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strate what excellent observers they were. The opposite effect. To secure the making of such greatest of these explorers was Marco Polo, beautiful things there had to be a skilled and whose name was for so long a by-word for well-trained group of artisans. There has credulity and tendency to exaggeration, who probably never been a time when the arts and proves now, like Herodotus, to have had a basis crafts, in our modern sense of that term, have of real truth for all that he told. He visited been so appreciated and cultivated. In this the Christian kingdom of Abyssinia as well as culture the working classes were probably the China and nearly all the world between. He most important factor. Technical training told of Burmah, of Siam, of Cochin China, of was provided by the guilds. Boys were apJapan, of Java, of Ceylon and India and he had prenticed to trades and crafts of various kinds, heard interesting accounts of the coast of Zan- and after four or five years of training became zibar and distant Madagascar and at the oppo- journeymen and traveled from place to place site end of the world of Siberia and the shores to learn the secrets and customs of their craft of the Arctic Ocean. Colonel Yule, a modern in the various regions. After two or three authority on the literature of travel, can scarcely years of this on the presentation and acceptfind words to praise Polo enough. There were ance of an example of their work called a many other famous travelers whose works have

masterpiece — this is where this old English come down to us from the century and are word comes from — they were admitted as republished in recent years. Friar John of Car- master workmen into the guild. This reprepini went on a mission to the Tatar emperor of sented a degree in technics. The guild training the time, across the Ural Mountains and River, was practically a technical school and as the past the northern part of the Caspian Sea, guilds existed everywhere opportunities for across the Jaxartes, along the Dzungarian lakes arts and crafts education abounded. Any to the Imperial camp near the Orkhon River.

growing youth who had taste or talent for any Friar William of Rubruk or Rubruquis, the form of artistic work could easily secure the account of whose travels was printed by Hak- opportunity for its development and then, more luyt in his collection of voyages at the end of important still, obtain the chance to do his the 16th century, went even further. Some of work in conditions where encouragement and his observations, as for instance on Chinese appreciation would come to him. In England writing, are surprising enough, but he has many at the end of the Middle Ages there were 30,000 details of Asiatic nature, ethnography, manners, guilds (Toulmin Smith), the county of Normorals, commercial customs, that were true to folk alone having 900, the small town of Wylife. Friar Oderic a little later traveled mondham having 11 still known by name. One through India and then through China to Nan- of them possessed a guild hall. All the guilds kin and Peking, reached the Great Wall, en- of the town are said to have been (well entered Tibet and appears to have visited Lhasa. dowed with lands and tenements.” In Bury Sir John Mandeville (15th century) borrowed Saint Edmunds, Suffolk, there were 23 guilds; much from him, as well as from the Prämon- Boston, Lincolnshire, had 14 of which the titles stratensian monk Hayton. Most of the men and particulars are known and London had a who thus wandered in distant lands were gradu- large number. The guild had increased in numates of the universities of the time and while ber greatly from the 13th century but there is they were credulous with regard to what they definite evidence that most of the important heard, very much as Herodotus himself, they guilds in existence in England at the end of could be absolutely depended on for informa- the 15th century had been in existence for tion with regard to things which they them- several hundred years. During this time they selves had seen.

had accumulated very large amounts of money Besides the intellectual education which

and invested funds of various kinds, not so came in the cathedral schools and their develop- much from the fees paid by their members as ments at the universities there was a great from bequests of various kinds made to them phase of popular education along artistic lines

because it was felt that they were doing great which was initiated in the midst of the build- good work. Unfortunately it was this accumuing of the cathedrals. Most of the beautiful lation of money that led to their legal destructhings in the great Gothic churches were made tion, though a few of the London guilds which by workmen of the little mediæval towns in were spared in the time of Henry VIII on the which they were built. None of these had

plea that they were trading or secular associamore than a few thousand and probably did tions and not religious organizations have at not average 10,000 inhabitants. Somehow ar- the present time an income of over $50,000 tistic artisans to do all the beautiful work de

per year each.

