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palate. This combination of orange and yellow has given rise to the name “butter-and-eggs.” It is also called ramstead. The plant has been naturalized from Europe and is rather pretty, but it is very tenacious and very difficult to eradicate.

A native toad-flax is L. canadensis, a slender plant, with blue flowers and with a tendency toward oppositeness. The Kenilworth ivy (Cymbalaria cymbalaria) is also called ivyleafed toad-flax and is a glabrous trailing perennial, with reniform-orbicular leaves and bluish flowers. L. triornithophora, a European plant, is peculiar for its purple, long-spurred flowers blooming in whorls of three and resembling birds, which has suggested the Latin name, hree-birds) toad-flax. The American bastard toad-llax (Comandra umbellata) is a delicate, pale green, smooth plant of the sandal-wood family, with greenish white or purplish, campanulate corollas and oblong leaves quite unlike the Linaria. In England Thesirem linophyllum, with leaves like those of toad-fax, is known by the same name as Comandra.

TOADFISH, any fish of the genus Batrachus, so called from the large head, wide gape and generally toad-like appearance. The common toad-fish (B. tau) is from eight inches to a foot long, light brown marbled with black. There are about 12 species, dwelling principally in tropical and sub-tropical seas.

TOADSTONE, (1) in geology, an old English name for certain amygdaloidal basaltic rocks occurring in Cumberland, England. The name is also applied to a mottled, apparently spherulitic felsite, found near Boston. (2) Fragments of rocks or precious stones, sembling toads either in color or form, also fossils of various kinds, supposed to possess special therapeutic virtues. Such objects were for many centuries highly prized in Europe, being worn as rings or amulets.

TOADSTOOLS, properly fungi of the family Agaricacea, which includes the edible mushrooms. See FUNGI.

TOASPERN, Otto, American artist: b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 26 March 1863. He was graduated at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Munich (1888); was the pupil of N. Gysis and P. Nauen; and became an instructor in the National Academy of Design, New York. He is best known as an illustrator of Life; Ladies' Home Journal; Century; Harper's and several leading European periodicals.

TOAST, originally bread dried or scorched before the fire. In the 16th century it became the fashion in England to add toasted bread to drinks. From this habit the term toast came to be applied to a drink of honor proposed to some person or sentiment during the course or at the conclusion of a meal. The growth of social drinking in the 17th century greatly increased the custom of toasting, and it became common to toast not only the reigning monarchs, the hosts and the flag, but each person of the assembled company, absent friends and numerous sentiments. Finally the term came to denote not only the drink but the person or sentiment toasted, and in this dual sense the word is used to-day. Toasts are properly drunk standing, and it is the modern custom to have some person present reply to the sentiment pro

posed in an appropriate speech. Consult Chamber's Book of Days) and Valpy's History of Toasting (1881).

TOBACCO, the common name applied (1) to plants of the genus Nicotiana, of which there are a large number of species, and (2) to the dried leaves of these plants prepared in various ways for smoking, chewing or snuffing. Originating in America, the use of tobacco has been extended into practically all parts of the world and, indeed, it has come to be incomparably the most generally used of all narcotics. It appears that the name tobacco was derived from the word tabaco, originally employed by the natives of Haiti to designate the tube used by them in smoking or taking snuff and adopted by the Spaniards as the name of the product most generally used in smoking; although other products than true tobacco were taken by the natives in the form of snuff. The habit-forming properties or narcotic effects of tobacco are due to its content of nicotine and related alkaloids.

The tobacco plant belongs to the family of Solanaceæ and is thus related to the tomato, potato, eggplant, red pepper and jimson weed. There are some 50 or more species of Nicotiana but only two of these, N. tabacum and N. rustica, are of economic importance. The Indians of western North America, however, held N. quadrivalvis in high esteem for smoking purposes. Also, N. sylvestris, N. alata and a few others are used to some extent for ornamental purposes.

