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white and Victoria white, also some Hungarian wheats, besides Italian varieties.

It was found that the English varieties gave very poor results; the squarehead was a very poor sample indeed, and it was unfortunate that it was used for the manuring experiments. The degeneration of English wheats during the first year is probably due to the great amount of transpiration taking place in this climate, especially during such a hot and dry summer as that of 1888 Giglioli enters into an interesting discussion of this important physiological result.

The most productive wheat was a variety known as Noé, from the South of France, originally from Bessarabia--this yielded at the rate of 3485 kilograms per hectare; next in order were two Iraian varieties, Kieti and Puglia grain, yielding at the rate of about 3150 kilograms per hectare. The Puglia wheat was the baest in quality of grain, but its yield of straw was very low.

The great importance of a careful selection of varieties is pointed out, and Giglioli is of opinion that much more good will be done by improving and selecting Italian varieties than Iv importing new varieties; which, if from colder countries, will probably not be able to stand the climate.

Incidentally, the experiments showed the great benefit of good cultivation and of surface draining, the plots being above the itvel of the surrounding paths, for the produce of the unmanured plot was double that of the neighbouring land under ordinary cultivation.

From the manuring experiments it was shown that farmyard manure gave fair results, but the season

was un

favourable to the action of artificial manures, being much too dry. Of nitrogenous manures, a idified urine gave the best results, but nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia were often worse than useless. Phosphates had some good effect, and Thomas-Gilchrist slag was useful. Potash salts had no particular effect; the chloride seemed rather better than the sulphate.

The results of the manuring experiments, considering the great care and labour bestowed on them, must be disappointing; but the soil is in too high condition for manures to show great effects, al-o the variety of grain sown was unsuitable to the climate, and the season was against manures, especially nitrogenous


In this Report the details of the experiments are given in full, with the appearance of the plots at different dates, and the whole results tabulated in various ways in nearly a hundred tables.


the weighings at harvest were carried out under the personal saperintendence of Prof. Giglioli, who evidently has spared neither time, trouble, nor health, in conducting these important researches. Already the results have yielded important informanton, especially on the suitability or the reverse of special varieties of wheat to the climate of Southern Italy, and with their continuance there can be no doubt that results most valuable to the Italian farmer on the cultivation and manuring of wheat will be obtained.

Whilst heartily congratulating Prof. Giglioli and the Agricultural Association of Naples on having inaugurated these experiments with the prospect of continuing them for some years, we cannot Pot think that their value would be greatly increased if the plots were larger; or, if this cannot be arranged with the appliances at command, if the experiments were always in duplicate, or preferably in triplicate, and this might be rendered possible by reducing the number of experiments on manures in future seasons. E. K.



American Journal of Science, February.-The magnetic field in the Jefferson Physical Laboratory, by R. W. Willson. of the wings of this Laboratory in Harvard University has been constructed wholly without iron for the purpose of research, and the author has made a series of experiments to determine how far the end sought has been gained. He has found the magnitude of the disturbance which may arise in practice from such objects as stoves and iron pipes, and has made the interesting discovery that the brick piers of the building have a sufficient amount of free magnetism to produce quite an appreciable effect. -On Cretaceous plants from Martha's Vineyard, by David White. The author has studied a number of fossil plants collected at several localines and horizons in the Vineyard series for the purpose of solving the question as to the age of the underlying clays,

