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thus being collected; and he trusted that fresh light would be thrown on the subject of coincidental or veridical hallucinations, which specially interested their Society. He would be glad to supply information in reply to letters addressed to him at Hill Side, Cambridge. A paper on recent telepathic experiences was also read.


WE learn from Humboldt that the project of a lacustrine biological station on Lake Plön, in East Holstein, is likely to be soon carried out, thanks to the energy of Dr. Otto Zacharias, and the liberality of the Bohemian Baron Bela Dertcheni. station is to afford Prof. Anton Fritsch, of Prague, and his assistants, constant opportunities of research on fresh-water fauna. The scheme finds a good deal of favour in Berlin, and it is hoped that the researches at the station may prove of considerable benefit to fisheries.

WE send to America some return for the Colorado beetle and the Canadian water-weed. The "weed-law" of the State of Wisconsin requires from farmers, under penalties, the destruction of the following weeds :-Cnicus arvensis, Arctium Lappa, Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, Sonchus arvensis, Xanthium strumarium, Linaria vulgaris, and Rumex crispus. Only one of these is a native of the United States; all the rest being naturalized importations from Europe, and common wild plants in this -country.

PROF. RIGHI showed, last year, that ultra-violet radiations reduce to the same potential two conductors, a plate and a piece of netting, applied to each other, the rays being thrown on the netting-side. He now points out (Riv. Sci. Ind., July-August) that this suggests a very simple and convenient way of measuring differences of potential of contact. One notes the deflection of an electrometer connected with the plate (the netting being permanently connected with earth); then, having connected the electrometer for an instant with earth, makes the radiations act a sufficient time. He used a zinc electric lamp, and the metals examined were placed in some cases in a bell jar, to which some gas or vapour was admitted. From measurements of different plates with the same metallic net (copper, zinc, or platinum), the differences of potential of pairs of metals could be deduced. Prof. Righi found the differences sensibly the same in dry and moist air and in carbonic anhydride; but with hydrogen, very different values (from those in air) appeared, where one of the metals examined was platinum, palladium, nickel, or iron (doubtless owing to absorption). In ammonia all the metals, examined with zinc net, seemed to have become less oxidizable; and in coal gas, carbon and platinum behaved like more oxidizable metals. A memoir on the subject will shortly


In an interesting paper on the management of aquaria, printed in the Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, Mr. W. P. Seal points out that, in the feeding of the fish, care must be taken to introduce no more food than they can eat in a short time, as what is not eaten will soon decompose and make the water cloudy, and generate noxious gases as well. If due care is observed in regard to quantity, it does not matter how often fish are fed, except that if fed abundantly they will grow rapidly, which is not generally desired. Fish may be fed every day, or but two or three times a week, with equally good results apparently. They will always find a small amount of food in the aquarium in the vegetation. Where they are not fed sufficiently, they are apt to strip the plants of their leaves. In a natural condition fish are feeding continually and grow very rapidly.

ON November 2 a slight shock of earthquake was felt in St. Louis, U.S. A., and the vicinity.

THE following summary of the phases of Vesuvius during the past year has been supplied by Prof. Palmieri, of the Vesuvian

Observatory of the University of Naples, to the British Consul there, and is appended by the latter to his last Report. Menant Vesuvius, during the past year, has continued its moderately eruptive activity, which began in the month of December 1875. There were various emissions of small lava streams, which did not reach further than the base of the cone. An additional cone was gradually formed, caused by the activity of the motive power of the crater which, towards the end of the year, had reached a height of 100 metres (equal to 328 feet) above its original level. On various occasions the detonations and the red-hot projectiles thrown up with the large quantities of smoke indicated greater eruptive power. During the whole year no ashes were thrown up, and consequently the crops in the surrounding country were not destroyed. The sublimations on the smoke issues were relatively scarce, and did not present any product that called for attention. The seismographic instruments at the Observatory did not show an activity proportionate to that of the volcano. All the lava streams that issued during the year flowed towards the eastern slopes of the mountain.