Additional well-known species are glauca, longiflora, glutinosa, trigonophylla. Nearly all species of Nicotiana are tiative to America, but N. suavolens appears to be indigenous to Australia. All of the more important commercial types of tobacco are produced from N. tabacum. This is a coarse, rankgrowing annual, reaching three to six feet or more in height. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged on the stem, very large but quite varied in size,

to lanceolate in shape, entire or with wavy margin, petiolated or sessile and decurrent. The number of leaves varies markedly in the different varieties but is not much affected by differences of environment. The green portions of the plant are covered with soft hairs either branched or single stalked, some of which are capitate and glandular, secreting a viscid, gummy substance. Stomata occur on both surfaces of the leaf. The inflorescence is a terminal panicle producing large flowers ranging in color from deep red through various shades of pink to white, a light pink being the more common color. Under favorable conditions flowering branches also develop from buds borne in the leaf-axils. The calyx of the flower is bellshaped, four or five-cleft. The corolla tube is funnel-shaped with spreading and pointed lobes. The blossom is normally self-fertilized. The five stamens are attached to the base of the corolla tube. The stigma is capitate. The capsule is two to four-valved, bearing a very large number of seed. The seed are small, there being 300,000 to 400,000 in an ounce. There are numerous distinctive varieties of N. tabacum and of the leading commercial varieties there are many sub-varieties or local strains bearing distinctive names but usually differing among themselves only in minor details. In some instances, however, important commercial types


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of tobacco are produced from mixtures of distinct sorts designated collectively by the type name rather than by distinctive varietal names. This is notably true of Cuban and Turkish tobaccos. N. rustica is an annual with a much branched stem and large, ovate leaves with petiole. The corolla tube of the blossom is cylindrical with rounded lobes and is greenish yellow in color. The seed are about three times the size of those of tabacum. Rustica is decidedly earlier in maturing than is tabacum. It is not grown commercially in America but is extensively cultivated in India and in certain sections of Asia Minor and Russia, and to some extent in other European countries.

History.- Tobacco was widely used by the Indians at the time of the discovery of America by Columbus and relics of the Mound Builders show that pipe smoking was a very ancient custom among the aborigines. On landing in the West Indies in 1492 members of Columbus' crew observed that the natives smoked rolls of dried tobacco leaves. When the Spaniards landed in Mexico in 1519 they found the natives cultivating tobacco with care and skill. It was believed by them to possess great curative powers for such diseases as bronchitis, asthma and rheumatism. Other aromatic materials such as liquidambar were frequently mixed with tobacco for smoking purposes. The natives of the Orinoco forests of Venezuela understood the use of tobacco and the preparation and use of tobacco by the natives of Brazil are described in detail by André Thevet who visited that region in 1555. For smoking, the dried leaves were rolled into a small cylinder enclosed in a leaf of corn or palm. Similarly, when Cartier discovered what is now Canada he found the Indians drying tobacco leaves in the

The powdered leaves were smoked in pipes made of stone or wood. Early explorers traveling through the interior of the country found the habit of smoking very general among the aborigines from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The pipe of peace carried by the Indian tribes, which was an elaborately carved and decorated object, was smoked in common by those attending grand councils and was held very sacred.

The tobacco cultivated by the Indians of North America to the east of the Mississippi was N. rustica while in Central and South America N. tabacum was the species principally grown. It has already been made clear that the American aborigines used tobacco in the form of cigars and for pipe smoking and, moreover, it is recorded that chewing the leaf was practised in some sections, while in South America the manufacture of snuff had reached a perfection which in some respects has never been surpassed. Thus, the American Indians had evolved methods of cultivating tobacco and preparing it in all forms which are now used. Finally, it is stated that a great North American tribe which dwelt near Lake Huron engaged in the cultivation of tobacco on a commercial scale, the product being sold to other tribes. According to early authorities, the Spaniards began the culture of tobacco in Haiti prior to 1535. Shortly afterward it was extended to the island of Trinidad whose product soon became famous in Europe. Tobacco culture was soon developed on a large scale in the West Indies and in Venezuela and Brazil.

