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were relieved of the duty and this increased the feeling of the tithe-payers that their burden was an unjust one. In three-fourths of Ireland it was found impossible to collect tithes, for long periods at a time, and the enforcement of the law, especially in cases of non-members of the Church, was not infrequently accompanied by riot and revolt. Finally, an act of commutation passed by which tithes were assessed

money, the value being based on the average price of corn for a preceding term of years. The matter has been the subject of much legislation by Parliament, which has generally established in lieu of the old system a fixed money rent charge payable annually. Consult Clarke, H. W., History of Tithes! (1891); Degge, S.," "The Parson's Counsellor with the Law of Tithes (1820), and Selden, J., History of Tithes! (1618).

TITHING, an old English subdivision of the population. It consisted of a company of about 10 households, one of the integral parts of a hundred (see Shire), who were regarded as a distinct political division for some purposes of police and civil regulation. At its head was the lithing-man, who was directly responsible to the officers of the Crown, the several members of the tithing being bound for the peaceable behavior of each other. The institution of the tithing has passed away, the tithingman has evolved into the police constable, but in some parts of England British conservatism still preserves the name and the corresponding territorial distinction.


TITHONUS, ti-tho'nŭs, a son or nephew of Laomedon, king of Troy. He was beloved of Eos (Aurora, Morning), who induced Zeus to make him immortal. Her prayer was granted but she had neglected to ask for perpetual youth, and in time her lover took on all the signs of extreme age. Tithonus prayed to the gods to be relieved of this "cruel immortality and was metamorphosed into a grasshopper. Tennyson has written a remarkable poem, (Titlionus,' on this mythological incident.

TITIAN (Tiziano VECELLI), the greatest painter of the Venetian schcol and one of the world's greatest painters: b. Pieve in Cadore, a district in the Venetian or Carnic Alps, 1477; d. Venice, 27 Aug. 1576. He was the son of Gregorio di Conte Vecelli, a descendant of an ancient family and a man of some note in his province. It was the custom of this family to follow arms or the law, but young Titian showed such genius for art that at the age of nine or 10 he was sent to Venice to learn painting. He studied under Gentile Bellini and afterward with Giovanni Bellini and then attached himself to Giorgione, who was the idol of the day. Master and pupil worked together on the outside frescoes for the new Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the exchange of the German merchants in Venice. After Giorgione's sudden death by the plague in 1510, Titian completed several of his master's works. Titian's pictures of this period show much similarity to Giorgione's and are often referred "Giorgionesque Titians.” One of the most famous is Sacred and Profane Love' (in the Borghese Gallery in Rome), about which so

much has been written. To this period also belong the Virgin and Child! Vienna Gallery), popularly called La Zingarella'; the Bishop of Paphos, or Baffo) (Antwerp Gallery); Saint Mark_(in the Salute, Venice); the Three Ages) (Bridgewater Gallery, Eng. land); Madonna of the Cherries! (Vienna Gallery); Daughter of Herodias) (Doria Gallery, Rome); Christ with the Tribute Money (Dresden Gallery); and Noli me Tangere (National Gallery, London).

In 1511 Titian went to Padua to paint a series of frescoes in the Senola di S. Angelo and returned to Venice in 1513, where he became superintendent of government works and was ordered to complete the paintings left unfinished by Giovanni Bellini in the Hall of the Great Council of the Doge's Palace. Here he painted the portraits of five successive Doges. In 1514 he was invited to the Court of Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, for whom he painted many charming works, including the Worship of Venus) and the Bacchanel,' with Ariadne dozing over her wine-cup (both in the Prado, Madrid), and the superb Bacchus and Ariadne! (in the National Gallery, London). At Ferrara he formed a friendship with · Ariosto and Aretino, whose portraits he painted. In 1516, while painting these delightfully decorative and pagan triumphs of Bacchus and Venus, he began work on the Assunte,' or Assumption of the Virgin,' for the church of S. Marie Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice (now in the Venice Academy). This was finished in 1518 and created a sensation, for it was considered the most astonishing performance in color on a grand scale that had as yet been executed. The same gallery now preserves the famous Presentation of the Virgin,' a large and much restored picture, and one of Titian's masterpieces of masterpieces. In 1526 he completed the Pesaro Madonna,' on which he had worked for seven years. This is still in the church of the Frari and represents the Madonna enthroned with adoring saints, including_Saint George, and members of the aristocratic Pesaro family beneath the group. The Cornaro Family,' belonging to the Duke of Northumberland, is a work of the same general character. The Entombment of Christ' (in the Louvre) is another early work, and Christ Crowned with Thorns (also in the Louvre) still shows the influence of Giorgione.