THE Meteorological Council have published Part I. of the Quarterly Weather Report for 1880. The work is (as before divided into three sections: (1) a general summary of the chief features of the weather for the quarter; (2) tables showing the movements and peculiarities of the principal cyclonic and anticyclonic systems; and (3) remarks on the distribution of the various elements for each month, illustrated by charts. An appendix contains tables and diagrams illustrating the diurnal range of the barometer in Great Britain and Ireland during the years 1876-80, by F. C. Bayard. The data used are the hourly observations at seven Observatories in connection with the Meteorological Office, and at Greenwich and Liverpool Observatories. The paper shows that, even in these high latitudes, the daily range is well marked during all months, notwithstanding the interference caused by non-periodic changes. Important seasonal differences are shown, the morning maximum being distinctly higher than the evening maximum in winter, while in summer the evening maximum is the higher of the two. The values exhibit the influence of locality on the amplitude and epoch of the diurnal inequalities, and furnish material for more minute inquiry.

It is interesting to read of a part of the world where the buffalo is not dying out, but increasing in numbers. A journal of Perth, in Western Australia, says that few Australians are aware that certain parts of Northern Australia have vast herds of the wild buffalo (Bos bubalus) careering over its plains and wallowing in its shady pools. The Sydney Mail states that the animals are massive and heavy, with splendid horns, and afford sport of a sufficiently dangerous nature to possess charms for the most daring hunter, a wounded buffalo being one of the most dangerous animals known, his great weight, prominent horns, and splendid courage, making him as well respected as sought after. The first buffaloes were landed at Port Essington, North Australia, about the year 1829.

THE Naturalist's Gazette has issued an excellent series of what it calls "label lists." On one sheet there is a list of British birds' eggs; on another, a list of dragon-flies; on another, a list of British butterflies; and so on. The names are printed in suitable type on gummed paper, and collectors, in labelling their specimens, will find the lists of considerable service.

THE next volume of Messrs. Ward, Lock, and Co.'s "Minerva Library of Famous Books" will be "Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro," by Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace.

F. A. BROCKHAUS, 16 Querstrasse, Leipzig, has issued a catalogue, in four parts, containing lists of works relating to various branches of botany.

THE Colonies and India states that a discovery has recently been made on a Fiji plantation, which will probably prove extremely valuable in all tropical countries where the cultivation of bananas is regarded as a settled industry. The banana disease had for some time been causing much havoc on a plantation on Vanua Levu, and it appears that the discovery of an antidote was due to an accidental occurrence. On a flat near the seashore there was a patch of bananas much diseased, and some time ago the sea swept into it and remained on it for about an hour. All the plants were killed as far as the standing stems were concerned, but vigorous young shoots came up freely from the roots, and were not only quite free from disease, but soon began to bear much larger bunches of fruit than the parent plants ever did. Upon noting this effect the planters determined to try the experiment upon a number of badly diseased plants which the sea had not reached. They cut down the diseased plants, and, having stirred the ground about them, poured from one to four buckets of sea-water over each. The result was that, while the parent stems withered, vigorous young shoots came freely away, without a sign of disease.

A SERIES of successful experiments upon the simultaneous production of pure crystals of sodium carbonate and chlorine gas from common salt are described by Dr. Hempel in the current number of the Berichte. The experiments simply consisted in passing a current of carbon dioxide gas through a solution of salt contained in a special form of electrolytic cell, through which an electric current from a few Bunsen's cells or a small dynamo was circulated. The kathode found most convenient consisted of a plate of iron or carbon perforated with numerous holes about 4 millimetres in diameter, bored obliquely, so that bubbles of gas could readily escape upwards. For anode a similar plate of thin perforated carbon was employed. Both electrodes were circular in shape, and between them was placed a diaphragm of thick asbestos paper, which was directly squeezed between the two plates. This arrangement was found to possess the double advantage of bringing the two electrodes within I millimetre of each other, and so greatly diminishing the internal resistance, and of affording such excellent support to the asbestos diaphragm that any rupture of the latter was entirely prevented. The electrodes and their enclosed diaphragm were supported in a circular glass cell in such a manner that they divided the cell into two distinct chambers. To the glass wall of the cell on the positive or anode side was fitted a wide side tube, through which the salt was supplied as often as necessary in solid pieces, a little water being also from time to time added to replace that taken up in the crystallization of the sodium carbonate. A delivery tube was also attached to the upper portion of the anode chamber in order to conduct away the liberated chlorine gas. The negative or kathode chamber was supplied at its upper end with an opening serving on the one hand to introduce the carbon dioxide delivery tube, and on the other to extract the crystals of sodium carbonate. The apparatus was thus found to work continuously for weeks together, the asbestos diaphragm withstanding the pressure very satisfactorily. The separation of the soda crystals is readily explained by the well-known fact of the difficult solubility of sodium carbonate in solutions of sodium chloride; as fast as the electric current decomposes the sodium chloride into chlorine and sodium, the carbon dioxide converts the sodium hydrate formed by the reaction of the sodium upon water into the normal carbonate, which, in presence of the constantly replenished common salt, at once separates in the usual monoclinic form of Na,CO. 10H2O. The total resistance of the cell is only about five and a half volts, which may be still further reduced by constructing both electrodes of carbon. Using a small dynamoelectric machine, 64'5 grams of chlorine and 259.8 grams of Na,CO. 10H2O per horse-power of 680 volt-amperes were pro