At least four distinct varieties of N. tabacum were grown, viz. : (1) A large broad-leaf type; (2) a long narrow-leaf "Ox-tongue) form; (3) a type resembling (2) but with broader leaves; (4) a type with very small leaves. Thus, prior to the settlement of Jamestown, the Spaniards and Portuguese had developed an important trade in tobacco between Europe and the West Indies and South America. John Rolfe began the culture of tobacco at Jamestown in 1612 from seed brought from South America or the West Indies and in 1619 20,000 pounds were shipped to England. The growing of tobacco in Maryland began about 1631 and soon became an important enterprise. These two States have continued to grow tobacco in large quantities up to the present day. The Virginia colonists at first grew the crop on the bottom lands of the tide-water region. As the settlers moved further inland, however, it was found that the more elevated and somewhat heavier soils produced tobacco better suited to trade requirements. Overproduction of tobacco soon became a serious menace to the welfare of the colonists and an inspection service was established in order to prevent the export of damaged or inferior leaf. Attempts were made also to limit the acreage grown but with indifferent success. It appears that the growers learned at a very early date the influence of the soil and the cultural and curing methods on the character of leaf tobacco produced. Thus, the selection of suitable soils, the proper spacing of the plants in the field, use of certain methods of manuring and following definite practices of topping, (suckering,” harvesting and curing came to be recognized in the first few decades of practical culture as being of fundamental importance. In the main, presentday cultural methods, therefore, differ from those of the early colonists in details rather than in fundamental principles. The exports of tobacco from Virginia had reached 18,000,000 pounds in 1700, and about 40,000,000 pounds in 1750 while at the outbreak of the Revolution the combined exports of Virginia and Maryland amounted to 100,000,000 pounds. Prior to the Revolutionary War the production of tobacco in the other colonies was not of much importance, but during the past century there was an enormous expansion in total production in the United States. New centres of production were developed and the crop as a whole became differentiated into a number of distinctive types. After the close of the Revolution pioneer settlers from Virginia and Maryland carried the culture of tobacco into Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri and Ohio. The tobacco produced in western Kentucky and Tennessee, however, found its way to market through New Orleans while the product of eastern Ohio was sent to Baltimore. Missouri at one time became a leading tobacco-producing State although in recent years the production has fallen off to a nominal figure. During the first quarter of the last century the culture of cigar leaf tobacco began to assume importance in the Connecticut Valley and by the middle of the century the cigar tobacco districts of the Miami Valley of Ohio, the Gadsden area in Florida and the New York areas had become established. Next came the development of the Lancaster, Pa., district and, beginning about 1870, the


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culture of cigar leaf developed very rapidly in southern Wisconsin. As tobacco culture in Virginia was pushed forward onto the gray lands of the south central border counties and into North Carolina a lighter and finer-textured product was obtained. About 1825 began the use of charcoal in curing which had the effect of further improving the quality of the lightcolored leaf and subsequently the charcoal was replaced by a system of flues for leading out of the barn the smoke from the fuel used in curing. In this manner began the development of the vast bright flue-cured tobacco industry. During the latter part of the century this industry spread into eastern North Carolina and South Carolina. Tobacco culture had been introduced into the Blue Grass region of Kentucky at an early date but the discovery of the White Burley variety in Brown County, Ohio, in 1864 revolutionized the industry in central Kentucky and southern Ohio and the Burley type soon came to be produced in enormous quantities. The outstanding event of the past quarter century in the industry is the development in the Connecticut Valley and in western Florida of the shade-grown cigar wrapper leaf industry, a very intensive and highly specializcd agricultural enterprise. Turning to the introduction of tobacco into foreign countries, it appears that the plant was first grown in France in 1556 by André Thevet from seed taken back by him on his return from Brazil. The plant attracted little attention, however, till introduced and exploited at the royal court by Jean Nicot, Ambassador to Portugal, whose name became immortalized in the generic name of tobacco, Nicotiana. Tobacco also was first grown in Portugal and in Spain at about this time, and almost immediately was introduced into Belgium, the Netherlands and Rome. Upon his return to England from Virginia in 1585 Sir Richard Grenville introduced pipe smoking as practised by the Indians. For a full half century after its introduction into Europe tobacco was used almost exclusively as a medicinal agent and it was generally believed to possess wonderful curative properties. During the first half of the 17th century however, indulgence in tobacco became very general in most of Europe although in some instances strenuous efforts were made by the authorities to prevent its use. Amsterdam and Rotterdam became at the outset the leading distributing centres for American-grown tobacco. The culture and the use of tobacco were introduced into India, Persia and other Asiatic countries carly in the 17th century.

Commercial Types of Tobacco.- The differentiation of leaf tobacco into types has reference primarily to the different uses of the leaf in manufacture. A further distinction is frequently made as to the district or locality in which the product is grown. In the United States there are eight important commercial types of tobacco, viz. : (1) cigar leaf; (2) dark fire-cured export; (3) White Burley; (4) bright fue-cured or yellow tobacco; (5) dark aircured manufacturing; (6) Maryland and eastern Ohio export; (7) Virginia sun-cured; (8) perique. The cigar leaf type is used almost exclusively in the domestic manufacture of cigars. There are three sub-types of cigar tobacco: (1) wrapper leaf used as the outer

