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to seven miles, and covers an area of about 32 tive conflagrations, notably in 1849, in 1890 and square miles, with streets crossing each other in April 1904, when more than 100 buildings in at right angles. An electric street railway sys- the wholesale business section were burned tem has about 144 miles of tracks. The archi- down, some 5,000 persons were thrown out of tecture, especially of the numerous public build- work, and about $11,000,000 worth of property ings, is tasteful and imposing, and there are was destroyed. The industries of Toronto inmany fine shops and residences. Brick of a clude a great agricultural implement factory, pleasing light color, or red, is the chief building iron foundries, shipbuilding, rolling stock, dismaterial. Of the public buildings, the most tilling and brewing, pork-packing, the manustriking group is that connected with the Uni- facture of soap, tanning, aeroplanes, etc. The versity of Toronto. The main building or city possesses a well-equipped system of public University College, a fine Norman structure in libraries, with a fine reference library centrally gray stone, with a massive tower and richly located, in which the John Ross Robertson hissculptured doorway, was rebuilt after partial torical and ornithological collections are housed. destruction by fire in 1890; the Library, the new Shipping on the lakes is laid up in winter, Medical Building, the Biological Department, but during the navigable season several lines of the School of Practical Science, with its hand- steamers connect with the principal ports on the some new engineering building in the Renais- Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence. The sance style, and a number of other large struc- lake commerce in lumber, grain, coal, cattle and tures, unite with this to make up an imposing fruit is large. Toronto's bank clearings in 1917 group, not wholly harmonious, but in a spacious were $3,004,785,565; customs revenue, $35,732,setting of park land. Adjacent are the Neo- 400. The city has over 1,700 manufacturing esGreek” Parliament buildings, containing the tablishments, employing 80,000 hands. government offices, and a handsome and well- The name Toronto is derived from the decorated legislative hall. The magnificent city Huron word, signifying place of meeting.”. In hall and courthouse is, next to the univer- 1749, when the French were establishing a chain sity, the most striking of Toronto's buildings. of forts or posts through all the West and Others worthy of mention are Osgoode Hall, down the Mississippi Valley, Fort Rouillé was the seat of the provincial law courts; the Nor- founded, on a site even then often called Fort mal School buildings, offices of the Department Toronto. In 1756 this fort, on the west side of of Education; Central Technical School; Trin- the present city, was destroyed to prevent its ity College, in connection with the Church of falling into the hands of the English. In 1793 England, an ornate building, in the late Gothic Governor Simcoe finding Niagara or Newark, style; the custom house, the post office, the exhi- which lay almost under the guns of an Amerbition buildings, where an important annual

ican fort, too close to the frontier for the seat exhibition is held, and the lunatic asylum, in

of government, removed the capital to the other about 40 acres of ground. A new Union rail- side of Lake Ontario and established his headway station to cost $5,000,000 is in course of quarters in a tent, on a site in the eastern part construction. The churches most worthy of of the present city. In 1813 Toronto, called notice are the Roman Catholic and Anglican

York by Governor Simcoe, was captured and cathedrals, both in the pointed style; the latter

partially burned and looted, twice in the same is an excellent specimen of Early English. year, by the American army and navy. In the There are numerous theatres and many public

first capture the American General Pike, the halls, the chief being the Massey Music Hall,

discoverer of Pike's Peak, together with many which will hold 4,000 or 5,000 people. Toronto

soldiers, was killed by an explosion. In 1834 has 1,329 acres of park, the chief being Queen's

Toronto was incorporated as a city with its Park, adjoining the university, and the extensive present name. In 1837 it was the chief scene High Park, at the west of the city. It is a

of a brief and ineffectual rebellion under Wilgreat educational centre. The university (see

liam Lyon Mackenzie (q.v.). At that time and following article) is one of the best equipped

often since Toronto has shown itself to be ferin America. Educational institutions connected vently British in sentiment. Its later history with it are Trinity College (already men

has been purely civic, without other interest tioned); Victoria College (Methodist

, arts and

than that attaching to prosperous growth. A. divinity) ; Knox College (Presbyterian, theo- pleasant society and an attractive situation make logical); Wycliffe College (Anglican theolog

it a favorite place of residence. Population has ical); Saint Michael's College (Roman Catho

increased rapidly. In 1793, when Governor lic), and colleges for instruction in music, den

Simcoe landed, there were only a few families. tistry, pharmacy and veterinary science. Its

In 1834 the population was less than 10,000. In agricultural college is situated not at Toronto but