duced per hour, so that the experiments, in addition to their interest from a purely chemical point of view, may turn out to bear fruit technically. The soda produced is stated to be chemically pure, and the chlorine to contain but a very small admixture with other gases.

THE additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the past week include a Patas Monkey (Cercopithecus patas 8) from West Africa, presented by the Rev. James Vernall; a Cheetah (Cynalurus jubatus 8) from South Africa, presented by Captain M. P. Webster, s.s. Roslin Castle; a Ring-tailed Coati (Nasua rufa) from South America, presented by Mr. J. A. Martin; two Short-toed Larks (Calandrella brachydactyla) from Devonshire, presented by Commander W. N. Latham, R.N., F.Z.S.; a Sharp-nosed Crocodile (Crocodilus acutus) from Jamaica, presented by the Jamaica Institute; two Tuatera Lizards (Sphenodon punctatus) from New Zealand, presented by Rear-Admiral Henry Fairfax, R.N., C.B., F.Z.S.; a Smoothheaded Capuchin (Cebus monachus ) from Brazil, deposited; a Collared Peccary (Dicotyles tajaçu 9), four Rosy-billed Ducks (Metopiana peposaca & 8 ) from South America; two Grey Squirrels (Sciurus cinereus) from North America; four Finches (Munia nana) from Madagascar, purchased.

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OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. STELLAR PARALLAX BY MEANS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.-Prof. Pritchard has sent us his eminently successful "Researches in Stellar Parallax by the aid of photography, from observations made at the Oxford University Observatory. The advantage in point of convenience and rapidity in the multiplication of observations which this method possesses over all others is incalculable, and it is interesting to note that in the case of 61, Cygni the parallax obtained was o"4294 o" 0162, and that Bessel's probable error is practically identical with this here stated. Hence, as far as the present results are concerned, photographic and heliometric measures of parallax may be regarded as possessing an equality of accuracy.

The following list contains the stars whose parallax has been determined by this novel method, and some of the resultsobtained :

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The almost identical parallax of the two components of 61 Cygni is worthy of note. The average of eight determinationsgives a value o"437, which is a close approximation to Dr. Belopolsky's value of 0'50 as the absolute parallax of 61 Cygni.

Bessel determined a small negative parallax for μ Cassiopeia, but Dr. Struve assigned it a value + 0342. The very small positive parallax given by Prof. Pritchard may be explanatory of Bessel's negative determination.

The small negative parallax found for y Cassiopeia would indicate that it and the comparison stars are in the same group, although its bright line spectrum points to a constitution different from that of other stars in this constellation.

Even a cursory examination of the summary of results renders it evident that no relation exists between the lustre and parallax of stars, and indeed, since we probably view bodies which are still in various stages of condensation, we should hardly expect to find any such relation.

MEASUREMENTS OF DOUBLE STARS.- Astronomische Nachrichten, Nos. 2929-30, contain a series of double star observations made with the 36-inch refractor of the Lick Observatory by Mr. S. W. Burnham. The discovery is claimed of two very faint stars in the trapezium of Orion, and an excessively faint double has also been detected by Mr. E. E. Barnard just outside and preceding the trapezium. The observers believe that, in spite of the numerous alleged discoveries of faint stars in this

region, it is impossible to see such as these now found with an aperture much less than that of the Lick telescope. A list is therefore given of the principal communications to astronomical periodicals relating to the alleged discovery of faint stars in the trapezium of Orion.

BARNARD'S COMET, 1888-89.-Comptes rendus, No. 17, October 21, 1889, contains some observations made by MM. Rayet and Courty of the motion of Barnard's comet, the posi tions of the comparison stars being also given. The series of observations extend from September 11, 1888, to September 27, 1889.