covering of the cigar; (2) binder leaf used for holding the cigar's shape; (3) filler leaf which makes up the body of the cigar. Wrapper leaf is grown chiefly in the Connecticut and Housatonic valleys of New England and in the Gadsden-Decatur district of Florida and Georgia. Binder leaf is produced mainly in Dane, Rock, Vernon and Crawford counties of Wisconsin and in the Big Flats district of New York. The leading centres for the production of filler leaf are the Lancaster area of Pennsylvania, the Miami Valley district of Ohio and the Onondaga district of New York. The dark fire-cured type is exported to the extent of about 80 per cent of the total production, being unsuited for domestic manufacture except in making snuff and for limited use as a plug wrapper. This type is grown in some 20 counties of central Virginia, in the Clarksville and Hopkinsville, and the Paducah districts of western Kentucky and Tennessee and the Henderson or Stemming district of Kentucky. Great Britain is the heaviest purchaser of firecured leaf and the other principal foreign purchasers have been Italy, Germany, France, Spain, Austria and Belgium. This type of leaf is of heavy body, dark in color, rich in nicotine and possesses a distinctive creosotic or smoky smell and taste because of the combustion products absorbed from the smoke used in the process of curing. The White Burley is distinctly a domestic manufacturing type, but little of it being exported. It burns well, is of light body, rather neutral in flavor and yields a large proportion of light colored leaf. Its one most important characteristic, however, is its remarkable capacity for absorbing the liquid sweetening materials or sauces used in the manufacture of the sweetened type of plug chewing tobacco. For this purpose the Burley has no equal. It is also used very extensively in the manufacture of cut-plug smoking and fine-cut chewing tobaccos and in the production of cigarettes. White Burley is grown chiefly on the rich limestone soils of central and northern Kentucky and in southern Ohio. Considerable quantities. also, are produced in a few counties of western West Virginia and southeastern Indiana. The bright flue-cured or yellow tobacco has come to be the world's most important type in point of quantity consumed. In domestic manufacture the chief uses of this type are in the production of granulated smoking tobaccos, cigarettes and the fat type of plug chewing tobacco. It is our most important cigarette type. In recent years flue-cured leaf has been

very aggressive type in foreign markets and at the present time more than half the total production is exported, the largest foreign buyers being England, China and Canada. There are two subdivisions of the fue-cured producing district, namely, the Old Belt section, embracing the northern central counties of North Carolina and adjoining border counties of Virginia, all in the Piedmont region, and the New Belt section of eastern North Carolina and South Carolina, lying in the Coastal Plain region. The most distinctive characteristic of typical flue-cured tobacco is its lemon or orange yellow color. In the region of Kentucky and Tennessee lying between the Burley section to the east and the dark fire-cured section on the west there are two districts known as the One




sucker and the Green River which produce large climatic conditions but, on the other hand, the quantities of dark air-cured tobaccos used both characteristics of the leaf of commercial imfor domestic manufacture and for export. The portance are greatly influenced by both soil one-sucker tobacco is used for the domestic and climate. These facts explain the existence manufacture of twist chewing tobacco and for of so many different commercial types of tothe so-called rehandling export trade with South bacco each suited to special purposes of manuAfrica, the West Indies and Central and South facture. Cultural methods, also, affect the American countries. The Green River tobacco character of leaf obtained so that these methods is used for the manufacture of long-cut chew- are modified in the different districts according ing and for export to England. The Maryland to the special requirements of the type grown, and eastern Ohio tobaccos have been exported although certain general features are common to Europe for centuries, France and The to all sections. The tobacco seedlings must Netherlands being the chief purchasers. The be grown in a specially prepared seed bed which

Maryland leaf also is used to some extent in may be either a hotbed or more commonly a x domestic manufacture. This tobacco is com- cold frame. The soil must be mellow and

paratively light in body and color, dry and friable and must be made rich. The time of chaffy and has good burning qualities but is planting ranges from January in the South rather characterless in aroma. In the eastern through the month of April in Northern disOhio district the old piebald or spangled type tricts. The seed are sown at the rate of about has been largely replaced in recent years by a heaping teaspoonful to 25 square yards of seed White Burley. In a few counties in the vicinity bed and are covered only very lightly. The of Richmond, Va., a dark type of leaf known beds are covered with glass or with tobacco as sun-cured is produced although in late cloth” to protect the young seedlings. When years the old method of partially curing the secdlings have attained sufficient size, the leaf in direct sunlight has been largely usually 6 to 10 weeks after the seed have been abandoned in favor of air-curing. This to- planted, they are transplanted to the field either bacco is used in the manufacture of the flat by hand or machine. At the time of transtype of chewing tobacco. Perique tobacco is planting each plant must be watered unless the grown only in Saint James Parish, La., and soil is wet. The plants are set in rows three the total production is not large. This type to four feet apart while the distance allowed deserves mention because of its distinctive between the plants in the row varies from 14 aroma, due primarily to the unique method of to 16 inches for some of the cigar tobaccos curing employed by the growers. Perique is up to three and one-half to four feet for the chiefly used in the preparation of fancy smok- fire-cured type. The character and condition of ing mixtures to which it adds aroma. To the the soil used for tobacco is of special importabove-named domestic types entering into com