lignites, and sands, of Martha's Vineyard. He concludes that the evidence from the fossil plants bespeaks an age decidedly Cretaceous, and probably Middle Cretaceous, for the terrane in which they were deposited.-Review of Dr. R. W. Ell's second report on the geology of a portion of the Province of Quebec, with additional notes on the " Quebec group," by Charles D. Walcott. The geological systems recognized in the area reported upon include the Devonian, Silurian, Cambro-Silurian (Ordovician), Cambrian, and pre-Cambrian.—Measurement by light-waves, by Albert A. Michelson. The telescope and microscope are compared with the refractometer, some remarkable analogies in their fundamental properties are pointed out, and a few cases in which the last-named instrument appears to possess a very important advantage over the others illustrated. Previous experiments have shown that the utmost attainable limit of accuracy of a setting of the cross-hair of a microscope on a fine ruled line was about two-millionths of an inch, whereas direct measurements of the length of a wave of green light emitted by incandescent mercury vapour, show that the average error in a setting was only about one ten-millionth of an inch. The method is also extended to angular and spectrometer measurements.-On lansfordite, nesquehonite, a new mineral, and pseudomorphs of nesquehonite after lansfordite, by F. A. Genth and S. L. Penfield. The authors have examined the crystallization of lansfordite (3MgCO,.Mg(OH),21 H2O), and another new mineral having the composition MgCÓ3.3H„O, which has been named nesquehonite. A crystallized artificial salt of the same composition is also described. -Weber's law of thermal radiation, by William Ferrel. An examination of Weber's new law, and a test of his formula by means of experimental results, in which the absolute rate of losing heat is determined from the observed rate of cooling of heated bodies of known thermal capacity, and the relative rate from the galvanometer needle of the thermopile.-Tracks of organic origin in rocks. of the Animikie Group, by A. R. C. Selwyn. Traces of fossils, or what are supposed to be such, have been discovered in the Animikie rocks of Lake Superior. The fact is interesting and important, for, if the black Animikie shales represent the Lower Cambrian of the Atlantic border, the Paradoxides and Olenellus fauna will probably be found in them sooner or later.

IN the numbers of the Journal of Botany for January and February, two important monographs are commenced-by Mr. E. G. Baker, a synopsis of genera and species of Malveæ; and by Mr. G. Massee, a monograph of the genus Podaxis. This last genus of Fungi, Mr. Massee proposes to transfer, in consequence of the mode of formation of the spores, from the Gastromycetes, where it has hitherto been placed, to the Ascomycetes.

THE Botanical Gazette for October 1889 contains an interesting summary of our present knowledge of protoplasm, by Prof. Goodale, in the form of an address to the Botanical Section of the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held at Toronto.

WITH the exception of an interesting paper by Prof. Mas salongo, descriptive of some curious instances of teratology in the floral and foliar organs, the number of the Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano for January is chiefly occupied by a report of the proceedings of the Italian Botanical Society. Among a number of short papers, is one on the fertilization of Dracunculus vulgaris, the most important insect agent in which is stated by Prof. Arcangeli to be Saprinus subnitidus; one on the fertilization of Arum pictum, by Prof. Martelli; and one on the development of the picnids of Fungi, by Prof. Baccarini.



Linnean Society, February 6.—Mr. Carruthers, F.R.S., President, in the chair.-Referring to an exhibition at a previous meeting, Prof. Stewart communicated some interesting observations on the habits of certain seaweed-covered crabs. He also made some remarks on the "pitchers" of Nepenthes Mastersiana, upon which criticism was offered by Mr. Thomas Christy, Prof. Howes, and Mr. J. Murray.-Prof. G. E. Boulger exhibited a series of original water-colour drawings of animals and plants of the Falkland Islands.-Mr. W. H. Beeby exhibited some forms new to Britain of plants from Shetland.-Mr. C. B. Clarke,

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F.R.S., then read a paper on the stamens and setæ of Scirpe, illustrated by diagrams, which elicited a detailed criticism from Mr. J. G. Baker, to which Mr. Clarke replied.-A paper was then read by Mr. B. D. Jackson, which had been communicated by the late Mr. John Ball on the flora of Patagonia, prefaced by some feeling remarks by the President, on the loss which the Society had sustained through the recent death of this able botanist.

Zoological Society, February 18.-Dr. St. George Mivart, F. R. S., Vice-President, in the cliair.-Mr. Tegetmeier exhibited and made remarks on two Cats' skulls, out of the large quantity of remains of these animals recently brought to this country from Egypt.-Mr. G. A. Boulenger read a report on the additions made to the Lizard collection in the British Museum since the publication of the last volume of the British Museum Catalogue of this group. A list was given of 91 species new or previously unrepresented in the collection. Ten species and three genera were described as new.-Mr. P. L. Sclater, F. R.S., read some notes on a Guinea-fowl from the Zambesi, allied to

Numida cristata, and gave a general account of the recognized species of this group of Gallinaceous birds.-Dr. Mivart, F.R.S., read some notes on the genus Cyon, mainly based on an examination of the specimens of this genus of Canidæ contained in the British Museum.-Mr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., read a paper containing the characters of some new species of the family Formicariida.-Dr. Augustine Henry read some notes on the Mountain Antelopes of Central China (Nemorhedus ar gyrochates and N. henryanus).