1861 it had increased to 44,821, in 1871 to 56,at Guelph, Ontario. McMaster University is

092 and in 1881 to 86,415. In 1891, including an independent Baptist institution, teaching arts

some annexed suburbs it amounted to 181,220, and divinity. Upper Canada College, in spa

and in 1911 amounted to 376,240 and in 1921 to cious grounds, is a residential school for boys,

521,893. as is also Saint Andrew's College, the site of

Consult Scadding, “Toronto of Old); Scadwhich was acquired in 1917 for a military hos

ding and Dent, Toronto, Past and Present'; pital. Havergal College is a similar type of

Adam, «Toronto, Old and New); and (The

Toronto Annual.' school for girls, and besides it are Bishop Strachan's School, Saint Margaret's College,

GEORGE M. WRONG, etc. The Toronto Conservatory of Music has

Professor of History, University of Toronto. a very large number of pupils. The Observa- TORONTO, Ohio, village in Jefferson tory, at which the weather reports for the Do- County, on the Ohio River, and on the Pennminion are made up, is in the university sylvania Railroad, 10 miles above Steubenville, grounds. Toronto has suffered from destruc- the county-seat. It is in a region in which



there are extensive beds of clay and large stone land, as well as with the General Medical Counquarries. It is near the natural-gas fields of cil of Great Britain. West Virginia. The chief manufacturing es- The degrees offered by the university include tablishments are potteries, brick and tile works. arts, medicine, applied science and engineering, The shipments are chiefly pottery, sewer pipe, pedagogy, forestry and music, under the regular terra-cotta and fire-brick. Pop. 4,271.

faculties, while through the affiliated instituTORONTO, University of, situated at

tions degrees are given in law, dentistry, agriToronto, Canada, the head of the educational

culture, pharmacy, with diplomas in public

health and physical training. Extension and system of the province of Ontario. The first

summer session work are carried on in the step toward the establishment of the univer

faculty of arts. The university is coeducational sity was taken in 1797 when the council and

and had during the session 1922–23 an attendassembly of Upper Canada petitioned the king for an appropriation of Crown lands for the

ance of approximately 4,855 students and a

faculty of 567 members; its property was valued purposes of education, and the establishing of

at $8,740,002; its income (1921) $1,914,545. a university. The appropriation was made,

The important buildings are the main buildbut nothing further was done toward the founding of the university until 1827, when it was

ing, convocation hall, the library, household

science, the various laboratories and within chartered under the name of the University

Toronto the buildings of Victoria College, of King's College; the organization of the

Trinity College and Saint Michael's College. university was further delayed, largely owing

Provision is made for the undergraduate to objections to the sectarian character of its

activities of the men in Hart House, the gift of charter, which was amended in 1837; and it

the Massey Estate. There are residences for was not till 1843 that it was opened to stu

men students of the university and for both dents. In 1849 the name was changed to the

men and women in University College, Victoria, University of Toronto; in 1853 the university

Trinity and Saint Michael's colleges. was further transformed by the organization of two corporations, known as the University Torpedinida, most remarkable for their elec

TORPEDO, a genus of rays of the family of Toronto and the University College; to the latter was assigned the teaching in arts and

tric organs, which lie on each side of the head. the entire control of its students. In 1887 a

(See ELECTRIC FISHES). The electric shock is further organization of the whole university

powerful enough to kill small animals, and took place. Under what is known as the

specimens two or three feet long can by a Federation Act” the university became a teach

single discharge disable a full-grown man. ing body once more, with faculties of arts,

The family, which includes about seven genera

and 15 species, is widely distributed over the medicine, applied science and engineering, to

Atlantic and Indian oceans; T. marmorata which have been added since, faculties of educa

and two others are common in the Meditertion, forestry, household science and music. In

ranean, and T. hebetans reaches the south the faculty of arts the subjects were divided as

coasts of Britain. The American form most between the University of Toronto and University College, which may be termed the State

often seen is T. occidentalis, which may reach

a weight of 200 pounds; it is uncommon, but Arts College, the complement of the faculty of

occasionally seen along the coast from Cape arts of the university. In this reorganization

Cod to Cuba. of the faculty of arts there are now Victoria College, representing the Methodist Church of