Good drainage is essential in all cases. merce must be added at least three foreign Broadly speaking, cigar wrapper and binder types of special importance, namely, the Cuban, leaf, Maryland tobacco and the flue-cured type the Sumatra and Java and the so-called Turkish. are grown on light sandy and sandy loam soils, In a small area of Cuba located in the province with sandy or sandy clay subsoils. In New Engof Pinar del Rio in the vicinity of San land the Merrimac series of soils are widely Juan y Martinez is grown the world's finest used, while in Maryland the Norfolk and in cigar leaf, noted for its remarkable aroma. the flue-cured district the Norfolk and Durham This district is known as the Vuelta de Abajo series are of special importance for tobacco. In and the outlying tobacco-producing territory is the cigar filler district of Pennsylvania and in designated Semi-vuelta. Other leading the Burley region of Kentucky fertile loams Cuban districts are the Partidos of Habana of limestone origin, particularly the Hagerstown province and the Remedios of Santa Clara prov- loam, are chiefly used. Clay loams of the ince. Porto Rico, the Bahia district of Brazil Miami series are typical tobacco soils of the and portions of the Philippines also produce Ohio cigar filler district. The dark fire-cured cigar tobacco of high merit though they do not and air-cured export and manufacturing toequal the best Cuban. On the east coast of baccos are grown on rather heavy silt and clay Sumatra and in portions of Java a very fine loams usually reddish or brownish in color, grade of cigar wrapper leaf is grown and sev- with clay subsoils, Both the kind and the eral million pounds of this product are imported quantity of fertilizer applied to the tobacco crop into this country each year for the manufacture are important. An excess of nitrogen injures of lower and medium-priced cigars. Because the quality of the leaf, especially in the case of of the thinness of leaf, fineness of texture and the flue-cured type. At least a part of the veins and general uniformity of the grades nitrogen should be derived from organic sources this tobacco has a great wrapping capacity per such as cotton-seed meal or dried blood. A pound. In the portion of southern Macedonia liberal supply of potash in the form of sulphate around the port of Cavalla and other nearby or carbonate favors good burning qualities and towns and in the Smyrna, Trebizond and Sam- reduces susceptibility to leaf spot diseases. soun districts of Asia Minor are grown the Chlorine tends to hinder free combustion in finest cigarette tobaccos in the world. The so- the cured tobacco. Only quickly available called Turkish cigarettes are made from blends forms of phosphoric acid should be used in of these tobaccos. Egyptian cigarettes also are order to ensure proper ripening of the leaf. made from the Turkish types and tobacco is In Connecticut heavy applications of fertilizers not grown in Egypt. The Macedonian, Smyrna furnishing 100 to 150 pounds each of nitrogen, and Samsoun tobaccos are imported into the phosphoric acid and potash per acre are comUnited States in large quantities.

monly employed while in Southern districts 20 Culture of Tobacco.- The tobacco plant to 40 pounds of nitrogen and potash and 40 to may be grown under a wide range of soil and 80 pounds of phosphoric acid per acre are ap