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ON J. C. HOUZEAU.-M. A. Lancaster, the collaborator with Houzeau of the most comprehensive bibliography extant, has proved himself, in this note, to be the most capable of writing his deceased friend's biography. Houzeau's scientific and literary labours cover an extensive field astronomy and geodesy, mathematics and meteorology, geology and geography, are all represented in his works; and when but a young man, he directed the triangulation of his country. In politics Houzeau was an enthusiast, and whilst in America, about 1861-69, he gave a considerable amount of attention to the subject of the emancipation of the slaves, and wrote numerous and important articles upon it. In 1875, Houzeau completed a series of astronomical and meteorological observations made at Jamaica, and in the following year was appointed Director of the Brussels Observatory. His crowning work-the "Vade Mecum of Astronomy," was finished in 1882. It represented the work of a lifetime, and as a guide to astronomers is invaluable. Such a compilation, however, calls for continual additions, and a general bibliography was published in 1887, with the assistance of M. A. Lancaster. This was Houzeau's last work, but before his death, on July 12, 1888, he earnestly expressed the wish that it should be carried on by his collaborator. Houzeau's life was full of vicissitudes, and his biography is most interesting.

THE KARLSRUHE OBSERVATORY.-The third volume of the Publications of the Grand-Ducal Observatory of Karlsruhe has recently been published by Dr. W. Valentiner, the Director. The bulk of the volume is by Dr. E. von Rebeur-Paschwitz, and consists, first, of a series of measures with the 6-inch refractor of the two star-clusters M. 35 and M. 25; secondly, of a discussion of the orbit of Comet Wells, 1882 I., and the derivation of definitive elements; and lastly, of auxiliary tables for the computation of parallax for 169 different observatories.

Dr. Boy Mattheissen adds a short paper on the orbit of Comet Denning, 1881 V.

The volume contains three plates, the first two being maps of the star-clusters under observation, whilst the third gives photographs of the same two clusters as taken by Dr. E. von Gothard at Herény.


Sidereal Time at Greenwich, at 10 p.m. November 7 1h. 9m. 9s.

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R.A. 1890'0.

h. m. s. 0 35 4 0 50 I O 42 58

(2) y Cassiopeia

(3) 47 Piscium

(4) Ceti

O 13 48

(5) y Pegasi

(6) D. M. + 34° 55′

(7) T Herculis...

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7 34

Decl. 1890'0.

+40 30'14 +60 7 + 659°2

9 26 +14 34 +34 53 4 56 +31 0

O 21 42

(1) Dr. Huggins notes that the spectrum ends abruptly in the orange. Maxima of brightness have since been recorded by myself at, approximately, 468-474, 517, and 546, and the latter two have also been confirmed by Mr. Taylor. Further confirmation is required. For comparison, a Bunsen or spirit-lamp flame will be found convenient for the first two, and the brightest fluting seen when lead chloride is introduced into the flame for the third. Mr. Lockyer suggests that since the central condensation is probably at a higher temperature than the surrounding portions of the nebula, different parts of the nebula should show differences in their spectra. Observing with Mr. Lockyer's 30inch reflector at Westgate-on-Sea, on October 20, I suspected

some change in the spectrum away from the nucleus, but was unable to complete the observation on account of clouds, and have not since had an opportunity of repeating it.

(2) The bright lines most constantly seen in the spectrum of this star are C, F, and D,, but their appearance is somewhat irregular. Continuous observations, with special reference to the relative intensities of the lines, are suggested. The lines are well seen in a 10-inch equatorial with a Maclean spectroscopic eye-piece. Bright flutings of carbon have also been suspected, and comparisons should be made with the Bunsen or spintlamp to confirm these. The continuous spectrum should also be carefully examined for maxima. 6, D, and other absorptionlines, have also been recorded.

(3) This is a star which gives a spectrum of dark flutings fading away towards the red. Duner records bands 2 to 9, and describes the spectrum as superb. Band 3, near D, is of extra. ordinary width. The spectra of this type have been explained as mixed metallic fluting absorption and carbon fluting radiation. The carbon flutings probably present are 517 and 468-474, which again may be determined by comparison with the spirit-lamp, 517 being the brightest green fluting.

