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wire at only one point. The contact surface fectly safe, all of these directly contributing to is not sufficient to carry this current, and burn- the end of greater capacity. ing of the wheel and trolley wire would result. The third item - service more attractive to With a sliding shoe, however, instead of a sin- the public generally – is proved by the facts of gle point of contact, there is a surface about the absence of smoke and steam, and the great six inches long by two inches wide, and two of reduction in noise, these being especially importhese in use at once under normal conditions. tant in systems passing through the heart of a The third-rail system differs from the ordinary large city, as is the case with elevated roads. trolley road only in detail, the principle of oper- In regard to the use of the third-rail system on ation being similar. These details, however, are interurban roads, the same general considersuch as to make possible the application of ations apply as to the economy of operation, electric traction to heavier trains than has been except that, trains being less frequent, the econfound practicable with the overhead trolley, omy in the power generation is not so great an and the system has thus broadened the field for item. There is another field for the third-rail the application of electricity to railway work, electric railway system, which has been deso as to bring it into successful competition veloped by the New York, New Haven and with steam for the heaviest classes of service. Hartford steam road, and that is the use of The reasons for its general adoption on ele- light trains for suburban and interurban sery

ted roads were on account of the advantages ice on many of their branch lines. peculiar to electric traction itself, namely:

One of the most difficult problems in equip

ping an electric railway system is the propor1. Reduction in cost of power for handling trains. 2. Increase in passenger handling capacity.

tioning of the total capacity of a power house 3. A service more attractive to the public generally. to the number of cars run, and the subdivision

of this total capacity into proper-sized units. In The reduction in the cost of power is ob- order to determine these points, it is necessary tained largely from the generation of power in to be able to estimate the maximum loads that a single central steam plant, instead of a great will have to be carried during the rush hours number of smaller plants, as with the steam and the minimum loads during midday and midlocomotive system. On this point of economy night. The maximum load does not always dethe fuel bill is one of the large items in the pend upon the total number of trains run, as on operation of a railroad. With steam locomo- some lines more than half of these trains will tives, such as were formerly used on the Chi- be running light in one direction in order to cago elevated roads, the only fuel available cost

carry the crowds back on their return or vice in the neighborhood of $3.50 to $5.50 per ton,

In subdividing the total capacity of a whereas, in the modern power house, designed power house, it is desirable to have a single for electric railway systems, coal ranging from unit which will carry the minimum light load $1.25 to $1.75 a ton was burned with entire with reasonable economy. The load on a power success during the period of low prices for house operating in connection with an elevated coal. When to this is added the enormous loss railway system varies not only from a maxiin radiation from a large number of steam loco- mum during rush hours to a minimum during motives, exposed as they are in running over off hours, but also momentarily during the startthe line of the road, and we compare this with ing and stopping of trains, these fluctuations the relatively small loss experienced with a being most violent when the least number of well-constructed stationary boiler plant, it is not surprising that the cost for coal per car mile on the electric railways in Chicago is about onethird the cost per car mile with steam locomotives. The comparison is particularly favor. able in Chicago on account of the ability to obtain a very cheap grade of coal directly from the Illinois and Indiana coal fields. In New York and other eastern cities, this difference is not so great, as coal delivered at those points is necessarily higher in price on account of larger freight charges. Besides the saving in the coal bill, there is a further gain by the use of large compound-condensing engine units. These large steam units having a comparatively steady load, develop power with a very much lower steam consumption than the small engines of a locomotive with their constant starting and stopping, and consequent cooling of cylinders, etc. Another item in which a considerable saying is made is in the cost of repairs and renewals to the motor equipment as compared with locomotives.

The second advantage - increase in capacity Pig. 2.- Diagram showing Aluctuations in the consumptic for handling passengers is due, first, to the of electrical energy on the Metropolitan Elevated Ra fact that with electric motors a much higher way. Chicago, at short intervals from 5 A.M. to rate of acceleration can be obtained in starting

A.M., ranging from 1,700 to 7,000 amperes. trains, thereby increasing the average speed

trains are in service. Under the worst cond over a given line of road. The trains can also tions, this rate will vary from 300 amperes be handled with so much greater accuracy and 4,000 in 15 seconds, or the reverse. It is nece precision that a much shorter interval is per- sary, therefore, that all parts of the engir

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should be especially heavy, particularly the flywheel, in order that sudden changes in the load should not interfere with the proper regulation of the engine speed.