In 1525 Titian married. Nothing is known about his wife, who died in 1530, leaving three children, one the infant Lavinia, of whom Titian painted so many beautiful portraits. Titian now removed to a fine house in the Biri Grande, a fashionable suburb of Venice, where he had beautiful gardens sweeping down to the sea. Here he had his sister do the honors of his establishment and here he entertained lavishly and charmingly. In 1532 he painted a portrait of Charles V, the emperor, in Bologna, and was, in consequence, created a Count Palatine and a Knight of the Golden Spur. His two sons were also made nobles of the empire – a most unusual honor for a painter. From this time onward Titian enjoyed a worldly success greater than that any other painters ever had accorded to them, with the exception of Raphael, Michelangelo and Rubens. In 1540 D'Avalos, Marquis del Vasto, gave him a



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pension and Charles V an annuity of 2,000 converging to the eye, a true, dignified and crowns (afterward doubled) on the treasury beautiful impression of its general subject of Milan. When visiting Rome in 1546 he was matter and of the objects of sense which form given the freedom of the city. In 1550 he its constituent parts. In this sense Titian has painted the famous portrait of Philip II of never been deposed from his sovereignty in Spain, which helped his suit for the hand of painting: Titian's pictures abound with memQueen Mary of England. Notwithstanding the ories of his home country and of the region many statements that Titian visited Spain, mod- which led from the hill summits of Cadore to ern authorities affirm that he never was there. the Queen City of the Adriatic. He was alHe traveled much in Italy and went to Augs- most the first great painter to exhibit an apburg and was at the Council of Trent in 1555. preciation of mountains, mainly those of a In 1565 he went to Cadore to design decora- turretted type, as exemplified in the Dolomites. tions for the church at Pieve, his native town. Indeed he gave to landscape a new and original He spent most of his life, however, in Venice, vitality, expressing the quality of the objects where he worked until the last moments of his of nature and their control over the sentiments life. Vasari saw him with brushes in hand and imagination with a force that had never painting furiously. Titian was, according to been before approached. The earliest Italian most authorities, 99 when he died of the plague, picture expressly designated as "landscape was then raging in Venice. Vasari gives his birth one which Titian sent in 1552 to Philip II. as 1480, but Titian, writing to Philip II in 1571, Naturally a good deal of attention has been said he was 95. He was buried in the church given by artists, connoisseurs and experts to of the Frari near his famous painting, the probing the secret of how Titian managed to Madonna di Casa Pesaro. Canova's monu- obtain such extraordinary results in color and ment now marks his grave. His son, Oragio, surface. His figures were put in with the died of the plague a few days after Titian. He, brush dipped in a brown solution and then too, was a painter, but overshadowed by his altered and worked up as his intention defather's greatness. In the confusion and riotous veloped. In his earlier pictures the gamut of days of the plague Titian's splendid villa was color rests mainly upon red and green; in the entered and plundered by thieves. Titian's last later ones upon deep yellow and blue. The painting was a Pieta,' which was finished by pigments which he used were nothing unusual; Palma Giovine. Although Titian lived in grand indeed they were both few and style and had many orders, he seems to have Palma Giovine records that Vecelli would set had much trouble in collecting his payments; pictures aside for months and afterward exfor his correspondence is full of appeals to his amining them as if they were his mortal enedebtors. He gave splendid entertainments and mies would set to work upon them like a man attracted the most brilliant men of the age. possessed. Also that he left many pictures in It is related that when Henri III of France progress at the same time, turning from one to passed through Venice on his way from Poland the other, and that in his final operations he to take the French throne, he called on Titian worked far more with the finger than with the with his suite of noblemen and that the painter brush.” Titian seems to have taken Palma presented him as a gift with all the pictures of Vecchio as his model for softness and Giorgiwhich he inquired the price.

one as his model for richness. He distanced all Even allowing for the abnormal length of his predecessors in the study of color as aphis professional career, Titian's prolific faculty plied to draperies. is amazing. More than a thousand pictures in Titian excelled in every style. The AssumpEuropean and American galleries are attributed tion of the Virgin' is ranked as one of the to Titian. Of these 250 are spurious or doubt- world's greatest pictures and the Entombment ful. The largest collection (41 works) is in the of Christ,' the Christ Crowned with Thorns Prado, Madrid. The Uffizi has 18; the Pitti, (Louvre), the Ecce Homo(Vienna Gallery), 16; Naples Museum, seven; the Venice Acad- in which Aretino posed for Pilate, the Supemy, eight; the Louvre, 18 and the National per at Emmaus) (Louvre), Saint Mark) Gallery, London, six. Some critics accord the