Royal Meteorological Society, February 19.—The following papers were read:-Observations on the motion of dust, as illustrative of the circulation of the atmosphere, and of the development of certain cloud forms, by the Hon. Ralph Abercromby. The author has made numerous observations on the notion of dust in various parts of the world, especially on deserts on the west coast of South America. He finds that the wind sometimes blows dust into streaks or lines, which are analogous to fibrous or hairy cirrus clouds; sometimes into transverse ridges and furrows, like solid waves, which are analogous to certain kinds of fleecy cirro-cumulus cloud; sometimes into crescent-shaped heaps with their convex side to the wind, which are perhaps analogous to a rare cloud form called "mackerel scales"; sometimes into whirlwinds, of at least two if not of three varieties, all of which present some analogies to atmospheric cyclones; sometimes into simple rising clouds, without any rotation, which are analogous to simple cumulus-topped squalls; and sometimes into forms intermediate between the whirlwind and simple rising cloud, some of which reproduce in a remarkable manner the combination of rounded, flat, and hairy clouds that are built up over certain types of squalls and showers. Excessive heating of the soil alone does not generate whirlwinds; they require a certain amount of wind from other causes to be moving at the time. The general conclusion is, that when the air is in more or less rapid motion from cyclonic or other causes, small eddies of various kinds form themselves, and that they develop the different sorts of gusts, showers, squalls, and whirlwinds.-Cloud nomenclature, by Captain D. WilsonBarker. The author proposes a simple division of cloud-forms under two heads, viz. cumulus and stratus, and recommends that a more elaborate and complete division should be made of these two types. A number of photographs of clouds were exhibited on the screen in support of this proposal.-An optical feature of the lightning flash, by E. S. Bruce.

It has been stated in the Report of the Thunderstorm Committee of the Royal Meteorological Society, that there is not the slightest evidence in the photographs of lightning flashes of the angular zigzag or forked forms commonly seen in pictures. The author, however, believes that this is an optical reality, as the clouds on which the projec tion of the flash is cast are often of the cumulus type, which afford an angular surface. In support of this theory he exhibited some lantern slides of lightning playing over clouds.

Anthropological Institute, February 11.-Dr. Garson, Vice-President, in the chair.-Mr. T. W. Shore read a paper on characteristic survivals of the Celts in Hampshire. He considered the round huts of the charcoal-burners a survival of the huts which were common in the Celtic period; and some of the industries of the Celtic period appear to have survived in Hampshire to the present day, such as that of osier-working or basket-making. There can be little doubt that Hayling,

anciently spelt Halinge, has derived its name from the Celus word halsalt; the salt works which still exist there are in probability an example of a survival of a Celtic industry. Sever instances were given of earthworks which must be ascribed to the Celts, and it was suggested that the mounds upon which many ancient churches in Hampshire are built may have herun sacred sites of the same people. Reference was made to th peculiar orientation of many Hampshire churches, 20 ̊ north of east, and it was explained as a survival of a reverence for the May Day sunrise from Celtic pagan time to Saxon Christia time, and under a modification to a later date.-Dr. Garson ex hibited and described some skulls dredged from the bed of the Thames by Mr. G. F. Lawrence, who afterwards gave an account of the strata in which they were found.

Mathematical Society, February 13.-J. J. Walker F. R.S., President, in the chair.-Mr. S. Roberts, F.R. S., read a paper concerning semi-invariants.-Mr. Tucker (Hum. Sec.) communicated papers by Prof. K. Pearson, on ether-squirts; by Prof. G. B. Mathews, on class-invariants; and a note on the

imaginary roots of an equation, by Prof. Cayley, F.R.S.