The old guilds were trades manded were found and there was the popu- unions, social clubs, insurance societies, civic lar taste to appreciate and the diffusion of lib- organizations, popular entertainment commiteral education to patronize and encourage the tees, but withal religious sodalities enforcing making of such beautiful things. There are fulfilment of religious duties yet not permitreceipted bills for the payment to village black- ting the clergy to hold office or dominate policy. smiths and village carpenters, for iron and The social history of the time is its most woodwork, which we now rank as artistic mas- interesting feature for our era. The beginning terpieces. Practically all the decorations and of the period saw the rise of the two great fittings of their cathedrals were executed by mendicant orders, the Begging Friars, the Franthe townsmen themselves and even their bells ciscans and Dominicans. A world so deeply and stained glass were made at home, not intent on commerce as to give rise to Hansa brought from a distance. Transportation diffi- and the great Italian commercial cities was culties threw them back on themselves and afforded the example of two large bodies of compelled technical developments while trans- men who took voluntary poverty for their lot portation facilities in our time have had an so as to be free to do better things in life.

VOL. 26 - 36

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The coming of the Friars in such an age pro- erine, was another centre of charitable influduced a deep impression. Saint Francis is one

The sister of Saint Louis of France. of the most lovable men of all history. A young Marguerite of Bourgogne, built a beautiful man who, during convalescence from a severe hospital at Tonnerre, which Viollet le Duc has illness, learns in Dean Stanley's words that figured in his Dictionary of Architecture. This "the world looks very different when viewed shows how well these hospitals solved the from the horizontal," gets up from it, resolved problems of hospital construction which we that the fascination of trifles shall not obscure have realized again in the modern time. There the good things of life. He proceeded to for- was a fine organization of nursing in these hosget all about himself and his personal interests pitals under the care of religious orders of and found that all the world began to think men and women, especially the Augustinians. of him. He got so close to the heart of nature How well their work was done can be best apthat it is not surprising that we have legends preciated from the great development of surthat the birds and the fishes, and even the gery which took place at this time, for good wolf of Gubbio harkened to him. He gathered surgery is impossible without good hospitals around him a group of men forever famous and good nursing. Portions of many of these for their absolute simplicity of life and for hospitals remain as evidence for what they were. their refusal to let selfish motives rule them in With a notable development of social servany way. Such life might

too ice during the century and the opportunity ideal to have any practical influence over man- afforded for feminine education, it is not surkind, and, above all, too mystical to make any prising that the names of a series of women of appeal except to a mediæval world, yet literally this time are well known, indeed their prestige dozens of lives of Saint Francis have been has been growing constantly in this last generawritten in our very busy practical age. Prob- tion just in proportion as similar opportunities ably never since his own time has there been are afforded in this century. Saint Elizabeth so many people, and above all so many whose of Hungary is probably the most famous and opinion is of value, ready to proclaim Saint the beautiful cathedral erected in her honor at Francis one of the most wonderful characters Marburg within a few years after her death, of humanity as in our era of crowded interests. one of the handsomest monuments ever raised The love for Lady Poverty of the little poor to a woman, is the testimony of her generation man of God," as he loved to call himself, has to their affectionate regard for the dear Mrs. appealed to all religious and poetic souls ever Saint Elizabeth” (Frau Heilige Elisabeth), as since. No wonder that Dante has made such they quaintly called her because she was just a brave figure of him in the Divine Comedy,' a wife and the mother of four children who. and placed beside him as equal in influence and though she died at 24, had found time to do power the great founder of the Dominicans. great good work for the poor around her