The accompanying diagram, Fig. 1, shows a typical load curve at the power-house. Curve A is that of the trains in service. Curve B shows the additional amount of energy for heating the cars, with heaters only partly turned on during the rush hours; while curve C gives the total load with heaters turned on full during the rush hours. The high peaks of the curve occur at the rush hours of travel,

The second diagram, Fig. 2, shows the violent fluctuations in the demand for electrical energy for operating the trains.

In the third-rail system the use of the ordinary track rail for the conductor was largely a matter of convenience in the first case, as rails were the easiest form of steel to obtain in reasonable lengths, and their shape was such as to lend themselves to the various requirements of attaching bonds, angle bars and insulating sup, ports. The value of an ordinary commercial steel rail as an electric conductor, as compared with copper, is about 10 or 12 to 1, with of course the additional disadvantage against the rail of the necessity of the frequent bonding, the rails usually coming in 30-foot lengths. To offset this lower carrying capacity, however, compare rails at $17 per ton with copper at $360 per ton, and it can be seen that one can afford to put in the larger amount of steel required for a given electrical capacity and still have a good margin in favor of the rails. A commercial 80-pound track rail has a carrying capacity about equal to an 800,000 centimeter copper cable. In purchasing the contact rails for the extension of a western railway line, they were made of steel of a special chemical composition, having a higher electrical carrying capacity than the ordinary commercial steel rail.

The composition was obtained after a series of experiments conducted for the Manhattan Railway in New York, with a view to getting the best possible conductor with a composition of steel that could be successfully rolled into rails. The use of this composition results in a steel rail so soft as to be unfit for ordinary railway seryice, but the conductivity is raised so that, compared with copper, the ratio is about 8 to 1, as against 12 to 1 for ordinary commercial steel rails.

THIRLMERE, thérl-mēr, England, a long and narrow lake in the mountains of Cumberland County, in the centre of the Lake District, northwest of Mount Helvellyn, between Derwentwater and Grasmere. It is three miles long by a quarter of a mile wide. The city of Manchester bought and converted it into a reservoir for its water supply, and the system, begun in 1886, was completed in 1894 at enormous expense.

THIRLWALL, therl’wâl, Connop, English prelate and historian: b. Stepney, Middlesex, 11 Jan. 1797; d. Bath, 27 July 1875. He was educated at the Charter-house and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he obtained a Fellowship. He afterward studied for the law and was called to the bar in 1825. Having exchanged the law for the church he was ordained in 1828, and some years after received the living of Kirby Underdale, in Yorkshire. Here

he added to his pastoral duties a variety of literary labors. The first of his works, published by himself (his father had previously issued a number of essays and poems written by him in extreme youth), was a translation of Schleiermacher's Gospel of Saint Luke, to which he prefixed an introduction. This work appeared anonymously in 1825. His next work was a translation of the first two volumes of Niebuhr's History of Rome,' with Archdeacon Hare (1828–31). Then followed the work to which he chiefly owes his reputation, his History of Greece, the first edition of which appeared in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia,' in eight volumes, between 1835 and 1844. It was well received, and before the appearance of Grote's history (the first two volumes of which were published in 1846) was without a rival in the English language. Grote himself praises it for the learning, sagacity and candor it displays, and said that if it had appeared a few years earlier he should probably never have conceived the design of his own work. In 1840 Thirlwall was presented by Lord Melbourne to the Welsh bishopric of Saint David's, which he resigned a little more than a year before his death. He was for a time one of the editors of the Cambridge Philological Museum,' and during the closing years of his life was a member of the committee for the revision of the Old Testament. He was one of the bishops who spoke and voted for Gladstone's bill for the disestablishment of the Irish Church. Consult Perowne, “Remains, Literary and Theological, of Connop Thirlwall (London 1877– 80); Thirlwall, Essays, Speeches, and Sermons) (1880); Stanley, Thirlwall's Letters to a Friend? (London 1882); Morgan, Four Biographical Sketches (1892); Clark, Old Friends at Cambridge and Elsewhere) (1900).