Academy of Sciences, February 17.-M. Hermite in ta chair.-Observations of minor planets made with the gra servatory during the first three months of 1889, by Admir meridian circle and Jardin's meridian circle at the Paris ( Mouchez. Comparisons with published ephemerides have been made in the following cases: Victoria (12), Astræa j. Parthenope (11), Hebe (6), and Eugenia (45).-On the move ments of planets, supposing their attraction represented by one of the electro-dynamic laws of Gauss or Weber, by M. F. Tisserand. The author has investigated the motions of Mercury and Venus on the hypothesis that they were not governed by Newton's law of gravitation, but by one of the above named The change of the longitude of perihelion for a given time would be about twice as great, using Gauss's law, than by using Weber's. Taking the velocity of light as 300,000 kilometres per second, it is found that, on the hypothesis of Weber's law, the major axis of Mercury's orbit would have a direct ation of 144 in a century; for Venus the variation would be only 30, Using Gauss's law, the value for Mercury becomes 28°2Posthumous article on polyhedrons by Descartes: a act by M. de Jonquiemes, in which he shows that Descartes not only knew and employed the relation S + F = A + 2 but that he announced it explicitly, and prior to EulerOn a new reviving plant, by M. Ed. Bureau. Two specimens of a supposed new plant which revived when placed in water, similar to the Rose of Jericho, have been investigated. The change, however, is not simply hydration, as in the latter plant The specimens, which were found in Arkansas, prove to be the Polypodium incanum, Pluck, but the above property da not appear to have been previously observed in it-On the distribution of pressures and velocities in the interior of liquid sheets issuing from weirs without lateral contraction, by M. Bazin.-On some objections to the theory of deep vertical an lation in the ocean, by M. J. Thoulet. It is concluded that the circulation of water between the equator and the Poles only affects a depth of about a thousand metres. Below this the water is in a state of repose. The conclusion has been arnved at from a consideration of deep-sea sediment and the observ tions of the density of water at great depths given in the Cha enger Report.-On the St. Petersburg problem, by M. Seydler Two solutions are given of this "probability" problem. the regular surfaces of which the linear element is reducible to the form of Liouville, by M. Demartres. On the surfaits of which the linear element is reducible to the form = FUV) (du2 + dv2), by M. A. Petot.-Summary of the observations of the total solar eclipse of December 22, 1889, by M. A. de 2 Baume Pluvinel.-Note on the calculation of the compressibly of air up to 3000 atmospheres, by M. Ch. Antoine. In the expression p = D (B+) (the pressure, f, being given in atmospheres, and the volume, v, in litres), for air

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molten electrolytes, and upon the E. M. F. at the surface of con. zet of a metal and a melted salt, by M. Lucien Poincaré. The author finds the E. M. F.'s in this case to be nearly the same as those found by M. Bouty (Comptes rendus, t. xc. p. 217) in the case of saturated solutions. -Electrolysis by igneous fusion of the oxide and fluoride of aluminium, by M. Adolphe Minet. The author presents the result of three years' work on the lectrolysis of the fused oxide and fluoride of aluminium, in a table which gives the quantity of metal obtained as a function of the time and of the quantity of electricity used.-Note by MM. P. Hautefeuille and A. Perrey, on the silico-glucinates of soda. In a preceding note, the authors have described a number of shico-glucinates of potash, obtained by heating together mixtures of silica, glucina, and the alkali, with neutral vanadate of potash. They now have applied the same method of mineralization with mixtures containing soda, heating to about 800°. Five forms, of different composition, have been thus obtained. Substituting ingstate for vanadate of soda, two species of crystals have een obtained, corresponding in composition with two of those obtained with vanadate as mineralizing agent.-Upon the role of foreign bodies in iron and steel; the relation between their atomic volumes and the allotropic transformations ron, by M. F. Osmond. Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, studying the effect of minute percentages of foreign elements spot the mechanical properties of gold, found a relation between te results obtained and the position in the periodic table of the eroticed elements, and has predicted a similar phenomenon in he case of iron. Reviewing his former work in the light of this new idea, the author has found the prediction to be verified. Shortly, it may be said that foreign bodies of small atomic

volume tend to cause iron to assume or remain in that of its molecular forms in which it has itself the smaller atomic volume, lodies of great atomic volume produce the opposite effect.-M. ! Ville, on dioxyphosphinic and oxyphosphinous acids.


preceding notes (Comptes rendus, t. cvii. p. 659, t. cix. p. 71, and in the present communication, it is shown that by the reaction of aldehydes upon hypophosphorous acid, two new cies of acids have been obtained, with the general formulæ :—