(Salute, Venice), the Presentation in the famous Concert in the Louvre, which has long Temple, "Christ in the Garden? (Madrid), been considered a Giorgione, to Titian. (Noli me Tangere). (London) and (Saint

«Titian was a man of correct features and Jerome) (Barera, Milan) attest his power in handsome person, writes William M. Rossetti, religious subjects. An exuberant fancy and "with an uncommon air of penetrating observa- dash characterizes his delightful mythological tion and self-possessed composure -a Venetian production such as Bacchus and Ariadne) presence worthy to pair with any of those most (National Gallery), Bacchenal and Worship potent, grave and reserved signors, whom his

of Venus, Diana and Actaeon, Callisto, brush has transmitted to posterity. He was Jupiter and Antiope, Europa, Venus highly distinguished, courteous and winning in (Pondo), Venus and Cupid


? (Florence), society, personally unassuming and a fine Danae) and Venus and Adonis) painted for speaker, enjoying (as is said by Vasari, who' Philip II, (Venus Anadyomene (Bridgewater saw him in the spring of 1566) health and Gallery), the Madonna of the Cherries) prosperity unequaled. He was not a man of (Vienna) and the Madonna of the Rabbit) or universal genius or varied faculty and accom- Madonna del Consiglio (Louvre) prove that plished like Leonardo da Vinci and Michel- his Virgin and Child' can stand comparison angelo: his one great and supreme endowment with any other great master in Italian art. As was that of painting. Titian may properly be a portrait painter Titian is unequaled. Acregarded as the greatest manipulator of paint cording to Vasari «There has scarcely been a in relation to color, tone, luminosity, richness, noble of high rank, scarcely a prince or lady texture, softness, surface and harmony and with of great name, whose portrait has not been a view to the production of a pictorial whole taken by Titian. His list of famous men and

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women is long. Perhaps at the very top stands ton 1901); Heath, R. F., Titian) (London the unknown Man with the Glove (Louvre), 1885); Phillips, Claude, "The Earlier Work of young, handsome and charming. Many times Titian and The Later Work of Titian was the Duchess of Urbino painted, the most (Portfolio, No. 34 and No. 37), and Gilbert, famous being the Bella' in the Uffizi, Florence. Josiah, Cadore or Titian's Country' (LonMany times also his daughter, Lavinia, smiles don 1889). down the centuries. Sometimes she is holding

ESTHER SINGLETON. a dish of fruit (Berlin), sometimes a jeweled

TITICACA, tē-tē-kä'kä, the largest lake in casket (Lord Cowper) and sometimes a fan (Dresden). The Uffizi contains four superb

South America and one of the most remarkable studies: Catarina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus,

on the globe, situated on the southeastern Sandovino, Francesco, Duke of Urbino and

boundary of Peru, its eastern shores belonging Eleanora, the Duchess of Urbino. Charles V

to Bolivia. It is about 130 miles long and 30 on horseback at the battle of Muhlberg, now

miles wide through most of its length, though in the Prado, Madrid, shows for all ages what

43 miles at one point. It lies at an altitude of kind of man the emperor was. Titian painted

12,635 feet, in a large plateau basin between the three portraits of himself: one in early life

two main cordilleras of the Andes. It is of (Vienna), one in middle age (Berlin) and

irregular shape, and contains several islands. one in old age (Prado, Madrid). Francis I

Copacabana Peninsular almost cuts it in two (Louvre), though a great portrait, was not

at the southeast extremity. The greatest depth

is 720 feet. painted from life, for Titian never saw this

Its surplus water is discharged sovereign. The famous work in the Louvre

southward by the river Desaguadero, which called (Titian and his Mistress) represents

flows into Lake Aullagas, and thence disappears

in the Salinas Grandes, so that the water of Alphonso, Duke of Ferrara and his wife Laura

the lake does not reach the ocean. Lake di Dianti. Pope Paul III was another fine subject. The great "Trinity) or (Last Judgment,'