THIRST, a. craving for water or other drink. As appetite shows a need for the introduction of food into the system, so thirst is a sensation indicating the necessity of an increased supply of water. This sensation is referred to the throat, yet it is not a purely local feeling, but an index of the wants of the tissues at large, for thirst cannot be allayed unless the water swallowed reaches the stomach, is absorbed and carried into the blood. Thirst may also be relieved by the direct introduction of water into blood vessels or by rectal injections of it, or by its absorption through the skin. How long the demands of thirst may be successfully withstood cannot be stated definitely, since human beings as well as the lower animals differ among themselves, and under varying circumstances of climate, etc., as to the degree of tolerance. Certain it is that of all substances a regular supply of water is most essential to the maintenance of life. If deprived of it for even 8 or 10 hours, greater inconvenience, pain and debility are suffered by an individual than from an equal deprivation of solid food. As thirst is but the expression of a dearth of water in the tissues, any condition which causes a more rapid elimination of water than usual will increase thirst. Such is the effect of severe muscular exercise, especially, for example, the exertion in a heated atmosphere habitual with stokers, iron-puddlers, etc. Thirst is also increased by certain articles of food, excess of salt or sugar, for example: in




febrile disorders; in severe diarrhæas and hæmorrhages; in diabetes; in acute gastritis; in polyuria; in certain forms of hysteria, etc.

For allaying thirst nothing is so grateful as pure cool water, sipped a little at a time. Sweet drinks are not as effective in relieving thirst; but the vegetable acids in oranges, lemons, grapes, limes, etc., have a tendency to allay thirst, and to lessen the desire for large quantities of fluid, since the acid provokes an increased flow of saliva. Toast-water, small pieces of ice, effervescent drinks and dilute phosphoric acid alone or combined with a little aromatic bitter are also of value. In fever, cleansing the mouth, and swabbing it with glycerine, borax and water is of more service sometimes than drinking large quantities of water.


THIRTEENTH CENTURY. John Fiske in The Beginnings of New England terms this period «The glorious thirteenth century

"a wonderful time, but after all less memorable as the culmination of mediæval empire and mediæval church than as the dawning of the new era in which we live to-day.” John Morley said, "I want to know what men thought and did in the thirteenth century — because the thirteenth century is at the root of what men do in the nineteenth century. Freeman The Norman Conquest calls it «The age of wonders

which wrought the body politic of England into a shape which left future ages nothing to do but to improve in detail. Frederick Harrison in A Survey of the Thirteenth Century' declared "Of all the epochs of effort after a new life that of the age of Aquinas, Roger Bacon, Saint Francis, Saint Louis, Giotto and Dante is the most spiritual, the most really instructive, and indeed the most truly philosophical.” It would be hard to find a group of men so different in character, ways of looking at things and individual intellectuality, so concordant in their estimate of an important period of history as these expressions indicate, but similar appreciation might be quoted from Macaulay, Green, Bishop Stubbs, Carlyle, Walter Scott and many others.

The century has been hailed by many as the greatest in the history of humanity. Nothing shows more clearly the recent change in estimation of the Middle Ages than this. No phase of human achievement in the intellectual and artistic side of man is lacking in this age; many are represented by products that surpass all others. In painting and sculpture, in architecture, in the minor arts and crafts, in literature, in philosophy, in education, in social work, even in the building of hospitals and the care of the ailing, and most surprising of all in medical education and surgery, there was a wonderful accomplishment at this time, the history of which was concealed from us until comparatively recent years by an exaggeration of interest in classical antiquity and in the Renaissance. - Just in proportion as we have become deeply interested once more in art, architecture, the arts and crafts, in sculpture and handsome public buildings, in the home and the city beautiful, we have learned to realize how many

of the ideals we are striving for now were accomplished marvelously in this late mediæval century. Generations which themselves had lost or impaired these higher interests, affected to condemn this old time. It was grouped among the “Dark Ages,” though we now know it to have been in John Fiske's expression one of the Bright Ages.”