The development of hospitals in the 13th Queen Blanche of Castile, the mother of Saint century has been the subject of much study in Louis of France, was another wonderful mother the modern time. Virchow particularly has

of the time. Her great son attributed all that shown that there was probably scarcely a town he was to his mother's training. She was an of 5,000 inhabitants or more in Germany which administrator of high ability who lifted France did not have a hospital. He attributes this out of a period of threatened anarchy to pregreat development, more marked even in other serve his kingdom for her boy, and yet declarec countries than in Germany, to Pope Innocent

that she would rather see him dead at hei III who founded (the hospital of the Santo feet than know that he had committed a morta Spirito by the old bridge across the Tiber and sin. The great women of the time came noi blessed and dedicated it as the future centre only on thrones but also among the middle of a universal humanitarian organization.” Pope classes. Another mother of the time whose Innocent summoned Guy of Montpelier to Rome, name is recalled in veneration was the wife having heard that he was in charge of the best of a London tradesman, Mabel Rich, whose organized hospital of the time, built Santo son, Saint Edmund of Canterbury, one of th« Spirito under his direction and then when most sterling characters of the time, a scholarly bishops come to Rome, as they had at regular churchman, made archbishop, went into exile intervals, he commended the hospital of Santo rather than submit to a tyrant king. Edmund Spirito to their study and recommended, where tells how the poor around his mother's home in it was virtually a command, that there should

London blessed her for her charity and was be a hospital as far as possible like that, ac- quite frank that he owed nearly everything in cording to conditions in each locality, in every life to her. Another distinguished Englishdiocese in the world. Many of these hospitals woman whose name has come down to us from were beautifully built. Municipalities this time is Isabella, the famous Countess of structed them for their citizens and they were Arundel. She did not hesitate to admonish public buildings, part of the scheme of the even the king himself, Henry III, when he was city beautiful which so many mediæval cities violating the liberties of England. Matthew cherished. In smaller places hospitals were Paris says that with a dignity which was more often built by the nobility and Virchow has than that of woman she reminded the king called attention to the number of them con- that many times he had extorted money from structed under the patronage of the family his subjects and not kept his word and the to which Saint Elizabeth of Hungary belonged. rights of Englishmen were written down and Her hospital at Marburg not far from where he was violating them. With the revival of the beautiful church erected in her honor a interest in Saint Francis there has come few years after her death now stands, was a parallel rebirth of admiration for Saint Clare model for others. The hospital in Siena, added of Assisi who at the age of 17 left home to to (14th century) in memory of Saint Cath- haye Saint Francis teach her how to live a life



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that would not be wasted in worldliness. Her ceeded in maintaining himself until the defeat mother and sister, who had opposed her voca- of Edward II at the great battle of Bannocktion originally, joined her in the second order burn (1306) settled him firmly on the throne. of Franciscans in a few years.

The foundation of the Ottoman or Turkish The military and political events of the cen. Empire (1299) under Othman I in Bithynia tury have a special significance because as a rule led to the consolidation of Mohammedan power their influence still lives. The Crusades came to the serious disturbance of Europe. The to an end, the fourth under Boniface, Marquis Turks are historically relatives of the Mongols of Montserrat (1222), the fifth led by King who had already created the splendid empire Andrew II (1228), the sixth (1248) and the of the Seljuks and who from the 11th to the seventh and last (1270), under Louis IX 13th century governed the greater part of the of France. · The Children's Crusade (1212) was

caliphs' dominions in Asia and thus prepared the one of the sad interludes of an enthusiasm way for the Ottomans, their successors. The which went beyond reason. Most of the many nucleus of their empire was formed in Asia thousands of children crusaders perished mis- Minor toward the end of the century under Ererably or were sold into slavery by designing Toghrul. Osman or Othman or Ottoman, his leaders. In 1230 the Teutonic Knights in a son, is looked upon as the founder of the crusade against the pagan tribes of the Baltic empire. region established themselves in Prussia and The century saw the career of the best ruler laid the foundation of what at the Reforma- of all time, Louis IX of France, or Saint Louis tion, through the ambition of a grand master,

as he came to be called. It has been said of was to become a duchy, the beginning of mod

him, "Of all the rulers of men of whom we ern Prussia. In 1282, Rudolph of Hapsburg,

have record in history, he probably took his a Swiss noble, elected emperor in the first elec

duties the most seriously with most regard for tion held after the reform of the Imperial Elec

others and least for himself and his family.” torate and the creation of seven electors, con