(2) PO (R-CH. OH). OH

R. CH. CH) (1 PO R. CH. OH); SOH -Dibromo-carballylic acid, by M. E. Guinochet. This acid Jas been obtained by the reactions of 4 equivalents of bromine ap in one equivalent of aconitic acid in a sealed tube, heated for thirty-six hours to 115-120°.-Estimation of uric acid in urine by means of a hot solution of hypobromite of soda, by M. Bayrac. The principle of the method consists in separating the uric acid from the urea and creatinin present by alcohol, and the titration

the isolated acid with sodic hypobromite at 90°-100. Results are said to be as exaet as those obtained by the best known methods, while the process takes much less time.-Researches upon the pathogenic microbes in the filtered waters of the Rhone, by MM. Lortet and Despeignes.-Upon the nutrition ofthe fungus of the muguet, by MM. Georges Linossier and Gabriel Roux. A complete study of the mineral, carbohydrate, and nitrogenous foods required and the substances produced by this fungus is given. -The perception of luminous radiations by the skin, as exemplified try the blind Proteus of the grottos of Carniola, by M. Raphael Dabos. By a number of experiments upon Proteus anguinis, the author demonstrates that the sensibility of its skin to light is about half of the sensibility of its rudimentary eyes, and further what this sensibility varies with the colour of the light employed, being greatest for yellow light.-The wax-organs and the secreion of wax in the bee, by M. G. Carlet. The author's researches lead him to conclude: (1) the wax is produced by the 4 last ventral arches of the abdomen; (2) it is secreted by an epithelial membrane and not by the cuticular layer of these arches, nor by the intra abdominal glands; (3) this secretory membrane lies between the cuticular layer and the lining membrane of the antero-lateral part of the ventral arch; (4) the wax traverses the cuticular layer and accumulates on its outer surface. -Experimental plant cultivation in high altitudes, note by M. Gaston Bonnier. The modifications produced in Alpine plants by the climate bave been studied and some general conclusions drawn, among which the most interesting is: "For the same extent of leaf surface, the assimilation is much more considerable in Alpine plants than in those of lower stations, on account of the greater thickness of the palisade tissue and the abundance of chlorophyll."


Physiological Society, January 31.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond, President, in the chair.-Dr. Grabower spoke on rootarea of the motor nerves of the laryngeal muscles.-Prof. Munk made a further communication on the subject of the cortical visual areas. His earlier researches on the extirpation of these areas had shown that the retina may be regarded as spatially projected on to the visual area in such a way that its external portion corresponds to the external part of the visual area of the same side, while the inner portion corresponds to the inner part of the area of the opposite side, and the middle portion to the middle part of the visual area of the opposite side. The upper half of the retina corresponds to the anterior part of the visual area, and the lower half to the posterior. More recently, Prof. Schäfer, of London, has found that, when the visual areas are stimulated electrically, movements result which are confined entirely to the eyes; when the anterior part of the area is stimulated, the eye is turned downwards and towards the opposite side; and when the posterior part is stimulated, the movement is similarly towards the opposite side, but now upwards. When, however, the central part of the area is stimulated, the result is merely a movement towards the opposite side. It was shown by the speaker, as the result of a large number of experiments on dogs which he had performed in conjunction with Dr. Obregici, that these movements are not dependent on the stimulation of any motor centres or upon any ordinary reflex movements, but that they are really movements which accompany visual sensations. They were shown by careful analysis to result in the directing of the eye towards that point in space into which the visual perception is referred whenever any definite point of the retina is stimulated by light, the point stimulated in this case being the corresponding part of the electrically stimulated visual area. Thus when the anterior part of the area is stimulated, the lower portion of the retina is stimulated, the resulting visual image is consequently referred out upwards, and the eyes accordingly also move upwards and towards the opposite side. Similarly for stimulations of other parts of the visual area. These experimental stimulations hence afford an evidence of the detailed spatial projection of the retina on to the visual areas, which is as certain and even more convincing than the evidence obtained from localized extirpations of the areas. They further permitted of a more certain delimitation of the visual areas than had been possible in the earlier experiIt is impossible to enter here into the many interesting details of these experiments, or to give any account of the lengthy discussion which followed Prof. Munk's communication.