TORPEDO, Automobile. See AUTOMOCanada; Trinity College, representing the

BILE TORPEDO. Church of England; Saint Michael's College,

TORPEDO-BOAT DESTROYERS. See representing the Roman Catholic Church — so ANTI-TORPEDO Boats. that there are four arts colleges giving instruc- TORPEDO BOATS. The torpedo boat tion in the same arts subjects, but sending their first made its appearance as an adjunct to the students to the university for instruction in fleet in 1886. At that time its displacement other subjects, among which are mathematics, was less than 100 tons, and its speed about 20 sciences, philosophy, political science, history. knots an hour. From that time on it gradually

The institutions which have close relations increased in size and speed until in 1896 its with the university are either federated or affil

displacement was about 125_tons and its speed iated. Among the federated institutions, out- about 23 knots an hour. The next evolution side the arts colleges, are Knox College and was the destroyer. This new type of vessel Wycliffe College, while among the affiliate 1 became necessary, for the dangerous character colleges are the Ontario Agricultural College, of the torpedo boat was fully recognized the Royal College of Dental Surgeons, the On- armed as it was with an inaccurate weapon. tario College of Pharmacy and the Ontario During the revolution in Chile in the early Veterinary College. These federated and affil- nineties a battleship was destroyed by a jated colleges are represented on the senate torpedo fired at night from a large torpedo of the university, which has charge of the edu- boat, and during the Japanese-Chinese War in cational policy. Each faculty has its own the middle nineties torpedo boats were freely council and has charge of the discipline and con- used by the Japanese. trol of its students, while the caput is made As the years went by the range and acup of the chief executive officers of the uni- curacy of the torpedo rapidly improved and versity, together with the heads of the feder- the torpedo boat increased its size to make it ated colleges.

more habitable and seaworthy. Its tonnage The university receives a very substantial soon rose to 400 tons and then merged into the grant annually from the government of the destroyer. As the size of the torpedo boat still province of Ontario and is affiliated with the increased, destroyer tonnage was compelled to leading universities of Great Britain and Ire- keep pace, the final or present destroyer dis




placement of about 1,100 tons (with a speed made fast in boats, one on either side of the of about 32 knots per hour) having been channel, and as the vessels proceed up and down reached and determined by most nations from a the channel, abreast, the hooks on the rope beconsideration of the strategical and tactical tween them catch the torpedoes. Sometimes a duty of the fleet with which it serves. The drag is thrown ahead of a vessel by a small offensive weapon of the destroyer was originally mortar and is drawn in by a windlass; this is the gun, but after the torpedo boat disappeared to clear the channel through which the vessel the torpedo became the important weapon and must pass. the guns were retained for defense only. The

TORPEDOES. Torpedoes or explosives pivotal characteristics of the destroyer were high speed, seaworthiness, moderate radius of

moving through the water to the object ataction and plurality of torpedo tubes and

tacked, as distinguished from the mine or torpedoes. To enhance these characteristics in

stationary explosive, first took the form of what creased size was necessary and this lessened

was in reality a towed mine. The Harvey, the chance of being able to surprise an enemy

Menzing and the various French towing

torpedoes were weapons of this kind. The on the alert, and surprise was a corollary in its usefulness. These considerations tended to

torpedo was towed astern of a launch with a limit the size and when sufficient tonnage for

rig that permitted a rudder on the torpedo be

ing controlled from the towing boat. The necessary offensive work was gained, no further increase was thought justified. The present

torpedo could be guided to a position on the tendency is to increase the destroyer's gun

quarter, while a second torpedo was lowed

astern. By means of a dipping or detaching power for offensive purposes against the submarine and this brings the destroyer back to

apparatus, when the whiskers of the torpedo the original conception of the use of that type.

touched the target, the torpedo would become Further development will undoubtedly be

completely submerged before the explosion took

place. Torpedo warfare received great impetus toward high speed, moderate size, long-range torpedoes, a plurality of small guns and large

during the Civil War, various types being deradius of action. The destroyer, supported by

veloped by both the Confederates and the large cruisers, makes an excellent offensive

Federals. Dragging for torpedoes and the use force, especially when armed with long-range

of torpedo nets dropped over the sides of vestorpedoes. Making contact in the daytime with

sels were then first practised, but there appears

to have been no use of submarine boats until an enemy's fleet, destroyers can, at night, readily

more recently. During this war the spar or slip through the screen and attack the enemy while in its night formation.

outrigger torpedo came into active use and on A well co-ordinated destroyer force be

more than one occasion during that period and comes a most important asset to a fleet when

later proved its worth. This weapon consisted

of a torpedo carried at the end of a spar or about to go into battle. A well-timed feint upon the battle line of the enemy may give to

pole which projected from a launch. It was so its own battle line a verv important advantage

arranged that just before the target was struck, of position. By the intelligent use of a smoke

the torpedo could be plunged below the surscreen, made by emitting large volumes of oil

face to obtain the holding or plugging effect smoke from destroyers' smoke stacks, a battle

of the water for the explosion. The explosive line in confusion can be rescued from destruc

usually consisted of about 33 pounds of guncot

ton which could be fired upon contact, or at tion and permitted to reform or to escape. In the battle of Jutland the German fleet was

will, by employing a firing ttery.