The watchword of his rule was justice, though ferred on his sons the duchies of Austria and

he made it the aim of his life that men should laid the foundation of the Hapsburg dynasty.

have justice and education, and when for any All during the century the kings of Aragon

misfortune they needed it - charity. For an were extending their sway over the Spanish

unjust judge there was short shrift. The old Peninsula and the Balearic Islands (1230).

tree at Versailles under which he used to hear After the Sicilian Vespers, a massacre of the

the causes of the poor who appealed to him French in Sicily by the Sicilians, so-called from

stood for many centuries the living reminder of its commencement at vespers on Easter Monday

Louis' efforts to make the dispensing of justice (1282), the kingdom of Sicily passed to them.

equal to all men. Voltaire, unsympathetic in Less than 20 years before (1265) the French

so many ways, said of him, “Louis IX appeared under the House of Anjou had ascended the

to be a prince destined to reform Europe if throne of the Two Sicilies. In 1235 the duchy

she could have been reformed, to render France of Brunswick. was formed under the House of

triumphant and civilized and to be in all things Guelph. Five centuries afterward, when reign

a pattern for men. A far-reaching policy was ing in Hanover, the Guelphs were to succeed to

combined with strict justice and he is perhaps the throne of England (George I) where they

the only sovereign who is entitled to this praise; still reign. The century saw the rise of Flor

prudent and firm in counsel, intrepid without

rashness in his wars, he was as compassionate ence in importance, the decline of the republic of Pisa, the increase of Venice in power under

as if he had always been unhappy. No man

could have carried virtue further.” : Guizot, the an aristocracy which became hereditary toward

French statesman and historian, so little apthe end of the period and the enfranchisement pealed to by the mediæval, said «The world has of the serfs at Bologna. The closing year of the century Pope Boniface VIII proclaimed the

seen more profound politicians on the throne,

greater generals, men of more mighty and brilfirst jubilee and the crowds who flocked to Rome

liant intellect, princes that have exercised more to celebrate it were so large that they could not

powerful influence over later generations; but cross the bridge to the Vatican until the rule

it has never seen such a king as this Saint of the road of keeping to the right was pro

Louis, never seen a man possessing sovereign claimed, the first time in history there is men

power and yet not contracting the vices and tion of it.

passions which attend it, displaying upon the Everywhere political events were occurring throne in such a high degree every human virdestined to far-reaching significance. Edward I

tue, purified and ennobled by Christian faith. of England to whom the contest between Robert

He was an ideal man, king and Christian, an Bruce and John Baliol for the crown of Scot- isolated figure without any peer among his sucland had been referred as umpire, conferred it

cessors or contemporaries." His reign is the upon Baliol on condition that he should receive

history of France for nearly 50 years (1226-70). it as a vassal of England. The Scotch refused He influenced not alone France but the other to acknowledge any such dependence, for Scot

peoples of his time deeply. He was chosen as land, to which Magnus of Norway (1266) had the umpire in disputes in foreign countries. ceded the Hebrides, felt its nationality at stake. Louis' instructions to his son, so emphatic Baliol was dethroned and fled to Edward who of justice as the great law among men, his attempted to enforce his rights. William Wal

deep interest in education, his foundation of the lace, the famous hero of Scottish popular Sorbonne, his beneficence to the University of poetry, led an insurrection that was joined by Paris, his encouragement of art and architecSir William Douglas and Robert Bruce who ture, La Sainte Chapelle is his monument, as gathered round them most of the Scots. They well as his scholarly patronage of men of letters were defeated by Edward at Falkirk (1299), in friendly intercourse, all stamp him as one of but Robert Bruce was proclaimed king and suc- the most broad-minded of men.

