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within the tinie agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. The Legislatures of those Districts, or new States, shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States in Congress assembled, nor with any regulations Congress may find neces. sary, for securing the title in such soil, to the bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the property of the United States ; and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways, and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said Territory, as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the Confederacy, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.

ART. 5. There shall be formed in the said Territory, not less than three, nor more than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter 'her act of cession, and consent to the same, shall become. fixed and established as follows, to wit : the western State in the said Territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the Ohio, and Wabash rivers ; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, due north, to the Territorial line between the United States and Canada ; and by the said Territorial line to the lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle States shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash, from Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to the said Territorial line, and by the said Tärritorial line. The eastern State shall be bounded by the last mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said Territorial line: provided however, and it is further understood and declared, that the boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States in that part of the said Territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of lake Michigan. And whenever any of the

said States shall have sixty thousand free inhabitants therein, such State shall be admitted, by its delegates, into the Congress of the United States, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever; and shall be at liberty to form a permanent Constitution and State government; provided the Constitution and government, so to be formed, shall be republican, and in conformity to the principles contained in these Articles ; and, so far as it can be consistent with the general interest of the Confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there may be a less number of free inhabitants in the State than sixty thousand.

Art. 6. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said Territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted : provided always, that any person escaping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in any one of the original States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service as aforesaid.

Be it ordained by the authority aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23d of April, 1784, relative to the subject of this Ordinance, be, and the same are hereby repealed and declared null and void. Done, &c

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A fortiori, literally, for the stronger ground, or reason.
Allegiance, the tie, or duty, which binds the subject or citizen of a

State to aid and assist the State, or Sovereignty, in return for the protection afforded by the latter. It imports, therefore, the obliga

tion of a subject, or citizen, to be faithful to the State. Ambassador, a public minister, of the highest grade, sent abroad by a

sovereign state, or prince, to transact public business with a foreign government, in behalf of his own. There are three grades of foreign ministers. (1.) Ambassadors, who have the highest rank and privileges, and who represent, personally, their sovereign. (2.) Ministers Plenipotentiary, who have full powers to act for their sovereign or country. (3.) Ministere Resident, who generally possess, or may possess, the same powers, but hold a subordinate rank to Ministers Plenipotentiary. The explanation of the peculiar rights and duties

of each class belongs, properly, to a treatise on the law of nations. Arrest, the seizure and detention of the person of a party, by a public

officer, under a writ or process from some court or magistrate. Thus, when a sheriff takes a man in custody, under a writ, we say,

the sheriff arrests him, or he is under arrest. Arrest of judgement, an order of a court, directing that no judgement

be rendered in a case, from an error of law in the proceedings. Articles of Confederation, the form of a general government, adopted

by the States, during the Revolution, for their union. It was framed by the Continental Congress, in 1778; and was finally adopted, by all the States, in 1781, and remained in force until the present Constitution of the United States was adopted, in 1788. The articles

will be found, at large, in the Appendix to this Volume, pp. 279Autre Droit, in the right of another, and not in one's own personal

right. Thus, an administrator or executor, who collects a debt due to the estate of the deceased party, receives it not on his personal

account, but in the right, or as representative, of another. Bail, a person, who becomes surety for another's appearance in a

court of justice, to answer to some civil suit, or criminal accusation; and usually, also, that he shall abide the judgement of the

court thereon. Bailable, literally, where bail may be taken. Thus, a suit or crimi

nal accusation is said to be bailable, where the party is entitled, after arrest, to be discharged on giving bail


Bill. This word has various senses, according to che things, to which

it is applied It may be generally defined, to be a formal, written Instrument. When we speak of a Bill before a Legislature, we mean, a written Instrument, containing a proposed Law, drawn up in the proper form. When the Bill is said to be passed by the Legislature, we mean, that it has received the final assent of the Legislaiure. When the Bill is passed, and is approved by the Executive, or oth

wise becomes a Law, we call it an Act, or Statute. Bill of Credit, a written Instrument, which contains a promise or

agreement of the State to pay or allow a certain sum of money to the bearer or holder thereof. It is issued on the credit of the State,

and is designed to circulate as currency. Bill of Rights, a written Instrument, containing a public declaration *of certain general rights of the people, which are held fundamental

to their security and protection. Bills for raising Revenue. These are written Instruments, contain

ing laws proposed to be passed by the Legislature, to create a revenue, or income, to the Government ; such as a Bill to lay and collect

a tax, or duty, on houses, or lands, or goods. Bona fide, a phrase borrowed from the Latin language, and literally

meaning,“ in good faith.” We commonly apply it to a person, who acts honestly and conscientiously in doing any thing, without sus

pecting or knowing it to be wrong. Bottomry Bond, literally, a Bond given by a master or owner of a

ship, or other vessel, pledging the bottom of the vessel, that is, the vessel itself, for the repayment of money borrowed upon the credit of the vessel, and payable upon the contingency, that the vessel per forms the voyage specified in the bond. Cabinet, an abbreviated expression for Cabinet Council, meaning the

Ministers of the State, or Heads of the Departments of the Government, who are convened by the Executive Magistrate, to assist and advise him in the Government. Thus, in the United States, we say, the Heads of the Departments of State, of War, of the Treasury, of the Navy, of the Post Office, and of the Law, (the Attorney General,) constitute the Cabinet, that is, they are the private confi

dential advisers and council of the President. Cessio Bonorum, literally, a Cession or Transfer of the Goods or Prop

erty of a party. It is a phrase derived from the Roman or civil law, and means, that a debtor has made a cession, or assignment, of

his property, for the benefit of his creditors. Charter. In a general sense, this word means any written Instrument

conferring rights or creating obligations, from the Latin word charta, paper or parchment, on which something is written. But, in legal language, a Charter usually means a written Instrument, or grant, under the public seal of the Governm conferring certain rights, privileges, and authorities, of a public nature, upon certain citizens or subjects. Such were the original Charters of Government, granted

by the Crown to the American Colonies. Commission, a written Document, signed by the Executive, or other

proper officer of the Government, conferring an authority, or appoint ment to office, on some person Commissions to public officers,

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