Duner's notation and mean wave-lengths of the dark bands are as follows:- (1) 648-666, (2) 616-2-6298, (3) 586 7-590 8. (4) 559·8-564′9, (5) 5452-5515, (6) 524′3-528-1, (7) 516-8522 2, (8) 4959-5030, (9) 4760-483 0, (10) 460 7-473- The bright spaces between 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 are probably due

to carbon.

(4) This is a star of Class II.a, which is now divided into two groups, one having spectra of the type of a Tauri (Group III.), and the other of the sun (Group V.). The lines should be carefully observed, and differences from the solar spectrum, if any, noted, so that the star can be classed in one group or the other. The principal criteria so far determined for Group III. are strong lines at 409 and 540. 568 and 579. The line at 540 forms with E (5268), and the iron line at 5327 (both solar lines), an equi-distant trio. The difference between the two groups may perhaps best be observed by a comparison of Aldebaran and Capella.

(5) The spectrum of this star is Class I.a (Group IV.). The relative intensities of the hydrogen and metallic lines should be noted, in order that the star may be arranged with others in order of temperature.

(6) Duner gives the spectrum of this star as Class III (Group VI.), in which the main features are three dark carbon flutings fading away towards the blue. Other absorptions, if any, should be carefully observed, and their relative intensities recorded.

(7) This is a variable star, which reached its maximum on November 6. The magnitude at maximum is given by Gore as 69-8'3, and the period as 165'1 days. The spectrum has not yet, so far as I know, been recorded. A. FOWLER.


THE telegrams in the papers of Monday and Tuesday from Mr. Stanley are of the most suggestive and interesting For one thing, Emin, Casati, and others who have been holding out, are safe, though the brave Pasha has evidently been deserted by most of his men. That Mr. Stanley's expedition was needed the result has proved. He reached the Albert Nyanza for the third time, not a moment too soon to rescue the retreating party. We need not dwell on the sacrifices that have been entailed; they might to some extent have been avoided, but personally Mr. Stanley is not to blame. The geographical results of the expedition, as shadowed in the too brief telegram in Tuesday's papers, are evidently of the highest interest. There is now no doubt that there is a southern Albert Lake, Muta Nzige, which Mr. Stanley has named Lake Albert Edward. From the time when he himself discovered what he called Beatrice Gulf until the present, no one had seen this lake. At first it was thought to be a part of the northern lake, Albert Nyanza, but that idea had to be given up. Now it is clear that it is connected with that lake by the River Sempliki. The southern lake is 900 feet higher than the northern, and so is about 3200 feet above sea-level, and 450 feet above Lake Tanganyika, with which it is unlikely to have any connection. Mr. Stanley skirted the snowy mountain range referred to in his letters of six months ago, and found that they send down fifty streams to feed the Roy. Soc. Proc., vol. xlv. pp. 385-392.

Sempliki. Awamba, Usongora, Toro, Ahaiyama, Unyampaka, and Anhori, are all districts around the west, north, and east shores of the Lake Albert Edward, three sides of which Mr. Stanley says he has traversed-probably the east, west, and north sides, though it is possible he may have gone round the south side. It is probable that the lake as laid down on our maps is much too large, and that it is comparatively small Mr. Stanley found it to be 15 miles wide at Beatrice Gulf. From the lake he struck south-east to Karagwe and Uzinze, on the south-west and south of Victoria Nyanza, and no doubt found at Mslala the stores which have been accumulating for many months. Thus it will be seen Mr. Stanley has solved one of the few remaining problems of African geography. He has found the south-west source of the Nile, and established the true relations which exist among the great lakes of Central Africa. He has filled up an important blank in our mars, and collected observations which will enable us to understand the physical geography of one of the most interesting regions on the continent. Probably he will be able to tell us what has become of the Alexandra Lake of his former expedition. It may be as well to state that the telegram of Monday was in effect the first part of that of Tuesday, and therefore Emin's safety was not again referred to in the latter.

THE Zanzibar Correspondent of the Times telegraphed on November 5 that authentic news had reached Lamu that Dr. Peters and the whole of his party had been massacred, except one European and one Somali, wounded, who are at Ngao. Some say they were killed by Masais, and some by Somalis.