To carry

and drive home the spar torpedo a fast seaconcealed in a smoke screen formed by Ger

worthy launch or small torpedo-boat was emman destroyers at the time when the main British fleet was about to bring a superior

ployed. force against it. When the smoke cleared it

In its early stages of development, battle was observed that the German fleet had ex

ranges seemed logically to keep the torpedo tricated itself from danger.

in the background, except at night, when the While the first duty of the destroyers was

speedy torpedo-boat counted upon getting near to run down attacking torpedo boats and

enough to launch its weapons with a more sink them with the fire of their small rapid

reasonable promise of making a hit. The naval fire guns, it was also armed with torpedo

constructor, accepting the torpedo at its potentubes in order that it might be used as an at

tial value as seen by the majority of the fighttacking torpedo vessel and to defend the battle

ing officers simply limited his efforts to ships at night. The smaller type of torpedo

fabricating the under-body of his fighting craft

so that the damaging effects of a chance blow vessel — the torpedo boat — was classed as a

from a torpedo should be confined to a reweapon of defense, employed to guard the

stricted area. Hence the inner and the outer home coast from raids by the enemy's war

bottoms, and the water-tight, cellular divisionships, while the larger was regarded as an offensive weapon, used to destroy the smaller

ing of the intervening space. As a matter of

fact, the naval constructor's work stood up type and allow capital ships to perform, with

under torpedo attack and performed its funcout danger, their duties of blockade and various

tion remarkably well. It is a matter of record, war measures. See SUBMARINES. EDWARD S. Farrow,

that the general run of torpedoes fired during Consulting Military and Civil Engineer.

the Russo-Japanese War did far less damage

than was expected of them, and a goodly numTORPEDO DRAG, a device for clearing ber of vessels so struck were not sunk as was harbors, river-channels, etc., from Aoating counted upon, but were able to get into port torpedoes and submarine mines. It consists of and be repaired. There were ships lost to a long cable, bearing grappling hooks set at both belligerents by subaqueous atiack, but the frequent intervals. The ends of the cables are most conspicuous of these disasters were due

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to the violent blows of passive mines. Where the major part of the energy designed to wreck the active torpedo had failed in its mission the has spent itself uselessly in blowing hundreds of anchored floating mine filled the offensive gap. tons of water into the air. Commander Davis These mines carried larger explosive charges sought so to concentrate the powers of assault than the torpedoes then in service, and proved in his torpedo that but little of its force should two things: First, that the naval constructor be dissipated in disturbing the surrounding had planned well; and, second, that the auto- water while the bulk of the energy of his mobile torpedo must needs be made a more weapon should remain unimpaired and centred powerful weapon if it were to fill the office in- in piercing the enemy's defenses and penetrattended for it. In the Russian fleet at Port ing to the very vitals of the object of attack. Arthur were several vessels that had been built He did not discount in the slightest the truly by the French for the Russian government. In remarkable developments which had taken place addition to the usual compartmenting of the in the other departments of the automobile torinter-bottom space, the French designers had pedo. Increased range, higher speed and more reinforced the region most likely to be attacked precise functioning all helped him toward his by torpedoes by means of a caisson built of objective; but it is his invention which made plating nearly two inches thick. The object of this underwater projectile a graver menace to this caisson — assuming that the explosion of the largest of fighting craft. This torpedo carthe torpedo should be sufficient to rend or ries an eight-inch gun capable of expelling an rupture the plating of the inner and outer bot- eight-in projectile with a muzzle velocity of toms was to provide more space in which the 1,000 feet per second, which is quite enough to guncotton gases could expand and dissipate the carry the projectile through a single plate of most dangerous percentage of their remaining Krupp armor, something like four or five inches force. The ingenious theory of this style of thick, where virtually in contact with the muzconstruction was proved to be_all that its zle of the gun -- as would be the case with this originators claimed for it. The Russian ships torpedo. Ships are not protected under water so built were several times hit by Japanese with plating of these dimensions, and it would mines, and while grievously wounded over be a much easier task for the projectile to pass wide areas

of their under-bodies, yet the successively through a number of thinner plates caissons remained substantially intact and the even if their combined thickness were more vessels were able to return to harbor.