Physical Society, February 7.-Prof. Kundt, President, in the chair.-Dr. Budde spoke on the very rapid rotation of a solid body, possessed of three unequal moments of inertia, about a fixed point. He developed very fully the equations which hold good for this motion, and dealt, at the end of his communication, with the physical experiments which might be performed in order to test the equations.-Dr. Feussner spoke on the methods which are employed at the Government Physico-technical Institute for the measurement of electrical resistances. He exhibited and explained the several instruments used, pointing out that in their arrangement the greatest importance must be attached to the very accurate measurements of temperature. For this purpose the wires are wound upon metallic cylinders in order to provide for the rapid cooling of the wires as they are warmed by the passage of the current: these are then submerged in petroleum, whose temperature is recorded by a thermometer immersed in the liquid, which is itself kept constantly stirred. German-silver wires have shown themselves to be unsuited for the purposes of constructing the standard resistances, since their resistance increases regularly with lapse of time; neither could this increase be done away with by heating the wires until they were quite soft. This tendency was attributed to the occurrence of a gradual crystallization, which depended chiefly upon the zinc in the alloy. On this account an alloy of copper and nickel was employed, which is known commercially as patent nickel," and examined as to its suitability. Wires made of this alloy possess a very low temperature-coefficient, and were found to be almost absolutely constant after being heated to 100° C. If they are kept for some time after they are made and wound, and are then heated, they may be used as standards for comparison. Several other alloys were also tried, as, for instance, various combinations of copper and manganese. The speaker described the experimental measurements made with these wires, and stated that up to 30 per cent. of manganese, above which amount


it was not possible to draw a'wire in this alloy, they have yielded a negative coefficient of temperature. When the alloy contained only a small percentage of manganese, the coefficient was very small, so that such wires would be suitable for the construction of standard coils. In conclusion, he described how the resistances are measured in the Government Institute. The method employed is that of compensation, and measurement of potentials. Dr. Jäger announced that Dr. de Coudres, in Leipzig, had succeeded in detecting a thermo-electric tension between compressed and uncompressed mercury. The compression was produced either hydraulically or by means of its own weight acting through a column of mercury. It was found possible to determine with certainty the direction of the thermo-electric current, and to measure its intensity for given pressures and temperatures. The investigation is not yet completed, but Dr. de Coudres hopes to be soon in a position to give a full account of his experiments.

IN the report of the meeting of the Berlin Physical Society, January 27 (p. 383), for Dr. Lehmann read Dr. Leman.


Royal Academy of Sciences, February 12.-Contributions to the flora of the Hieracia of South-Eastern Sweden, by Herr H. Dahlstedt.-On the remains of a bread-fruit tree from the Cenoman strata of Greenland, by Prof. A. G. Nathorst.-Report on researches in practical pomology and horticulture during a tour in France and Germany, by Herr C. V. Hartman.-On the lichens of the island of Bornholm, by Dr. P. J. Hellbom.— Algæ aquæ dulcis exsiccatæ quas distribuerunt, V. Wittrock et O. Nordstedt, Parts 18-21, exhibited and demonstrated by Prof. Wittrock.-The results of a determination of the rotation of the sun, executed during the years 1887-89 in the Observatory of Lund, by Prof. Dunér.-On the influence of the duration of exposure for a photographic image of a star, by Dr. Charlier.— Experimental determination of the principal elements of a divergent lens, by Dr. C. Mebius.-Derivatives of sulphur urates, by Dr. Hector.-On the B1 =a, bromium naphthalin sulphon acid, and on the constitution of the acids which are formed by the agency of concentrated sulphuric acid on Bnaphthylamin, by S. Forsling.-Experiments on the humidity of the atmosphere, by Dr. K. H. Sohlberg. -Anatomical studies on the floral axes of diclinous Phanerogams, by Herr A. Grevillius.



ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30 -The Croonian Lecture-The Relations between Host and Parasite in certain Epidemic Diseases of Plants: Prof. H. Marshall Ward, F.R.S.

SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 5-The Northern Shan States and the Burma-China Railway: William Sherriff.

INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-The Theory of Armature Reaction in Dynamos and Motors: James Swinburne.-Some Points in Dynamo and Motor Design: W. B. Esson.

ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Three Stages of Shakspeare's Art: Rev. Canon Ainger.


AMATEUR SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, at 8.-Practical Coal-mining: H. S. Streatfeild.

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Evolution in Music: Prof. C. Hubert H. Parry. SATURDAY, MARCH 1.