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Two great Spanish monarchs deserve to be mentioned beside Saint Louis. They are Ferdinand (1200–52), the Saint, king of Castile and Leon, whose mother, Berengaria, was the sister of Blanche of Castile, the mother of Saint Louis. To him is due the collection of translations in the vernacular of the Forum Judicum or Code of Visigothic laws, which is one of the oldest specimens of Castillian prose extant and the foundation of Spanish jurisprudence. His son, Alfonso X (1221–84) the Wise, is also known as the astronomer because of the Alfonsine tables, a series of astronomical observations compiled by his direction, but better known as the author of the code Las Siete Partidas, the basis of modern Spanish law. Ticknor (History of Spanish Literature') declared that Alfonso "first made Castilian a national language by causing the Bible to be translated into it and by requiring it to be used in all legal proceedings. Under these two great monarchs, Spanish literature began its magnificent course, the ballads of the Cid and of Bernardo del Carpio becoming the common property of the people.

Surprisingly enough one phase of political history outside of Europe in the century is as important as anything in Europe. Genghis Khan founded the Mogul or Mongol Empire. He was a Tartar (Tatar), chieftain, by name, Temuchin, who on the death of his father succeeded to the Mongol throne at the age of 13 (1175). The chiefs who owed him allegiance were turbulent and restless, and had been restrained by the iron rule of his father. They refused to submit to a mere boy, but Temuchin's mother had the courage and vigor to repress many of them and keep them to their allegiance until Temuchin showed before long that he could rule them himself. He soon extended his sway over neighboring chiefs and in 1206 proclaimed himself emperor, invaded northern China and securing firm footing within the Great Wall soon conquered most of the country. He then turned westward, defeated the Mohammedans who had beheaded his envoys, overwhelming an immense army of nearly half a million, of whom 160,000 were left dead on the field. Pressing westward he besieged Bokhara, capturing it and Samarcand, and then Merv, all of which were sacked and burned. Astrakan was taken, the Russians defeated and Great Bulgaria ravaged. His troops conquered more of India and most of China, so that this onetime chief of a petty Mongol tribe lived to see his armies victorious from the China Sea to the banks of the Dnieper; and though the empire which he created ultimately dwindled away in the hands of his degenerate descendants, leaving not a wrack behind, we have in the presence of the Turks in Europe a consequence of his rule, since it was the advance of his armies which drove their Osmanli ancestors from their original home in northern Asia and thus led to their invasion of Bithynia under Othman and finally their advance into Europe under Amurath I.”

Representative government developed during the century parallel with other achievements. Magna Charta was signed in 1215; the concluding sentence of chapter 1 runs: We have also granted to all free men of our kingdom, for us and for our heirs forever; all the underwritten liberties to be had and held by them

and their heirs of us and our heirs forever.” Whatever the original intention, this became eventually a grant to all free Englishmen. In 1257 the Provisions of Oxford under King Henry III established the stated recurrence of the great national council of Parliament. In 1265 the Knights of the Shire and the representatives of the townspeople who formed later the House of Commons were admitted to Parliament, while those personally summoned to attend by the king from the great nobles formed the House of Lords. Beginning. with 1295, under Edward I, the attendance of the town members became regular, making Parliament really representative of the country. In the meantime, Bracton's Digest of the English Common Law) (1282) secured the legal rights of Englishmen of all classes, and forms the basis of law down to our own time in all English-speaking countries.

Nothing of all the accomplishment of the century probably possesses livelier interest for our commercial age than their organization of business in spite of what must have seemed insuperable difficulties to less enterprising times. Trade combinations and municipal affiliations as well as commerce facilities among distant, different peoples were rendered possible and even easy. Some even of the most modern developments of international intercourse were anticipated. Miss Zimmern ('The Hanseatic League,' Stories of the Nations Series) said: "There is scarcely a more remarkable chapter in history than that which deals with the trading alliance or association known as the Hanseatic League. The league has long since passed away, having served its time and fulfilled its purpose. The needs and circumstances of mankind have changed and new methods and new instruments have been devised for carrying on the commerce of the world. Yet, if the league has disappeared, the beneficial results of its action survive to Europe, though they have be

so completely a part of our daily life that we accept them as matters of course, and do not stop to inquire into their origin.”