than the limit set. The projectile fired from The automobile torpedo first came into use this torpedo carries a bursting charge of high in the early seventies. It was the outcome of a explosive of between 35 and 40 pounds. This series of experiments commenced in 1864 by charge is detonated by a delayed action fuse, Robert Whitehead, then superintendent of iron which is designed to meet the maximum reworks at Fiume, Austria. This torpedo, known quirements imposed by the best protected dreadas the Whitehead or fish torpedo, claimed the naughts built. When this weapon is launched following capabilities: (1) It could be adjusted upon its sinister errand the little propeller at to run at any depth from 5 to 15 feet when the upper side of the torpedo's nose revolves fired from either a submerged or surface tube, and releases the tripping rod, so that the toror from a surface detaching apparatus; (2) pedo can be discharged upon contact with its upon firing, it would make a straight run, pro- target. When the rod hits the obstruction it is vided a proper allowance was made for the driven backward and engages the trigger which deflection due to transverse currents; (3) it first compresses a spring attached to the firing could be adjusted to stop at any distance up to pin and then releases it so that the pin can its extreme range and after stopping to sink or strike the gun primer, thus setting off the profloat; (4) it could make a run of 1,000 yards pelling charge of powder which drives the shell at a speed of 15 or 16 knots, while 300 yards out of the gun. As soon as the projectile hits could be covered at a speed of 19 to 20 knots; the outside plating of a ship's bottom the fuse (5) it could carry a warhead holding a charge in the base of the shell begins to function, of 33 pounds of guncotton, to explode upon being set to explode the charge in the shell so contact. This torpedo was propelled by a many hundredths of a second after impact. three-cylinder Brotherhood engine weighing. 35 The modern submarine torpedo varies in pounds, driving two_propellers and developing size according to the service for which it is 40 horse power. Eventually the Whitehead intended and ranges from 14 inches in diameter torpedo came to be used in the United States and 15 feet in length to 21 inches in diameter service, and later the Bliss-Leavitt torpedo was and 21 feet in length, weighing from 1,000 to adopted. As heavier armor was added against 2,600 pounds, the smaller type being used to torpedo attack a large gap developed which the sink unprotected freight and passenger ships Whitehead torpedo and its various kindred at short range. It is •capable of a speed of rivals could not fill, and here it was that the more than 30 miles per hour and when travelgenius of an American naval officer, Com- ing at normal speed possesses the great momander Cleland Davis, placed the torpedo upon mentum of about 65,000 foot second pounds. a new and more formidable footing. He aban- Generally speaking, the torpedo consists of the doned the guncotton warhead, which was the following parts: (1) The warhead, which conaccepted instrument of destruction since the tains the high explosive charge, fired by an inception of the Whitehead, and substituted a exploder upon striking the target, the charge gun in its stead. If one will study carefully ranging from 200 to 500 pounds, depending the photographs of either bursting submerged upon the type of torpedo; (2) The air flask, a mines or exploding automobile torpedoes, the specially constructed shell of steel, very strongly most impressive visual sign of the violence ex- built to withstand a test pressure of 5,000 erted will be found in the great volumes of pounds to the square inch. This flask carries water blown upward. The water has yielded air at an initial pressure of 2,250 pounds per more than the steel structure attacked, and square inch, the air being used to operate all

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the mechanism of the torpedo in addition to contained within the warhead. It is not necesthe motive power; (3) The depth control sary to strike a firing pin on the end of a tormechanism, which permits the torpedo to be pedo to detonate the charge. Many suggesrun at any desired depth under water, and tions have been submitted for a torpedo to be which consists principally of a pendulum and a electrically propelled from a ship by means of hydrostatic piston actuating horizontal rudders; a flexible cable connecting it with the ship. (4) The gyroscopic steering gear. The gyro- This was the first type of torpedo built, but static compass through the vertical rudders was discarded for the present dirigible type, maintains the torpedo on a course parallel to as the weight of cable, difficulties in insulation, that in which the torpedo began its run; (5) etc., render it of little practical value. The The engines. The air at the high pressure of effectiveness of the Hammond radio-controlled 2,250 pounds per square inch first passes through torpedo is promising. The Board of Ordnance a reducing valve which decreases its pressure and Fortifications recommended favorably to to that required for use by the engine. This the Secretary of War as to the merits of this air is then heated by an alcohol flame, which invention, and the Secretary recommended to also acts to produce steam of the water in the Congress that this new type of weapon be incombustion fiask, the air and steam mixing and stalled in a few of the more important coast passing to the engine. The engines are gen- defenses. erally reciprocating, but in the Bliss-Leavitt When firing a torpedo at a moving target and some other torpedoes are turbines driving there are several important factors which the two propellers.

