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Topaz occurs usually in metamorphic rocks, in 1854; an anti-slave constitution was adopted like gneiss, but also somewhat in igneous here in 1856 known as the “Topeka Constiturocks; it is frequently, though not always, as- tionand the Topeka government was estabsociated with tin-ore. The principal localities lished by national authority. It was incorpoare in Ceylon, Siberia, Japan, Brazil and rated as a city in 1857 and selected as the Mexico. In the United States it occurs in large State capital in 1861. The principal industries

at Stoneham, Me., and Trumbull, are the railroad shops of the Atchison, Topeka Conn. ; in crystals in Colorado and Utah. Fine and Santa Fé Railway, printing plants, six topaz crystals, colorless and pale blue, have re- flouring mills having a capacity of 5,000 barrels cently been found in San Diego County, Cal. per day, creameries, packing-houses, foundries, TOPAZOLITE, a variety of andradite

machine shops, boiler works, preserving works, garnet having a light yellow or pale grayish

silo factories, engine works and planing mills. green color. The most beautiful specimens are

According to the United States census of manfound in the Ala Valley, Piedmont, Italy. They turing establishments with a combined capital

ufactures of 1914 Topeka had 159 manufacalso occur in California.

of $14,186,000, employing 5,721 persons, paying TOPE, a Buddhist monument intended for

$3,691,000 in wages and manufacturing a prodthe preservation of relics. The oldest monu- uct valued at $20,000,000. Topeka has 10 banks, ments of this kind are spherical or elliptical three of which are national banks and three cupolas, resting on a circular or rectilinear base,

building and_loan associations with assets of with an umbrella-shaped roof, and sometimes $9,000,000. Topeka is an important jobbing with a series of roofs of this form which de- centre, there being four wholesale groceries, velop into a spire, pyramid or other architec- six wholesale commission houses, wholesale tural ornament. In the interior is a cell or

hardware, paper, drugs, etc. It is one of the chamber for containing the box with relics; chief railroad centres between the Missouri but in some cases no relics have been found, River and the Pacific Coast. The State capiand it is supposed they have been buried under- tol, a handsome stone edifice, is the most imground. The Sanskrit name is stupa, mound, portant building of the city. The State Memofrom which is derived thupa and tope, mean- rial building, erected to the memory of the ing top. The older topes are masonry mounds, veterans of the Civil War at a cost of $550,000, the cupola top and ornamental roofs and spire is the most handsome structure in the city. forms being later developments for ornamenta- The government building and the court house tion. Some of them are of great architectural are also creditable buildings. Topeka has a beauty, rising tier above tier, with a series of

municipally owned city building with audigraceful “parasol roofs, the limit of height torium annex with seating capacity for 5,000 being about 300 feet. But the typical con- people. Just west of the city, two miles, is the struction is that of The Great Tope at Sanchi, State Hospital for the Insane; the State Rein central India. This is a hat-shaped mound

form School is located just north of the city or dome 42 feet high and 106 feet at the widest about three miles. The Colored Industrial Inpoint. The flat space on top was for the chhatra stitute is a coeducational institution for color umbrella-like apex, this being the royal em

ored boys and girls located just east of the blem. This was like a substantial parasol, as city. Orphans Home — two Crittenden Homes, if to guard the relics from the weather. The

one each for the unfortunate white and colored Great Tope is surrounded with a magnificently girls, the Provident Association Building, carved stone railing, leaving an elaborate orna- Ingleside Home for Old Ladies, a Methodist mental entrance or gateway, over 30 feet high. Home for the Aged are among the most notable The chamber or cell in which the relics were of its charitable institutions. The Santa Fé kept was generally built with an outer con- Railroad maintains its own private hospital struction of masonry; often enclosing a bronze

and the public hospitals are Saint Francis, box, which again enclosed a silver cylinder or Christ's Hospital and Stormont Hospital. The case and within this perhaps a casket of gold city has a free public library, a well-organized containing the relics which it was desired to public school system, including a high school preserve.