The condition of the great mass of people as the result of the growth of genuine democracy in this period is particularly interesting for our time. Good authorities have declared it the happiest century of human existence. More men and women than probably at any other time enjoyed the blessedness of having found their work and that work eminently satisfying, because it represented an interest of the mind or soul rather than the body. Artistic power and the art impulse were never so widespread, and triumphs of arts and crafts work were made even in very small towns. As for those without special talent the manual workers, Thorold Rogers, in his Economic Interpretation of History,' says:

"On the whole there were none of those extremes of poverty and wealth which have excited the astonishment of philanthropists and the indignation of working

The age, it is true, had its discontents

but of poverty that perishes unheeded, of willingness to do honest work and a lack of opportunity, there was little or none."

Wages were very low, according to standards and money values, but the necessaries of life were proportionately cheap, and the ratio between wages and prices is the all-important consideration. The social improvement which






marked the 13th century led to the fixing by 1280. Albertus Magnus, the “Doctor Universalis " of Gerstatute in the time of Edward III in the early

man philosophy, dies.

1280. The Mongol-Tatars conquer China, overthrow the 14th century of the minimum wage of four Southern Sung dynasty and establish the dynasty of

Yuen. pence a day and set maximum prices for neces

Under Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis, the

grand canal of China is dug. saries of life. A pair of hand-made shoes was 1282. The Sicilian Vespers. Massacre of the French in four pence, a fat goose two and one-half pence, Sicily. Conquest of Wales by the English. a fat sheep a shilling and two pence, nd a stall

1284. Death of Alfonso X, the Wise, of Spain.

1285. Philip IV reigns in France. fed ox only 24 shillings. Needless to say this 1290. The Jews are expelled from England. ratio between wages and prices secured the

1294. Roger Bacon, the “ Doctor Admirabilis of English

science, dies. workman against want. An act of Parliament 1295. The English Parliament is organized. in the 14th century names "beef, pork, mutton 1297. Edward I takes the coronation chair and the records

of Scotland to London. and veal as the food of the poorer sort.” Holi

1299. Scotch defeat at Falkirk. The Ottoman or Turkish days were frequent. Besides the Sundays there Empire founded.

JAMES J. Walsh, were some 35 holy days during the year on Author of 'The Thirteenth Greatest of Cenwhich no work was done, and Saturday after

turies.) noon was free after the vesper hour, 2 P.M., as also the vigils of all first-class feasts.

THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES, The. See Standish O'Grady declared this abundance of

ARTICLES, THE THIRTY-NINE. leisure a source of the greatness of the time.

THIRTY TYRANTS, (1) a body of Twice in the world's history, in the 5th cen- Athenian aristocrats, headed by Critias and tury B.c. in Greece and the 13th century A.D., Theramenes, who undertook to administer the men have spent one-third of their time in leis- affairs of Athens at the close of the Peloponure in preparation for and in celebration of nesian War, 404 B.C. They put to death their religious mysteries. In both periods they had opponents, and set a Spartan garrison in the the time and the energy to create artistic and

Acropolis. Later Thrasybulus led the exiled intellectual monuments which the world will

citizens against Athens, defeated the forces of never willingly let die.

the Thirty, and slew Critias. Democratic gov

ernment was restored and soon afterward PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. recognized by Sparta. (2) The Thirty Tyrants 1202. The Fourth Crusade led by Boniface, Marquis of of Rome were a band of revolutionists who Montferrat.