The central interest of the century and its greatest triumph was the Gothic cathedrals. In England and France particularly, but also in Germany and Italy there arose in the early part of the century some of the most beautiful edifices ever built by man. The generations solved the architectural engineering problems of these huge constructions with absolute suc

The decoration of them made a universal appeal and for sheer beauty and suitability has never been excelled. The sculpture on the façade of many of these Gothic cathedrals as at Amiens, Chartres, Rheims, is among the greatest plastic work in the history of art. The figure of Christ over the main door at Amiens has been declared the most beautiful presentation of the human form divine ever made. Every phase of cathedral decoration took on the perfection of its sculpture. The carved stone work, the hammered iron of the gates and grilles, the very hinges and latches of the doors, the brass and bronze work in connection with the altar, the bells, the stained glass, all approached perfection so closely that they have been objects of deep admiration ever since whenever men have been profoundly interested in the arts and crafts. The stained glass has never been excelled and is still an object of almost reverential respect, some of it unapproachable in its beauty.

All the fittings and furnishings of the cathedral, even the least obtrusive, partook of the same surpassing qualities. Dark corners were not left unfinished for it was the house of God. Every detail was the object of loving devotion. The needlework of the time is probably the best in history. The cope of Ascoli (circa 1280) is looked upon as the most beautiful ever made. The church vestments and hangings were charmingly worked. The precious vessels for the altar were gems of the metal workers' art, of exquisite line and form, delicately finished and appropriately set with jewels. The Mass books, as well as the Books of Hours, used by the educated worshippers, were beautifully illuminated that they have been marvels ever since and command high prices in the auction-rooms. Manifestly, there was nothing that the people of the time wanted to do well which they did not accomplish with a marvelous perfection. Their domestic and municipal furnishings partook of the same excellence. The very utensils in the kitchen were beautiful as well as useful and the combination of the two qualities in ordinary life has been declared the criterion of culture in the hearts of a people.

The historic life of the century cenires around the cathedrals very much as their social life centred around it in the cities and towns. Their education came into existence as the development of cathedral schools and these were usually placed under the rectorship of the chancellor of the cathedral. The studia gexeralia, the universities





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because they provided education in many different subjects, grew into their modern form during the courses of the century. At the beginning a few cities, Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris and one or two others, had rather important schools of special subjects around which various faculties gradually gathered. By the end of the century there were some 20 important universities in our modern sense of the word with large undergraduate departments and as a rule the three graduate departments of theology, law and medicine. The course of study for undergraduates was summed up by Huxley in his inaugural address as rector of Aberdeen University: 'I doubt if the curriculum of any modern university shows so clear and generous a comprehension of what is meant by culture as this old trivium and quadrivium. The seven liberal arts, as the trivium and quadrivium were also called, constituted the undergraduate university studies of grammar, logic and rhetoric, geometry, astronomy, theology and music.

All of these subjects were treated from a scientific standpoint and these were really scientific universities. The study of the classics as the basis of undergraduate education did not come in until the Renaissance time. Hence Huxley's candid admiration for these old-time universities so that he did not hesitate to say that "their work brought them face to face with all the leading aspects of the many-sided mind of man.” The philosophical teaching particularly anticipated many modern ideas. Matter and form as the explanation of the composition of matter resembles the modern physical chemistry theory that all matter consists of an underlying substratum the same in everything and differentiated into various substances by the dynamic elements which enter into it. The scholastics taught that matter and force could be annihilated by the power that brought them to existence, but not destroyed by any human agency, thus anticipating the modern experimental demonstration of the indestructibility of matter and the conservation of energy. They faced the ethical problems of mankind, especially those which concern social relations, exactly in the same spirit which the modern world, after a rather long interval of failure to recognize human rights as superior to those of property, has come around to again. In writing on capital and labor for our time Pope Leo XIII quoted the ethics of Saint Thomas Aquinas, drawn up more than six centuries before.