FROM the Journal of the Anthropological Society in Vienna, we take the following conclusions of Dr. B. Hagen, respecting the Malay peoples:—Their great predilection for the sea, which makes them pray to Allah that they may die on sea, seems to render the Malay race adapted for the Polynesian and Further Indian Archipelago. The centre from which they migrated is to be sought in the highlands of West Sumatra, particularly in the old kingdom of Menang-Kabau. Thence the peoples extended slowly eastwards; at first probably the races now to be found only in the interior of the great islands (the Battas in Sumatra, the Sundanese in Java, the Dayaks in Borneo, the Alfurus in Celebes, &c.). These ** aborigines" of the islands crushed out a population already in possession, as remains of which the Negritos may be taken. The Malays in the narrower sense occupying Sumatra, Malacca, and North Borneo, are to be regarded as the last emigration from the centre referred to, occurring from the twelfth to the fifteenth century A.D. With the Indians and Chinese, who have been long in intercourse with the archipelago, arose mixtures and crosses, in less measure also with the Arabs. One must not therefore expect the pure racial type, especially in the coast population. The crania of the anthropological collections are too im erfectly determined in respect of their locale to be of any service for a judgment of the Malay peoples. Of more value are the measurements of the living begun by Dr. Weisbach and executed by Dr. Hagen in 400 cases. The latter's conclusions are:-(1) The peoples in the interior of Sumatra the Battas, the Allas, and the Malays of MenangKabau-compose a closely allied group always in direct contrast with the hither-Indian peoples, and yet showing just as little community with the Chinese. We must therefore take them for the pure original type, characterizable as follows:-Small, compact, vigorous figure of less than 1600 mm average size; long arms; very short legs; very long and broad mesocephalous skull of very great compass, with high forehead; a prognathous face 10 per cent. broader than long, with large mouth, and uncommonly short, flat, and broad nose with large round nostrils opening mostly frontwise, and with broad nasal root. (2) The Malays of the east coast of Sumatra and those of the coasts of Malacca indicate a much greater affinity to the Indians than to their tribal peoples of Menang-Kabau. They are plainly therefore thoroughly mixed with Indian blood. (3) The Javanese peoples stand much nearer to the original type of the Sumatrans than to the Malays just mentioned. They show therefore less mixture with Indian, but on the other hand more mixture with Chinese, blood, and the Javanese more so than the Sundanese.

THE second number of this year's "Information respecting Kaiser Wilhelmsland and the Bismarck Archipelago," issued by the German New Guinea Company, contains a description of the north coast of New Guinea, from Cape

Cretin to the Legoarant Islands, by the former Governor, ViceAdmiral Freiherr von Schleinitz, with a map designed by him. According to this account, Kaiser Wilhelm land is subject to the south-east trade wind. This is, however, occasionally relieved by the opposite wind, when, viz., the sun in southing imparts to the Australian continent a temperature higher than that of New Guinea. The temperature, averaging 26° to 27° C., is not so high as might be inferred from the equatorial situation of the land, a fact due in part to the prevalence of the trade wind, which also brings with it a cooling sea current to the coast, and in part to the considerable elevation of most of the island. The north-west, blowing especially from January to April, comes on the whole with greater force than the southeast. Calms often occur from March to May and from October to December. Precipitation is on the whole copious, but there are many differences according to the local variations in the configuration of the land. The navigation of the coast offers no particular dangers and difficulties, either for steamers or sailingvessels. Serious storms are extremely rare, nor are there any reefs in the channel proper. Sea currents do not strike direct on the coast, and they are not generally very strong. The tides are inconsiderable, the spring floods keeping under I metre.

SOME interesting remains have been found in Hamburg on the site of the new Rathhaus. At a depth of o to o'7 metre the ground was covered to a height of 10 to 15 centimetres with dams of thin willow twigs (Salix fragilis), in many places two, sometimes even three, layers above one another, and separated from one another by equally thick earth layers. The building rests on clay, i.e. submerged ground, which contained heaps of freshwater shells, e.g. Valvata piscinalis, Bythinia tentaculata, &c., as also Cardium edule, Tellina baltica, Mactra solida, &c. When therefore the dam was made, the water must have been strongly brackish. The interest in this discovery was heightened when there was found, under St. Anne's Bridge, at a depth of o'5 metre, a regularly paved street of small boulders, such as were still used for stone pavement in all North German towns in the last century. The stone dam was about 5 metres broad, and encased on both sides by thick wooden planks, in order, in the swampy ground, to prevent the slipping out of the stones sideways. The ascertained changes in the level of the North Sea give no positive clue to the age of the Hamburg finds.