torpedoist must consider. These are the speed Torpedoes are projected by means of special of the target, the course of the target and the forms of tubes or guns. The tube is usually speed of the torpedo itself, all of which factors built into the hull of the submarine, in which must be known within limits in order to make case it is aimed by maneuvring the boat. In effective hits. The various nations have their the case of destroyers and battleships, the tor- preference for torpedoes. The British use the pedo may be projected from submerged tubes Whitehead; the Germans, Schwartzkopf; the or from deck tubes. In general, torpedoes are French, Whitehead and Schneider; the Japanprojected from submerged tubes by compressed ese and Italians, the Whitehead. In the United air and from deck tubes by a small charge of States the Whitehead and Bliss-Leavitt torgunpowder. Submerged tubes on battleships, pedoes are in general use. See Naval Mines; however, may be designed to use either powder SUBMARINE MINES; SUBMARINES. or compressed air. When the torpedo is fired

Bibliography - Fitzgerald, C. C. P., Subfrom a submerged tube the compressed air or marine Warfare (London 1919); Talbot, F. the gas from the powder follows the torpedo A. A., Submarines, their Mechanism and Operout of the tube with a rush and causes an ation' (London 1915); Donville-Fife, Charles eruption on the surface of the sea, which is W., (Submarine Mines (London 1914); Naval visible for a considerable distance. As a re- Annual, British and Foreign Torpedo Boat sult of the warning given by this eruption, Flotillas) (London 1912); Fulton, Robert, "Torvessels have sometimes been able to escape the pedo, War and Submarine Explosions (retorpedoes by a quick manæuvre. The modern print, New York 1914); Currey, E. H., (The torpedo is self-propelled, being driven through Menace of the Torpedo (New York 1914); the water by its own compressed air motor, Bradford, R. B., History of Torpedo Warfare the air being supplied from a strongly-built (Newport, R. I., 1882). reservoir within the body of the torpedo itself.

EDWARD S. FARROW, Torpedoes directly operated by internal com

Consulting Military and Civil Engineer. bustion engines as motive power are not trustworthy. The range of a torpedo is approxi

TORQUAY, tor-kē', England, a fashionable mately a mile, those designed for use on battle

watering place in Devonshire, situated on the ships and destroyers being longer ranged than

south coast, 26 miles northeast of Plymouth, those for use on submarines. The great diffi

named from the Tor Abbey nearby, which

was founded in 1196. It is built on a series of culty in getting proper direction and sufficient motive power to give the required speed for a

terraces rising from the beach, and is a much long duration of time renders the long range

frequented bathing and winter resort. It contorpedo impracticable. The latest German tor

sists largely of villas and gardens, and has a pedo had a range of about 2,000 yards, as the

fine promenade, public parks, libraries, a mucompressed air storage reservoir was reduced

seum, electric light and an excellent water supin size in order to increase the charge of high

ply and drainage system. There are explosive in the warhead. The charge was

factures of terra-cotta ware, and trade in coal from 300 to 400 pounds. The depth at which

and marble. The name also applies to the a torpedo travels may be regulated to hit the

borough and the Parliamentary division in most vital part of the vessel, and that is usually

which it lies. Pop. of the borough about about 10 feet below the surface. In case of

39,000. torpedo attack against an armored ship the TORQUE, an ornament of twisted gold or torpedo, to be dangerous, should strike be- other metal, worn as a collar or a necklace neath the armor belt, which usually extends by the ancient peoples of Asia and northern about 10 feet below the water line. Torpedoes Europe. It consisted of a circle of stiff gold, are usually provided with means to cut, more twisted except at the ends, which remained or less effectively, through nets placed in their straight or which in some cases were looped paths. The detonation of the torpedo is ac- back, so as to overlap. Such collars were concomplished through a mechanism placed within sidered a characteristic ornament of the ancient its warhead; and if the torpedo is checked in Gauls and are said to have been so abundant its forward motion the firing mechanism in- that about 223 B.C., Flaminius Nepos erected to stantly ignites the heavy charge of explosive Jupiter a golden troplay made from torques of


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