Titicaca was formerly much larger than now,

and is still decreasing in area. There are geoin which Charles V appears, was so loved by

logic evidences that it formerly discharged into the emperor that he had it in his room during

the Amazon watershed, in the eastern side of his last illness and kept his eyes fastened on

the Cordillera Real. In spite of the high altiit till the last. Titian also painted one great historical work in 1539, (The Battle of Cadore

tude the shores are inhabited, and steamers

ply on its waters. The largest island in the representing the moment when the Venetian

lake also bears the name Titicaca. Puno is the captain, facing the enemy, dashed into the rushing stream with men and horses. All are rep

largest town on its shores. The locality was resented life size. This picture perished by

the seat of a prehistoric civilization of great fire in 1577 and is only known to-day by

interest, and the islands and the regions around Fontana's engraving and a sketch by Titian in

the lake contain some of the most interesting the Uffizi.

architectural remains of ancient Peru. «Titian," writes Kugler, was born in grand TITLARK, a small lark-like bird of the Alpine scenery amidst a sturdy and vigorous family Motacillide, many species of which inrace; and it is in the combination of these ante- habit most parts of the world in every variety cedents with the gorgeous color and stately of region, some being migratory, others performs of Venetian life that we trace that manent residents. The nest is made upon the breadth of qualities so conducive to the develop- ground, or dry grass and stalks, lined with ment of art in which he takes precedence of finer plants and hair, and the eggs are four to every other painter. Two forms of nature es- six. The American titlark (Anthus rubescens) pecially courted his pencil — landscape and is six and one-half inches long and 11 in wing portraiture; and in each he revealed to the

extent; olive brown above, each feather darkest world treasures of truth and poetry not worked in the middle; beneath yellowish brown, the out before. For Titian is not only the painter sides of the neck spotted longitudinally with of humanity in its largest distinctions — in the dark brown; round eyes and superciliary stripe beauty of woman, the dignity of man and the yellowish; central tail feathers like back, the artlessness of childhood – but he is especially others blackish brown, the external one mostly the delineator of all those under every aspect white and a white spot at the end of the second; of the high born and the affluently placed primaries edged with whitish, and the other classes of society. Sir Joshua Reynolds says quills with pale brownish; bill and feet black. of him whatever he touched by a kind of magic It is very generally distributed over North he invested with grandeur and importance. The America, extending to the Pacific and to Greenintellectual, the noble, the splendid, the well- land, and is accidental in Europe. The flight formed, the well-fed, the well-dressed were the is exceedingly easy and graceful; it occurs in mutual subjects of his art. His type accord- flocks of tens or hundreds, running fast on the ingly of Christ, John the Baptist and the ground, vibrating the tail whenever it stops, Magdalen -- characters in whom the pride of not squatting like the larks, but moving the life and the abnegation of self are incompatible body on the upper joints of the legs. It is qualities --cannot satisfy those who look for found in the fields, on the prairies, along rivers, the realization of a sacred idea. Titian can, and on the seashore; the notes are clear and therefore, hardly rank as a painter of religious sharp tweets, the last much prolonged; it breeds feeling except in his earliest works when he in the East only north of the Saint Lawrence was still under the influence of Giorgione." River, and especially in the coastal districts of

Bibliography.- Crowe and Cavaleaselle, Labrador; but in the Rocky Mountain region (Titian: his Life and Times (2 vols., London spends the summer much farther south, but at 1877); Gronau, G., Titian? (Berlin 1900; Eng. cool elevations. This bird is very similar to the trans., London 1904); Hamel, Maurice, "Titian A. obscurus and spinoletta of Europe, though (Paris 1905); Huell, Estelle M., Titian (Bos- the latter has a longer bill and less slender tarsi

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and toes, and has no yellowish superciliary stripe; the outer tail feathers are not white, and the spots are less distinct below. Among the European species the most extensively distributed is the meadow titlark or pipit (A. pratensis), which is a favorite field-bird in Great Britain. The tree-pipit or titlark (A. arboreus) is another favorite. Both are kept as cage-birds. Consult general works, and Coues, Birds of the Northwest? (Washington 1874).

TITLE-DEED, a paper, or one of several papers, written or printed, or partly written and partly printed, describing a property in detail

, and through what ownership or authority it came into the present custody, by virtue of which a person claims ownership or title. The term is often used in the plural to denote the several muniments of title turned over by the grantor on delivering the property to the grantee or his agent and in this sense titledeeds are any documents containing evidence of the title or any part of the title to real estate or other property so granted. Every owner of property is supposed to have his own title-deeds, but the modern system of registering real estate transfers requires an official copy of the title-deeds to be entered in the office of the registrar or of whatever public agent assumes the duties of registrar, and there be open to the public inspection.