tried to secure the Imperial power during the 1204. Conquest of Normandy. Constantinople is besieged and taken by the French and Venetians. Baldwin,

reigns of Valerian and Gallienus (qq. v.). Count of Flanders, elected emperor of the East. Seat THIRTY YEARS' WAR, so called be

of the Greek empire removed to Nicæa. 1206. Genghis Khan, the Mongol emperor, begins his career

cause it lasted from 1618 to 1648, was at first a of conquest, extending his expeditions from China struggle between Protestants and Roman Cathoto Bulgaria.

lics, north Germany supporting the former, and 1208. Pope Innocent III lays an interdict on England. The Albigensian Crusade.

southern Germany, with Austria at its head, the 1209. The Inquisition instituted at Avignon to check' heresy. latter cause. It gave the Swedes an opportunity 1212. Defeat of the Saracens at Tolosa, Spain. Contests to extend their dominion south of the Baltic,

between Moors and Christians arouse the spirit of chivalry. Goths divide into three kingdoms, Castile,

it reduced the resources and weakened the Aragon and Portugal. The ill-starred Children's power of Austria, and it gained for the northern Crusade.

states of Germany the breathing space needed 1214. The liberties of Oxford University confirmed by papal authority.

to develop independent existence.

Few wars, 1215. General revolt against the king of England. John I however, have been more calamitous in their of England forced to sign Magna Charta. Rise of trade

general effect on the mass of the people and guilds and labor unions. 1220. Venice becomes independent. Golden period of com

the happiness and progress of mankind. Apart merce. Cities of Venice, Genoa and Pisa furnish ships from the horrors which attended the capture of for the Crusades. Architecture, fine arts and the industries flourish throughout western Europe.

Magdeburg, and other barbarous scenes of the 1226. Louis IX, afterward known as Saint Louis, ascends

struggle, it reduced the peasantry and most the throne of France. Saint Francis of Assisi, founder of the townspeople to abject misery; it may be of the Franciscan Order, dies.

said to have effaced for a time literature and 1227. Death of Genghis Khan. 1228. The Fifth Crusade led by King Andrew II.

art in Germany, and it magnified the system 1230. Teutonic knights establish themselves in Prussia of petty principalities, since partly effaced as 1231. Saint Elizabeth of Hungary dies.

a result of the Napoleonic wars, but still a 1236. Tatars in vade Russia. 1245. Alexander of Hales, the "Irrefragable Doctor of powerful obstacle in the way of complete GerEnglish theology, dies.

man progress. 1248. Saint Louis IX of France leads the Sixth Crusade.

On the one side were Austria, nearly all the 1252. Death of Ferdinand the Saint, king of Castile and Leon. 1253. The Jews are expelled from France.

Roman Catholic princes of Germany, and Spain; 1257. The Provisions of Oxford formulated.

on the other side were, at different times, the 1260. Michael Palæologus founds a family of distinguished

Protestant powers and France. The occasion Eastern emperors. 1261. Recovers Constantinople from Western domination. of this war is to be found in the fact that Ger1262. The Barons' War in England.

many had been distracted ever since the Refor1263. Sir John de Baliol founds Baliol College, Oxford.

mation 1264. Vincent of Beauvais, the encyclopedist of the Middle

by the mutual jealousy of Roman Ages, dies.

Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists, which led 1265. Henry III of England reigns. Deputies of the Protestant princes to form the Evangelical

the Commons first summoned to Parliament. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies comes under French

Union in 1608, against which the Roman Cathodomination.

lic League was formed the following year. 1268. The Mongol-Tatars invade China.

Certain concessions had been made to the 1270. The Seventh and last Crusade. Death of Saint Louis of France.

Protestants of Bohemia by the Emperor Ru1271. Marco Polo's travels extend the knowledge of the dolph II (1609), but these were withdrawn by world.

his successor Matthias in 1614, and four years 1272. Edward I crowned king of England. 1274. Saint Thomas of Aquinas, Prince of Scholastics,"

afterward the Bohemian Protestants were in dies.

rebellion. Thus began the first part of the long

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