ESSEX FIELD CLUB, at 7.-Micro-Fungi of Epping Forest; how to Collect, Preserve, and Study Them: Dr. M. C. Cooke,

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Electricity and Magnetism: Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S.


SUNDAY LECTURE SOCIETY, at 4-Apollonius of Tyana; the Story of his Life and Miracles: G. Wotherspoon.


SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.-Stereotyping: Thomas Bolas.

ARISTOTELIAN SOCIETY, at 8.-The Psychological Development of the Conceptions of Causality and Substance: G. F. Stout.

VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 8.-Chinese Chronology: Rev. James Legge. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-General Monthly Meeting.


ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.-On the Classification of Birds: Henry Seebohm.-A Revision of the Genera of Scorpions of the Family Bathida, with Descriptions of some New Souh African Species: R. I. Pocock -On so ne Galls from Colorado: T. D. A. Cockerell.-Report on the Insect. House for 1889: A. Thomson.

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 8.-The Hawksbury Bridge, New South Wales: C. O. Purge.-The Erection of the Dufferin Bridge over the Ganges at Benares: F. T. G. Walton.-The New Blackfriars Bridge on the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway: G. E. W. Cruttwell. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 5 15.-A Peculiar Ferment in Balan glossus: Dr. Halliburton.-The Weather Plant: Mr. Weiss. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Post-Darwinian Period: Prof. G. J. Romanes, F.R.S.


SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.-Recent Progress in British Watch and C Making: J. Tripplin.

ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 7.-New Longicornia from Africa: ( Gahan.-Notes on the Lepidoptera of the Region of the Straits of V raltar: J. J. Walker, R N.-Some Water Beetles from Ceyla: In Sharp-The Classification of the Pyraldina of the European Fama. J Meyrick.-A New Species of Thymara and other Species allieu 4 mantopterus fuscinervis, Wesm.: Captain H. J. Elwes-A Cata the Pryralidæ of Sikkim collected by H. J. Elwes and the late (a Möller Pieter C. T. Snellen.


ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-The following papers will probably be mat On a Second Case of the Occurrence of Silver in Volcanic Dustin that thrown out in the Eruption of Tunguragua, in the Andes of Eca January 11, 1886: Prof. J. W. Mallet, F. R.S.-On the Tenan Recently formed Liquid Surfaces: Lord Rayleigh (1) On the Dev ment of the Ciliary or Motor Oculi Ganglion; (2) The Cramal Nerve the Torpedo (Preliminary Note): Prof. J. C. Ewart. LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Production of Seed in some Van of the Common Sugar-Cane (Saccharum officinarum); D. Maris-A Investigation into the True Nature of Callus, Part 1, the Veger Marrow, and Ballia callitricha: Spencer Moore. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Early Developments of the Forma Instrumental Music: Frederick Niecks.

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Letters to the Editor:

The Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers:
a Suggested Subject-Index.-A Cataloguer
The Period of the Long Sea-Waves of Krakatão-
James C. McConnel

The Distances of the Stars.-Dr. W. H, S. Monck
The Longevity of Textural Elements, particularly in
Dentine and Bone.-John Cleland.

Some Notes on Dr. A. R. Wallace's Darwinism."
-T. D. A. Cockerell

A Formula in the "Theory of Least Squares."-W.
J. Loudon

Galls.-D. Weiterhan

The Cape "Weasel."-E. B. Titchener
The Chaffinch.-E. J. Lowe, F.R.S.

On the Number of Dust Particles in the Atmosphere of certain Places in Great Britain and on the Continent, with Remarks on the Relation between the Amount of Dust and Meteorological Phenomena. By John Aitken, F. R.S..

A Uniform System of Russian Transliteration
The Botanical Institute and Marine Station at Kiel.

Sir Robert Kane, LL.D., F. R. S.

Our Astronomical Column:

Objects for the Spectroscope.-A. Fowler.
Note on the Zodiacal Light.-A. Fowler
Observations of Ursa Majoris and B Auriga
Comet Brooks (d 1889)

New Short-Period Variable in Ophiuchus
Observations of the Magnitude of Iapetus

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Geographical Notes.

Locusts in India.