The numbers in attendance at the universities at the end of this century were probably larger in proportion to the population of the various countries than at any time in the history of education down to our own day. The universities of Bologna and of Paris had, during the last quarter of the century, more students than any university of modern times. Oxford and Cambridge were more numerously attended than at any time afterward. Some of the students were boys of 12 or 13 but graduation was earlier than with us as it is still in most foreign countries. On the other hand many mature students remained at the university for years listening to a favorite professor or working up some special theme. The literary output of the universities in philosophy and

theology as well as from the graduate departments generally was extensive. Original work was encouraged, though it was the subject of severe criticism. Groups at various universities were engaged in encyclopedic research and publication. A series of summas of knowledge in ral and of special departments was made.

The discipline of the immense numbers of students represented a problem which was solved by sharing disciplinary regulation with students committees chosen by the Nations, that is, the organizations of the students from particular parts of Europe in attendance at the university. The Nations were fraternal unions which helped the student when he first came to the university to orient himself and get settled for his university work. They protected students against impositions and furnished information with regard to courses and professors. Many of the features of modern life at our universities were thus anticipatea. Initiations accompanied by hazing were common practices and the Nations provided recreation of various kinds. On the other hand when students were ailing or when remittances from home were delayed by the vicissitudes of the times, help was provided and students were tided over crises in their affairs. A number of abuses crept into university life through these organizations and conflicts between town and gown are noted before the end of the 13th century, but it was later in the history of universities that these became so intolerable as to demand correction. In the early history of the universities the students were as important a factor at least as the faculty and new universities were often founded by the withdrawal of dissatisfied students to some other town.

The graduate schools were the most important departments of the universities. In theology, Saint Thomas of Aquin or Aquinas has been an authority ever since and the contributions which he made to philosophy have been the subject of enduring interest. There was a magnificent development of law throughout the various countries and a corresponding evolution of the teaching of law. Canon law particularly was taught with a scientific thoroughness unequalled before and unsurpassed since. It became the basis of all European law. The medical schools are, however, the special surprise for our time. Early in the century the Emperor Frederick II made a law for the Two Sicilies requiring students of medicine to spend some three years at the university preliminary to their medical studies, and then four years at medicine, followed by a year of practice with a physician before they were allowed to practise for themselves. That is a modern standard re-established but recently after a long interreguum. Salerno, the first university nedical school, set the example in teaching and insisted on the employment of the natural means of cure, fresh air, water, diet, exercise and occupation and diversion of mind. These are all emphasized in the famous Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, issued at Salerno about the beginning of the century and published in some 300 editions since the invention of printing. It was the most read popular book on medicine for centuries, republished many times even in the last century. The textbooks in surgery extant from this time have been a revelation. The surgery of the four masters of Salerno

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who collaborated in the work quite after the women's diseases was in their charge. We have modern fashion of textbook writing is surpris- many licenses to practise medicine in the Two ing in its anticipation of modern surgery. We Siciles granted to women at that time still exhave, besides, the book of Theodoric of Lucca tant. At Bologna at the end of the 12th century and of Bruno of Longoburgo as well as of the daughter of Irnerius the great teacher of William of Salicet, Lanfranc and Mondeville, law became an instructor in the law school. In these, anæsthesia,- through mandrake and All of the Italian universities had women opium,- antisepsis by the use of strong wine - teachers their staff. The unfortunate they boasted of union by first intention — and Héloïse and Abelard incident at Paris seems a great many of the operations, especially a to have given a serious setback to feminine whole series of intra-abdominal and intra- education in the universities of the west of cranial operations, as well as many instruments Europe, but in Italy the custom established in and modes of treatment considered to be the 13th continued, and there have been women modern are described. In the large, very well- · professors at the Italian universities every planned hospitals of the time, with finely century since. organized nursing, many operations undreamt The literature of the century is the proof of in the intervening centuries until our gen- of the intellectual quality of the time, for it eration were successfully accomplished, not was not only great but widely read. Its value merely as emergency interventions, but to save will be best recognized from the fact that probsuffering and prolong life.