The number of stones in the topes established in 1874; an excellent manual trainoften indicate Buddhistic symbolism - three, ing school is also maintained. It is the seat

and 13 being the numbers rich in of Washburn College, a coeducational institumeaning. Topes are common in the Orient tion for men and women, and the College of and there are groups of conspicuous ones the Sisters of Bethany and three business colat Amravati, Sarnatti and Telelabad in

leges. Topeka has the commission form of Bengal, at Satdhara and Sonari in central In

government, having a mayor and four comdia, at Abayagiri, Ruanwalli and Tuparamaya missioners; a well-equipped fire departinent and in Ceylon, etc. Relics of kings and great men an excellent police department. The city owns were thus cared for, much as we build statues its own electric light and water plant. The and monuments to-day. See DAGOBA; PAGODA.

cost of city government as reported by the TOPEKA, Kan., city and county-seat of

United States government reports for the year Shawnee County, capital of the State and the 1915 shows $20.71 per capita as spent in Topeka third largest city in the State, on both banks

for the maintenance of city governinent. The of the Kansas River, on the Atchison, Topeka physical valuation of Topeka is about $56,000,and Santa Fé, the Chicago, Rock Island and

000. The area of the city is 16 square miles. Pacific, the Union Pacific and the Missouri Topeka has over two miles of ornamental Pacific, 67 miles west of Kansas City. The city lighting system, has 240 acres of city-owne: is well laid out with broad streets crossing at

parks and play grounds. Pop. 52,250. right angles and beautifully shaded. Topeka TOPELIUS, tö-pā'le-oos, Zachris, Finnish was settled by people from the Free State author: b. Kuddnäs, near Nykarleby, 14 Jan.

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1818; d. Helsingfors, 13 March 1898. He was graduated at the University of Helsingfors in 1840, in 1841-60 edited the Helsingfors Fidningar, in which many of his earlier writings first were printed, and held at the university the chairs successively of Finnish history (1854–63), of the history of Finland and the northern regions (1863–76), and of general history (1876–78). After Runeberg (q.v.), he is the chief poet of Finland. His religious and patriotic lyrics are particularly valued. Among the collections of his verse are Flowers of the Heath) (1845–54); New Leaves) (1870). He wrote also several dramas, such as After Fifty Years! (1851), and works of fiction, including "A Surgeon's Stories? (1853–67), a cycle based on Finnish and Swedish history from the time of Gustavus II Adolphus, to that of Gustavus III. There are German translations of several of his writings and an English version of the (Surgeon's Stories) has appeared in the United States (1883–88).

TÖPFFER, Rudolph, Swiss novelist: b. Geneva, 1799; d. there, 1846. In 1832 he became teacher of æsthetics at the Academy of Geneva and in 1839 his novel Le presbytère attracted general attention to him and ensured his position in the world of letters. He was a voluminous writer and won renown for his Voyages en zigzag (1848) which were continued with illustrations by himself in 1853. Among his best productions are his seven little novels in pictures which were published together in Geneva, 1846-47. Consult Wolterstoff, Hermann, Essai sur la vie et lis cevres de Rodolphe Töpffer (Magdeburg 1894).

TOPHET, or TOPHETH, a locality described in Scripture as in the valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, where high places were erected, and which was the chief seat of the worship of Moloch, with its fiery human sacrifices and abominations. The good King Josiah suppressed that form of idolatry, and made Tophet a receptacle for the refuse of Jerusalem. Afterward it became a buryingground. It was shunned with horror by the Jews, and the word has come to be used by Christians as the synonym of a place of punishment after death. The origin of the word is doubtful. It is derived by some from Hebrew toph, a drum, in allusion to drums beaten to drown the cries of children burnt in the fire to Moloch, and this seems a probable interpretation. Another derivation is from an Aramzan word signifying to spit or vomit, in all on to the disgust excited by the place. Consult 2 Kings xxiii, 10; Jer. vii, 31–32; Isa. xxx, 33.

TOPIC, the subject of a discourse, whether written or spoken; the matter treated of in conversation, argument, oration, literary composition, etc. In rhetoric and logic topic was restricted to the narrower sense of a common ground of argument, a general maxim or dictum from which other arguments may be started: one of the various general forms of argument employed in probable reasoning, as distinct from demonstrative reasoning. In medicine the word is used to denote any remedy locally applied; it is, however, more frequently used in the plural, topics, denoting the class of such remedies, than applied to any one specific

TOPLADY, Augustus Montague, English theologian and hymn writer: b. Farnham, Surrey, 4 Nov. 1740; d. London, 11 Aug. 1778. He was educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1768 was presented to the vicarage of Broadhembury, Devonshire. Though a voluminous writer - and a strenuous defender of Calvinism against John Wesley Toplady is now hardly known except as the author of the hymn Rock of Ages, one of the finest expressions of evangelical faith and fervor to be found in all hymnology.