Field Experiments on Wheat in Italy. By E. K. Scientific Serials


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October 10, 1888.
Amongst several unsolicited Testimonials the two
DEAR SIR,-The Watkin Aneroid only reached me
three weeks ago. I am very much pleased with it, and
have given it a pretty severe trial with very satisfactory
following have been received by the maker:-

EDINBURGH, May 31, 1889.
DEAR SIR,-I have just returned from a six weeks'
an opportunity of testing the admirable qualities of
stay at the Ben Nevis Observatory, and while there
your new "Watkin" Aneroid. The result has been
most satisfactory, the extreme error noted being only
about the one-hundredth of an inch. During my stay
at the Observatory the Aneroid was frequently tested
by taking it down a couple of thousand feet and then
Observer, Scott. Met. Soc.
comparing it with the standard on my return. The
results obtained speak volumes for the high-class work
manship and great accuracy you have attained in the
manufacture of this instrument.
had an


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Contains Minerals. Precious Stones, Stone Implements (Palæolithic and ethic); also New Zealand lade Meres, Fikis, and other Savage Feapons, Bronze Implements; Works of Art in Jade, Rock Crystal, &c.; ases and Table-T ps in Stone; Arms and Armour, and other Specimens of Tatural History, all of which are


Boxes sent upon Approval.


Maker of every description of Entomological Cabinets and Apparatus. are and Book-boxes, fitted with Camphor-cells; Setting Boards, Oval or at, &c. Cabinets of every description kept in stock. SPECIAL INSECT ABINETS, with Drawers fitted with Glass Tops and Bottoms to show er and under side without removing insect. Store-boxes specially made Continental Setting, highly recommended for Beetles. All best work. owest possible terms for cash. Prices on Application. Estimates supplied. ade supplied. Established since 1847.

Show Rooms-7A Prince's Street, Cavendish Square, W. (7 doors from ford Circus). Factories-34 Ridinghouse Street, and Ogle Street, W.

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Homœopathic Review, October 1, 1889:-"Parents and those that shrink from using spectacles should read an original book, 'IS BAD SIGHT ON THE INCREASE?'"

The School Board Chronicle, August 31, 1889:-" Valuable information can be gleaned from its pages."

The Morning Post, July 23. 1889:-"A considerable amount of common sense in Mr. Fournet's arguments."

Printed by EYRE & SPOTTIS WOODE, 196 pp., 15 Stamps, post free. Address


By Author of the Above. Hours, 10 till 7.

Spectacles and Eye-glasses at Civil Service Store Prices.

WEAK AND DEFECTIVE SIGHT.SPECTACLES scientifically adapted to remedy impaired vision by Mr. ACKLAND, Surgeon, daily, at HORNE AND THORNTHWAITE'S, Opticians to the Queen, 416 Strand, London. The weak-sighted should read Ackland's "Hints on Spectacles." 6d., post free.



for the Cure of NERVOUS COMPLAINTS have received Testimonials from three Physicians to Her Majesty the Queen, and over Fifty Members of the Royal College of Physicians of London.

The distressing symptoms of NERVOUS EXHAUSTION, loss of MUSCULAR POWER, RHEUMATISM, SCIATICA, PARALYSIS, EPILEPSY, &c., are speedily removed by means of

PULVERMACHER'S World-famed Galvanic Belts, which convey the electric current direct to the affected parts, gradually stimulating and strengthening all the nerves and muscles, and speedily arresting all symptoms of premature waste and decay.

Dr. VINES, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, writes, September 19, 1885 Having used Mr. PULVERMACHER'S BELTS for many years, in the course of medical practice, I am in a position to speak of their great value as a curative agent in cases of nervous disease or functional malady where Electricity is likely to be serviceable. I am entirely convinced of their efficacy."

Dr. C. HANDFIELD JONES, F.R.C.P., F.R.S.. Physician to St. Mary's Hospital, says: "I am satisfied that Mr. PULVERMACHER is an honest and earnest labourer in the field of science, and I think he deserves to meet with every encouragement from the profession and scientific men."

Sir CHARLES Locock, Bart., M.D., says: "PULVERMACHER'S BELTS are very effective in neuralgia and rheumatic affections, and I have prescribed them largely in my practice for other similar maladies, paralysis, &c. For full Price List and Particulars see new Pamphlet, "GALVANISM: Nature's Chief Restorer of Impaired Vital Energy." Post free from



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