TITLE INSURANCE is effected in countries having public offices for the record of titles to real estate through the agency of title guaranty companies. This business has assumed importance in the United States where the system is most fully developed. In this country law requires all transfers of real estate, all mortgages, wills, judgments, etc., to be entered in official registers open to public inspection. In the larger cities these records soon became so voluminous that the matter of verifying title became a cumbersome affair calling for the prolonged services of expert realty lawyers. Moreover such research was attended with long delay and with great expense; yet this had to be repeated every time a fresh transfer or mortgage took place, since the vendee or mortgagee was not apt to accept the property without assurance of its being unencumbered and sound in title. Finally in 1876 a Philadelphia company was organized to guarantee titles, and the plan proved so successful that companies have since been organized in nearly every large city in the country. The plan of operation of these companies calls for large capital, for in order to be independent of the clumsy and sometimes inaccurate methods of public record offices the title insurance companies form their own records of real estate titles in the locality in which they operate, and must maintain for this purpose a large staff of expert title examiners. On account of the size of its force a well-equipped company can make the first examination and guaranty of a title in less than a week, whereas from one to three months was sometimes required by the practising attorneys. The fee required in this first instance is usually about the same as that charged by a reliable lawyer, or, in case of a long examination, about onehalf per cent of the value of the property negotiated; but it has the added advantage

of guaranteeing against loss if there is any inaccuracy of the search. After a property has been once examined and its title guaranteed, the noting of future transactions affecting it is a simple matter, and subsequent guaranties are issued upon short notice and for a small fee.


TITLE REGISTRATION, a system of public records under which titles to real property are recorded in public offices for the purpose of expediting the process of transfer and of giving legal notice to claims of ownership to lands so entered. In England the registration of titles is of comparatively recent introduction, the system being due to the land transfer acts of 1875, under which it was first successfully practised. The office of record in that country is conducted by a registrar appointed by the lord chancellor, who also fixes the fees for the various services of the office. These fees, paid in the form of stamps, provide the emoluments of office from which the registrar draws his pay. Under the act of 1875 the registrar must approve of the title submitted and in case of a sale the vendor must make affidavit that he has produced all the deeds, wills and other instruments of title as well as all the evidences of encumbrances on the land, in order that the registrar can make a fair entry. When once a title is registered no adverse title will acquire any advantage by length of possession, but any person claiming an adverse interest can lodge a caution of that fact and be entitled to notice of all further transactions on the property. When the registered land is sold the name of the transferee is entered on the register and he is issued a certificate of title. The law is not compulsory in England, but is being gradually adopted because of its advantages over the old system.

In the United States it early became customary to register titles, mortgages and notices of transfer of interest, encumbrances, etc., in public offices, usually in the office of the county clerk of the court. This officer has no judicial or discretionary powers and is empowered only to register official copies of deeds, mortgages, agreements, etc. In place of the issuance of a certificate the clerk notes on the original or a duplicate deed that a true copy has been entered on the official register and this copy becomes legal notice of claim of title to all the world. The clerk of the court, who is a county officer in the United States, and elected, not appointed, frequently delegates thi part of his work to an appointed assistant known as the registrar of deeds. Between the parties of a conveyance the recording or nonrecording of the instrument is of no moment, but conveyances made after the first is recorded are void, and any conveyance not recorded is void as against a subsequent conveyance to a bona fide purchase from the person in whose favor a recorded conveyance has been executed. State regulations, however, usually govern the matter of registration in regard to its effect as constructive notice. For the «Australian system of national land registration, see TORRENS SYSTEM.

TITLES, words or phrases bestowed on individuals as a mark of distinction, rank or

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dignity, and in some cases implying office or Britain and Ireland and of the British Dovocation. Titles may be official, honorary, civil, minions beyond the Seas King, Defender of military, temporal or ecclesiastical. The use of the Faith, Emperor of India,) etc. The eldest titles is as old as civilization and seems to have son of the British sovereign is styled the arisen from titles bestowed for some public Prince of Wales, and the eldest daughter the service, and only later to have been bestowed Princess Royal; the other sons and daughters in virtue of the dignity of the office or em- are styled prince and princess, and all, together ployment of the recipient, and even lat with the children of the sons of the reigning have become hereditary. As used by the Greeks sovereign, are addressed as Royal Highness. and Romans, however, titles conformed to the The five orders of nobility in Britain are disfirst and the last customs - they were be- tinguished by the titles of honor – duke stowed for service and were hereditary. Later, marquis, earl, viscount and baron. These Roman offices carried their titles with them nobles have several titles, granted by district irrespective of the merits of the holders, for ex- patents, in their progressive steps in the peerage. ample, the names Cæsar and Augustus, and the A duke may thus be a marquis, an earl, a visphrase pater patriæ, all of which came to be count, and a baron. One of the inferior titles applied to the imperial throne regardless of the is permitted as a matter of social dignity to be character of the occupant.