TOPOLOBAMPO BAY, Mexico, a small bay of the Gulf of California on the west coast of the state of Sinaloa. It is noted on account of the attempt made in 1886 by a number of Socialists of the United States to form a cooperative community on its shores. A company was chartered, in which all the colonists were stockholders, and which was to own all the land, and conduct all the business of the community. Everything was to be done as far as possible on the socialistic plan as described in Bellamy's Looking Backward.?. Several hundred colonists joined in the experiment, and a city was surveyed and laid out on an elaborate plan. The experiment, however, was a failure, largely owing to aridity of the land and the absence of available streams for irrigation. The place was abandoned in 1891.

TOPOPHONE, an instrument for determining the direction from which any sound proceeds. It is valuable for use at sea, during fog, or in the night, to determine the direction of a sounding bell, fog-horn, whistle, etc. The topophone was invented by A. M. Mayer, and consists of a centrally pivoted horizontal bar having at each end resonators, with their openings facing the same way, each with a connecting sound tube for the ears of the observer. In use the -bar is turned until a position is found in which the sound is loudest and equally distinct in each ear. The location of the sound is at a right angle to the bar in the direction to which the resonators face.


TORBANITE, a lustreless variety of cannel coal, especially rich in volatile matter formerly used in the manufacture of illuminating gas, paraffin and lubricating oils. curs at Torbane Hill, near Bathgate, Scotland, but the supply is exhausted. See BOGHEAD COAL.

TORBERNITE, an ore of uranium consisting of a hydrous phosphate of uranium and copper,

CuỎ.QUO.P,O8H,O, obtained in Utah and Black Hills of South Dakota.

TORBERT, tôr'bėrt, Alfred Thomas Archimedes, American soldier : b. Georgetown, Del., 1 July 1833; d. at sea off the coast of Florida, 29 Sept. 1880. He was graduated at West Point in 1855, was engaged on frontier duty in Texas, Florida, New Mexico and Utah in 1855-60, and at the outbreak of the Civil War was assigned to the dìty of mustering in volunteers. He was commissioned colonel in 1861, and led his regiment in the Peninsula campaign of 1862; was assigned to the command of a brigade in that year; and participated in the second battle of Bull Run and in the battles of


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South Mountain and Antietam. He was pro- gal, to violent whirlwinds or cyclones, with the moted brigadier-general of volunteers in 1862; usual accompaniment of electrical disturbances commanded a brigade at Gettysburg in 1863; for and downpouring rain. See CYCLONE; METEORgallantry there was brevetted major in the reg

OLOGY; Wind. ular army; in April 1864 was transferred to the TORNADO ALARM, an apparatus which cavalry service and placed in command of the automatically gives an alarm when there is a Ist division of the Army of the Potomac. He sudden change of atmospheric pressure, such as commanded the cavalry in many subsequent en- precedes a tornado. It is a form of barometer gagements, including those at Hanovertown, in which the main mercury tube has a cylinMilford, Winchester and Waynesboro. In 1864 drical bulb at the top and is bent in the form he was brevetted major-general of volunteers,

of a siphon. Near the lower portion of its attaining the same rank in 1865 in the regular shorter member is a secondary tube, the conarmy. In 1866 he was mustered out of the

nection being made by means of a short tube volunteer service and resigned his regular army commission. He was United States Minister to

connecting with the main tube by a very small

opening. The Auid in both the larger tubes the Central American States 1869-71, was trans- will remain normally of equal or nearly equal ferred as consul-general to Havana, Cuba, and

height in ordinary changes of the weather, but in 1873–78 was consul-general in Paris. He was

in case of sudden atmospheric changes the small lost in the foundering of the Vera Cruz off the

opening in the connection between the tubes coast of Florida.