ably well-read people know the works of the The names of the teachers in these gradu- 13th century better than of any other, except ate schools, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, their own, though they are often not quite conRoger Bacon, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus and scious of the fact, not having noted the dates. Alexander of Hales, are probably better known The enduring work of the time begins with the than any group of teachers in history. In- Arthur legends put into fine literary form by stead of losing prestige in the course of time Walter_Map or Mapes, just as the century bethey have gained repute in recent years with gins.. To him we owe Lancelot. «Like Paris, increase of interest in the mediæval period. handsome, and like Hector, brave, but with a Albertus Magnus is the only scholar in history fault that makes him even more appealing, so with whose name the adjective great has become that probably he is the most interesting characincorporated as if it were a family name. He ter of fiction ever created. Then came the was a man of the widest interests, intent on ballads of the Cid in Spain, followed by the testing, all knowledge, carefully., Humboldt Nibelungenlied with the Meistersingers and pointed out how much he knew about physical Minnesingers and then the Troubadours_and geography, physics, climatology and the physiol- Trouveres with the Romance of the Rose ogy of plants. Meyer the historian of botany and Renard the Fox in what we call France, declared "No botanist who lived before Al- and, finally, the Trovatori in Italy, culbertus could be compared with him unless minating in Dante who, the greatest of Theophrastus with whom he was not acquainted, the Trovatori, just ready to write and after him none has studied plants so pro- what has often been proclaimed the greatfoundly until the time of Conrad Gesner and est poem of all literature, as the century Cæsalpino. Albert discussed scientifically the closed. Such other writers as Villehardouin, Milky Way and its significance, the irregulari- Joinville, Matthew of Paris, the earliest enties in the moon's surface, lunar rainbows, cyclopedists, Vincent of Beauvais, Thomas of various kinds of refraction and many other Cantimprato, Bartholomew the Englishman, and problems supposed to be modern.

His great

such works as that of William of Durandus pupil Aquinas, adopting Aristotle, laid down the and Jacobus de Voragine of the Golden Legend, metaphysical principles which are now coming are perennially interesting. The century has to be recognized as fundamental ideas in the also the greatest of the Latin hymns, the Dies physical and social sciences. Hence a great re- Iræ,' the Stabat Mater,' the marvelously vival of study of his works. Even more im- beautiful religious poetry of Saint Francis himmediately interesting than these to the modern self, of Saint Thomas Aquinas, of Bernard of world is Roger Bacon, the international cele- Morlaix and of Saint Bonaventure. bration of whose 700th birthday attracted The century saw the publication of what so much attention at Oxford in June 1914. must be considered the first of encyclopedias. Bacon probably invented gunpowder, suggested Vincent of Beauvais, under the patronage of that explosives might be used for motor pur

Louis IX, with the aid of a great many young poses, - boats running without oars

assistants of the Dominican Order whose exand carriages without horses, discussed he penses were generously defrayed by the king, theory of lenses, declared that mathematics and was enabled to gather an immense amount of experiment were the two important factors for information for his time. In spite of the difadvance in science; anticipated modern ideas ficulty of hand transcription, his work extends as to Biblical revision, insisted on the value to over 50 of our volumes octavo. The matter of Greek and Hebrew for education, declared is well chosen and of wide interest, and the that light travels with appreciable velocity and surprise is how many things supposed to be spoke with assurance of aviation. It is clearer much more modern in human knowledge are than ever now why the people of his time called to be found in Vincent. Pagel declared the him Doctor Admirabilis, the admirable teacher. reading of the work easily becomes absorbing."

A feature of 13th century education most The century provided a magnificent series of interesting for our time is the feminine educa- contributions by explorers to the knowledge of tion of the period. At Salerno in southern Italy the world at that time. Travelers in the Near women were encouraged to study even medicine and the Far East told the stories of how other during the 12th century and the department of people lived and their books still extant demon


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