ON Monday evening the first annual dinner of the Institution of Electrical Engineers took place at the Criterion Restaurant, Sir William Thomson, the President, occupying the chair. Many different branches of science were represented on the occasion, and some of the after-dinner speeches rose to a high level of excellence.

Due honour having been done to the usual loyal toasts, and Major Webber and Captain Wharton having responded for the Army and Navy, the Chairman proposed "Her Majesty's Ministers" Lord Salisbury said, in response :

Sir William Thomson and Gentlemen,-I have to thank you on behalf of my colleagues in the Goverment and myself for the exceedingly kind reception you have given to the kind words in which Sir William Thomson has proposed this toast. I do not feel that I can accept the guise in which he put my name forward. On the contrary, though recognizing, as every individual must do, and as I have especial reason to do, the enormous benefits which electrical science confers upon mankind, I feel that I have reason rather to apologize for my appearance in this assembly. When I look round on so many learned and distinguished men, I feel rather in the position of a profane person who has got inside the Eleusinian mysteries. But I have an excuse. The gallant gentlemen who replied for the Army and Navy were able to show many particulars in which their special professional vocation was sustained and pushed forward by the discoveries of electrical science. But I will venture to say that there is no department under the Government so profoundly indebted to the discoveries of those who have made this science as the Foreign Office, with which I have the honour to be connected. I may say that we positively exist by virtue of the electric telegraph. The whole

was such that the forces which it produced could only act in its own immediate neighbourhood, and therefore those who were to utilize its forces and translate them into practical work were compelled to gather round the steam engine in vast factories, in great manufacturing towns, and in great establishments where men were collected together in unnatural, and often unwholesome, aggregation. Now an agent has been discovered, by which the forces of the steam engine, stiff, confined to its own centre, can be carried along, far away from its original sources, to distances which are already great, and which science promises to make more considerable still. I do not despair of the result that this distribution of forces may scatter those aggregations of humanity, which I think it is not one of the highest merits of the discovery of the steam-engine to have produced. If it ever does happen that in the house of the artisan you can turn on power as now you can turn on gas-and there is nothing in the essence of the problem, nothing in the facts of the science, a we know them, that should prevent such a consummation from taking place-if ever that distribution of power should be so organized, you will then see men and women able to pursue in their own homes many of the industries which now require the aggregation at the factory. You may, above all, see women and children pursue these industries without that disruption of families which is one of the most unhappy results of the present requirements of industry. And if ever that result should come from the discoveries of Oersted and Faraday, you may say that they have done more than merely to add to the physical forces of mankind. They will have done much to sustain that unity, that integrity of the family, upon which rest the moral hopes of our race and the strength of the community to which we belong. These are some of the thoughts which electricity suggests to one of my trade. Pardon me if I have wandered into what may seem to be speculative and unfamiliar fields. But, after all, the point of view from which we must admire the splendid additions to our knowledge which the scientific men of the work, and especially of England, during this century have made, is, that they have enabled mankind to be more happy, to be more contented, and therefore to be more moral,