assumed by the eldest son. Thus the eldest Titles to-day in existence in Europe are in- son of the Duke of Sutherland takes the teresting relics of the feudal period. First courtesy title, as it is called, of Marquis of came the titles of count and duke. Counts Stafford. Courtesy titles do not raise their (comites, companions) were the followers of bearers above the rank of commoners, and the feudal lords and the dukes (dux, leader), consequently the eldest sons of peers are the military leaders.

eligible for election as members of the House Placed at the head of provinces, their rôles of Commons. The lowest hereditary title is were the same, to administer their territory, de- that of baronet, which, besides its name, which fend it against depredations and forays from is placed after the name and surname of its without, and to organize and lead its man- bearer, entitles him to the prefix Sir. The dig. power in the military service of the overlord nity of knighthood is not hereditary. The titles when the latter went forth to battle. Later of esquire and master (Mr.) are now given came the appellation marquis to denote those in indiscriminately to nearly all classes of percharge of the “marches, marshes, usually on sons. The Continental titles of prince, duke the frontiers or border lands. Under the count marquis, count, viscount and baron often came his lieutenants with the title of viscounts. differ considerably from the corresponding As regards the title baron, which signifies man titles in England. Thus in England the title par excellence, it was at first applied only to prince is confined to members of the royal the higher feudal personages, the great tenants- family; Austria has, or had, archdukes but no in-chief of the Crown. The knight was he who dukes, Russia had only grand dukes. had received an order of chivalry or knight- It is an axiom that hereditary titles lose hood, and so on through the several grades of their value in proportion as they become comfeudal society.

mon. In England this latter danger is obviated Among modern rulers the titles king and

by the rule of primogeniture which insures that emperor with the feminines and in the case of

there shall be but one bearer of a title in a the late Russian Empire that of tsar, are the

generation, while in France all the sons retitles of supreme heads of government. The

ceive titles, the eldest the highest title, for intitle king harks back to a period when its

stance, that of duke, the second son, a marbearer bore it by right of kinship as the head

quisate, and so on. In Mohammedan lands the of his tribe. The later rex and its derivatives

only hereditary title is that of sherif, except in the Romance languages denotes a ruler.

in the ruling houses. Pasha and bey, at first And the word emperor, which is used in the

purely military titles, are now conferred on same sense, originally denoted the ruler of an civilians, but are not hereditary. Japan had a empire or a confederation of several states, system of titles closely resembling that of each of which had a king at its head. In this

Europe, and like the latter, based on her old respect the word was advisedly applied to Wil- feudal system. China, under the empire, enliam II, late emperor of Germany. Meanwhile

nobled the ancestors of the person to be it had become customary to add to the titles

honored and usually made the title hereditary signifying the office, honorary qualifying titles.

for a stated number of generations. The TurkHenry IV of England was called "Grace"; ish sultan is styled padishah (lord king) and Edward IV, Most High and Mighty Prince);

as head of Islam he is the Commander of the Henry VII, "Highness"; and Henry VIII, Faithful.” The ruling houses of India have a "Majesty.” This latter title was universally graduated system of titles closely akin to that of adopted by the sovereigns of Europe, and was Europe. The Pope of Rome is distinguished by subsequently subjected to further qualification, the title His Holiness, and addressed as as in the case of James I, who was called "His "Your Holiness); cardinals by the title "His Sacred Majesty of England, and was formally Eminence); bishops as "Monsignor," and in addressed as "James, by the Grace of God, England as My Lord." The title of bishops is King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, “The Lord Bishop of , of archbishops Defender of the Faith, etc. Catholic rulers, "The Most Reverend the Lord Archbishop of meanwhile, had assumed such


) deans are addressed as "Very Reverend," "Catholic for Spain, Most Faithful for and archdeacons as “Venerable." All clergyPortugal, etc. The present ruler of Great men and ministers of the Christian and Jewish Britain receives the title, “George V, by the faiths are now generally styled “Reverend." Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Titles in the United States.- Hereditary


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