restricts the movement in the secondary tube as TORCELLO, tõr-chěl'lő, Italy, an island compared with that in the main tube. Such in the lagoon of Venice, six miles above the variation in the movement of the mercury in city. It is the see of a bishop and possesses an the two tubes when sufficient to indicate an ap ancient Byzantine cathedral of Santa Maria of proaching storm, is made to give an alarm by the 7th century, with mosaics of the 12th cen- means of foats in the tubes connected with tury, curious altar-benches, an antique crypt, wires in an electric circuit, there being on one octagonal baptistery from 1008 and a belfry; wire a fork and on the other a tongue, by which Santa Fosca is another handsome church with contacts are made, to ring an alarm when the a fine interior (12th century). Pop. 130.

points meet. This alarm should sound some TORDENSKJOLD, Peter, Norwegian

two minutes before the first blasts of the tornaval officer: b. Trondhjem, 1691; d. 1720. He

nado. Ordinary storms have no effect at all endeared himself to the people by his exploits

on the apparatus. in the navy to which he was appointed a lieu

TORNEA ELF, tõr'ně-a ělf (sometimes tenant in 1711, and in 1716 was given noble rank written Tome), Sweden, a river at the north, for his victories. When but 25 years of age

which rises in Lake Tornea. Part of its course he destroyed the Swedish feet of 44 ships and forms the boundary between Sweden and Fincompelled the raising of the siege of Fredriks- land, and then empties into the Gulf of Bothnia, hald by Charles XII. He was made vice

after a

course of 275 miles. The town of admiral (1719) for the destruction of the prin- Tornea stands at its mouth and on the opposite cipal Swedish squadron.

side of the river the Swedish town of Hapa

randa. TORGAU, tor'gow, Germany, a town in the

TORONTO, Canada, a city and lakeport, province of Saxony, Prussia, on the Elbe, 32 miles northeast of Leipzig. Prior to 1889 it was

the capital of the province of Ontario, situated

on the circular Toronto Bay between the mouths a fortified town, and has considerable historical significance in connection with (1) the Alliance

of the Don and Humber rivers, on the northof Torgau, a confederacy formed in 1526 by

west coast of Lake Ontario, 313 miles westSaxony, Hesse and other German states in

southwest of Montreal and 60 miles in a direct which Protestantism united for the purpose of

line northwest of Buffalo, United States. It is defense against aggression on the part of their

the seat of the provincial government, of the antagonists; (2) the Articles of Torgau, a dec

higher law courts, of an important university laration by Luther and his supporters in 1530,

and of the Department of Education of the which was the foundation of the Augsburg Con

province; it is also the cathedral city of a fession; (3) the battle of Torgau, fought in the

Roman Catholic and of an Anglican diocese. suburb of Luptitz, 3 Nov. 1760, when the Prus

In commercial importance it is the second city sians under Frederick the Great defeated the

in the Dominion, and, after Montreal, the chief Austrians under General von Daun; (4) the

railway centre. The Grand Trunk, the Canasiege of Torgau by Tauentzien in 1814, the

dian Pacific, and many branch lines connect it city holding out for three months and surren

with the principal cities of Canada and of the dering 10 Jan. 1814. The Renaissance Harten

northern United States, and it is the headfels Castle of the 15th century was a former

quarters of the Canadian Northern and the electoral residence. In the town-hall is a

Temiskaming and Northern Ontario railways. museum of Saxon antiquities. There is here a

The fine harbor, five miles long and one and modern fort for the protection of the railway

a half wide, is formed by a long, low, sandy system. The royal stud farm was long located

island, protected by imposing breakwaters; this in the vicinity. Pop. about 13,000.

island is, in summer, a favorite bathing and

boating resort. A great scheme of development, TORMENTIL, an old provincial name for which includes the deepening and extension of various species of Potentilla (q.v.), a plant supposed to yield relief from the torment of

the harbor, land reclamation, boulevard con

struction and the creation of industrial sites is toothache.

in progress. The city rises gradually from the TORNADO, from the Spanish tornada, a water's edge to a height of 220 feet; it extends turning about,"the local name given in various from east to west for about 10 miles along the tropical and subtropical regions, notably Sene- lake shore and from north to south from three

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1 Ontario Parliament Buildings

2 The University of Toronto

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