work of all the Chancelleries in Europe is now practically con-
ducted by the light of that great science, which is not so old as
the century in which we live. And there is a strange feeling that
you have in communicating constantly and frequently day by day
with men whose inmost thoughts you know by the telegraph, but
whose faces you have never seen. It is something more than a
mere departmental effect which these great discoveries have had
upon the government of the world. I have often thought that if
history were more philosophically written, instead of being
divided according to the domination of particular dynasties
or the supremacy of particular races, it would be cut off into
the compartments indicated by the influence of particular
discoveries upon the destinies of mankind. Speaking only of
these modern times, you would have the epoch marked by
the discovery of gunpowder, the epoch marked by the dis-
covery of the printing-press, and you would have the epoch
marked by the discovery of the steam-engine. And those
discoveries have had an influence infinitely more powerful, not
only upon the large collective destinies, but upon the daily
life and experience of multitudes of human beings, than even
the careers of the greatest conquerors or the devices of the
greatest statesmen. In that list which our ignorance of ancient
history in its essential character forbids us to make as long as nɔ
doubt it might be made, the last competitor for notice and
not the least would be the science of electricity. I think the
historian of the future when he looks back will recognize that
there has been a larger influence upon the destinies of mankind
exercised by this strange and fascinating discovery than even
in the discovery of the steam-engine itself, because it is a
discovery which operates so immediately upon the moral and
intellectual nature and action of mankind. The electric tele-
graph has achieved this great and paradoxical result, that it has,
as it were, assembled all mankind upon one great plane where
they can see everything that is done, and hear everything that is
said, and judge of every policy that is pursued at the very
moment when those events take place; and you have by the
action of the electric telegraph, combinel together almost at
one moment, and acting at one moment upon the agencies which
govern mankind, the influences of the whole intelligent world
with respect to everything that is passing at that time on the
face of the globe. It is a phenomenon to which nothing in the
history of our planet up to this time presents anything which is
equal or similar, and it is an effect and operation of which the
intensity and power increases year by year. When you ask
what is the effect of the electric telegraph upon the condition
of mankind, I would ask you to think of what is the most
conspicuous feature in the politics of our time, the one
which occupies the thoughts of every statesman, and which
places the whole future of the whole civilized world in a con-
dition of doubt and question. It is the existence of those-Joule.
gigantic armies held in leash by the various Governments of the
world, whose tremendous power may be a guarantee for the
happiness of mankind and the maintenance of civilization, but
who, on the other hand, hold in their hands powers of destruc.
tion which are almost equal to the task of levelling civilization
to the ground. What gives these armies their power? What
enables them to exist? By what power is it that one single will
can control these vast millions of men and direct their destructive
energies at one moment on one point? What is the condition of
simultaneous direction and action which alone gives to these vast
armies this tremendous power? It is nothing less than the electric
telegraph. And it is from that small discovery, worked out by
a few distinguished men in their laboratories upon experiments
of an apparently trivial character, on matter and instruments
not, in the first instance, of a very recondite description-it is
on that discovery that the huge belligerent power of molera
States, which marks off our epoch of history from all that have
gone before, must be held, by anyone who investigates into the
causes of things, absolutely to depend. I would venture to hope
that this is not all, in its great effect upon the history and govern-
ment of our race, that electricity may achieve. Whether it so
far is good or evil in the main, it must be for the future to deter-
mine. We only know that the effect, whatever it is, will be
gigantic. But in the latter half of the short life of this young
science another aspect of it has been developed―
-an aspect which
I cannot help hoping may be connected with great benefits to the
vast community of industrious and labouring men-I mean that
facility for the distribution of power of which electricity has
given such a splendid instance. The event of the last century
was the discovery of the steam-engine. But the steam-engine

Sir Frederick Abel proposed, and Sir George Gabriel Stokes responded for, “The Learned Societies"; and Sir John Coode responded for the toast of "The Professional Societies," which was proposed by Mr. Latimer Clark. The toast of "The Institution of Electrical Engineers" was then proposed by Lord Salisbury. In the course of his response, Sir William Thomson said:

One very remarkable piece of work they should think of especially this year, and during the last few weeks, when they deplored the loss of one of the greatest workers in electrical science and its practical application that the world had ever seen

The great scientific discoveries of Faraday, which were prepared almost deliberately for the purpose of allowing others to turn them to account for the good of man, had been going on for about fifteen years, when a young man took up the subject with a profound and penetrating genius most rare in any branch of human study, and perceived relations with mechanical power which had never been suspected before. Joule saw the relations between electricity and force, and his very first determination of the mechanic l'equivalent was an electrical measurement. His communication to the British Association, when it met in Cork in the year 1841, pointed out for the first time the distinct mechanical relation between electric phenomena and mechanical force. Joule was not a mere visionary who saw and admired something in the air, but he pursued what he saw to the very utmost practical point of work, and he it was who derermined the mechanical equivalent of heat. Afterwards he thoroughly confirmed the principle of his first determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat. Both in electricity and mechanical action he laid the foundation of the great development of thermodynamics, which would be looked upon in future generations as the crowning scientific work of the present century. It was not all due to Joule, but he had achieved one of the very greatest monuments of scientific work in the present century. For an Institution of Electrical Engineer, it was interesting to think that the error relating to one of the most important electrical elements, the unit of resistance (now called the ohm), as determined electrically in the first place by a Committee of the British Association, and by purely electrical method, was first discovered by Joule's mechanical measurement. It was Joule's mechanical measurement which first corrected the British Association unit, and gave the true ohm.

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