian as well as a Platonist and deserves the name of Neo-philosopher. His disciple Porphyry (233–305) wrote a life of Plotinus and also of Pythagoras, but is best known for his treatise Against the Christians, which was answered by Eusebius at the beginning of the 4th century. It is known to us only from Jerome's commentary and other Christian criticisms. Longinus (210–273), the author of the essay On the Sublime also belongs to this time and spent most of his mature life at the court of Zenobia in Palmyra. He was as we have said her chief counsellor and the instructor of her children but on the fall of Zenobia he was put to death as a traitor by Fig. 1.- Diagram showing typical load carried at power the Emperor Aurelian. Jebb declared the es- house of Metropolitan Elevated Railway, Chicago, for say (On the Sublime) one of the best pieces of

24 hours. literary criticism in the Greek language. (See If such currents were passed through a trolley ON THE SUBLIME). Papinian, the greatest civil wheel, very excessive arcing would be caused, lawyer of antiquity, and Dio Cassius (155-230), due to the fact that the wheel touches the

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