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plied to the crop. Barn manure, also, is widely used in Northern districts. Liming is less essential for tobacco than for many other crops though possibly beneficial under some conditions. The soil is tilled for tobacco about the same as for corn or cotton. When the flower head begins to develop or somewhat later the plants are "topped” by breaking off the top of the stalk carrying the flower head and upper leaves, in order to force a better development of the leaves remaining on the plant. Cigar wrapper and binder tobaccos, White Burley and Maryland tobacco are topped high, leaving 16 to 20 leaves on the plant, while the heavy firecured type is topped to only 10 to 14 leaves and other types are topped to intermediate heights. The suckers or branches which develop in the axils of the leaf also must be broken off by hand. It is important to harvest the crop at the right stage of maturity. As the leaves ripen they take on a lighter green color and become more or less mottled with light-colored flecks. They also tend to crack when folded between the fingers. There are two methods in general use in harvesting the crop. In the first method the stalk is cut off near the ground and the inverted plants are attached to four-foot sticks either by means of cord or hooks properly spaced on the sticks, or by forcing the stick through the butts of the stalks by means of a removable metal spear head, or, finally, by splitting the stalks from the top to near the base and simply placing the plants astride the sticks. Each stick carries six to 10 plants and thus laden the sticks are arranged 6 to 12 inches apart on the tier poles of the barn. In the second method the leaves are plucked from the plant as they ripen, beginning at the bottom and taking two to five leaves at each picking. The field is thus gone over three to five times at intervals of a week or 10 days. The leaves are strung on cord by piercing the base of the midrib with a needle or the cord is merely looped around the basal ends of the leaves. The free ends of the cord are attached to either end of a four-foot stick, each stick and cord carrying 20 to 40 leaves. Curing, which must be carried out under proper conditions of temperature and moisture supply, is effected in specially constructed curing barns. Three distinctive methods are practised, known as aircuring, Alue-curing and fire-curing. In all cases the process must be so regulated as to develop the desired properties in the tobacco leaf. In air-curing natural atmospheric conditions are largely depended upon and little or no artificial heat is employed. The barns are comparatively large and are provided with a maximum of ventilation. From three to 12 weeks are required to complete the process of air-curing. This method is applied to all cigar tobaccos, Maryland tobacco, White Burley and the dark manufacturing types. For flue-curing the barns are small in size, tightly constructed and are provided with a system of metal pipes by means of which artificial heat may be freely applied without allowing smoke to come in contact with the tobacco. Heat is applied throughout the curing and the temperature is carefully regulated, beginning with 90-100° F. and ending with 180° or even 220° F. The whole process is completed in three to five days. In fire-curing heat is supplied by making open fires on the

floor of the barn, thus allowing the smoke to come in contact with the tobacco, to which it imparts a characteristic odor. The barns should be tightly constructed but they should be provided with ventilators. In practice heat is not applied until the tobacco has been hanging in the barn for two or three days and the fires are kept going for only a few days at a time. Alternate periods of air-curing and firing are thus continued till the curing process is completed. After curing in the barn is completed the tobacco leaf is too brittle to handle without breaking except after a period of damp weather or when moisture is applied artificially. Under suitable moisture conditions the leaf becomes pliable so that the crop can be handled in preparation for market. After the leaves have been stripped from the stalks they are separated into various grades according to size, color and other important elements of quality. The number of grades made by the grower ranges from two to 10 or more, according to the type and value of the crop. After the grading is completed the leaves are tied into small bundles or "hands” by securely wrapping a folded leaf around the butt ends of the leaves in the bundle. There are several different methods of marketing the various types of leaf tobacco. In the case of cigar tobaccos and, to a limited extent, the dark air-cured and fire-cured types, the buyer inspects and bargains for the crop on the farm, the grower delivering the tobacco at the buyer's receiving warehouse. In the South and, to an increasing extent, in the Western districts the (loose leaf auction system” prevails. Under this system the various grades of the grower are placed in separate lots on the warehouse floor at market centres and sold at auction on a commission basis. In a third system which has been extensively employed, the tobacco, put up in standard containers, is sold from carefully drawn samples without the buyer having seen the contents of the package until delivery has been effected. The sale is made either by auction or by private bargaining. There are three standard containers in which leaf tobacco is delivered to the manufacturers, namely, the box or case, the bale and the hogshead. Cigar tobaccos are packed in cases and bales and Turkish tobacco, also, is put up in bales, while the bulk of other tobaccos is packed in hogsheads. In all cases, after having been packed, the tobacco goes through important fermentative or aging process which develops the aroma and otherwise improves the quality. In some cases, however, the tobacco is put through a preliminary, more active fermentation in large heaps or bulks before it is packed for storage or transportation. The extent or degree of the fermentation is controlled largely by regulating the moisture contents of the tobacco. The tobacco plant throughout its period of growth is subject to injury by numerous insect pests and parasitic diseases. Among the more important insect enemies are the cutwośm, wireworm, flea-beetle, hornworm and budworm. The cutworm and wireworm are best controlled by rotation of crops and the hornworm and budworm by the use of arsenical insecticides or by hand picking, while no effective remedy has been found for the flea-beetle. The tobacco-beetle (not the tobacco flea-beetle), a serious pest in all forms of cured leai and


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