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again dissolve on cooling. This behaviour is very character stic of the acid, the barium salt showing the phenomenon also in a striking manner. It is due to the different amounts of water of crystallization in the salts separating at different temperatures. The chloride of the acid radical, the amide, and the anilide of the acid have also been prepared, and found to resemble the corresponding derivatives of the fatty acids.
THE additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the past week include two Indranee Owls (Syrnium indrance) from Ceylon, presented by Mr. A. R. Lewis; two Lataste's Frogs Rana latasti) from Italy, presented by Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F./.S.; a Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), British, two Moorish Toads (Bufo mauritanica) from North Africa, presented by Mr. Cuthbert Johnson; an Indian White Crane (Grus leucogeranos), two Black-gorgeted Jay Thrushes (Garrulax tectoralis), an Indian Muntjac (Cervulus muntjac 8) from India, deposited; a Pacific Fruit Pigeon (Carpophaga pacifica) from the Solomon Islands, four Madagascar Weaver Birds Feudia madagascariensis, 2 8 29) from Madagascar, six Common Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), European, two Adelaide Parrakeets (Platycercus adelaida) from South Australia, urchased; a Puma (Felis concolor), born in the Gardens.
(1, 2, 3) Although the constellation Virgo is so exceptionally rich in nebula, comparatively few of them have been submitted to spectroscopic examination. Smyth remarks that "the situation of the extraordinary conglomerate of nebule and compressed spherical clusters which crowd the Virgin's left wing and shoulder is pretty well pointed out to the practised naked eye by e, 8, 7, n, and 8 Virginis, forming a semicircle to the east, whilst, due north of the last-mentioned star, 8 Leonis marks the north-west boundary." As it is not possible to give anything like a complete list, three of the brighter ones which have not yet been spectroscopically observed have been selected. No. 1 is the remarkable spiral nebula 99 M Virginis, and is has described in the General Catalogue :-"A very remarkable object; bright; large; round; gradually brighter in the addle; three-branched spiral." No. 2 is 87 M Virginis, and s described as "Very bright; very large; round; much brighter in the middle." No. 3 is described as "Very bright; Onsiderably large; pretty much elongated in a direction about 93; very suddenly much brighter in the middle to a nucleus." It is a remarkable fact that all the nebula in Virgo, which have far been examined, exhibit so-called "continuous" spectra. Arrest observed the nebula G.C. 2930 (84 M Virginis), 2961 (86 M), 3021 (49 M), and Lieutenant Herschel observed G.C. Some of these may be 3021. 3132, 3227, 3229, and 3397. e examined for bright maxima in the continuous spectra. 4 The spectrum of this (Group II.) star is thus described by Duner:-"The bands 2-8 are well marked by strong lines which terminate them on the violet sides, But, with the excepnon of 2 and 3, they are rather narrow, and the spectrum approaches to the type of Aldebaran." The star is obviously at a transition stage between Groups II. and III., and a special etailed study of the lines and bands should be made.
(5, 6) The spectra of these two stars have been observed by Vogel, who states that the first has a spectrum of the solar type, whilst the second is one of Group IV. The usual further observations are required in each case.
(7) Notwithstanding the smail magnitude of this star, it has, according to Vogel, a magnificent spectrum of Group VI. The star is not included in Duner's Catalogue, and Vogel gives no particulars as to the number and character of the bands present. Further detailed observations are obviously required. The intensity of the carbon band near 1564, as compared with the other bands, should be particularly noted.
(8) This variable will reach a maximum about April 27. Its period is about 225 days, and it varies from 7'2-8°2 at maximum to 10 2-128 at minimum. According to Dunér, the spectrum is one of Group II., but very feebly developed. As no details of the spectrum are given, it seems probable that the observation was made near minimum, and the present maximum may afford an opportunity of securing further observations. As in similar variables, bright lines may also be looked for. A. FOWLER. MATHEMATICAL STUDY OF THE SOLAR CORONA.-The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, has published a paper by Prof. Frank H. Bigelow in which the solar corona is discussed by spherical harmonics. The subject is treated by this theory on the supposition that the phenomenon seen is similar to that of free eleectricity, the rays being lines of force and the coronal matter being discharged from the body of the sun, or arranged and controlled by these forces. In order to give the solution a general foundation the important parts of the theory of harmonics specially relating to the case are recapitulated, and the corresponding geometrical solution given in a notation adapted to the sun. An analysis of the lines of force demonstrates the applicability of the formulæ of statical electricity to the coronal structure, hence some repulsive force must exist on the surface of the sun which acts upon the corona according to the laws of electric potential. It is shown how the concentration of potential at each pole throws vertical lines of force at the polar region, which gradually bend each side, and finally close on the equator at a certain distance from the centre. Similarly other lines are traced which leave the sphere at various angles to the vertical axis and have diminished potentials; these therefore close on the equator at a less distance from the centre than the high potential vertical lines thrown out at the polar region.
Applying these electrical principles to the solar corona, the author thinks that the straight polar rays of high tension carry the lightest substances, such as hydrogen, meteoritic matter, débris of comets and other coronal material away from the sun, and they soon become invisible by dispersion. The strong quadrilateral rays which form the appendages conspicuously seen at periods of great solar activity are produced by four lines of force having potential o'9, 08, 0'7, and o6, of the potential at each pole, and the explanation of the long equatorial wings, with absence of well-marked quadrilaterals, seen at periods of minimum, is that they are due to the closing of the lines of force about the equator. The theory is tested by applying it to two photographs taken by Messrs. Barnard and Pickering on January 1, 1889, and Prof. Langley submits it to astronomers and physicists as a possible clue to the explanation of the corona and as sug. gesting the direction to be taken in future observations and investigations.
SOLAR OBSERVATIONS.-The following is the résumé of solar observations made at Rome, by Prof. Tacchini, during the first three months of this year :
de conférences et professeurs, nous y consacrerons notre dévouement, nos efforts: nous avons la confiance que, pour l'honneur de la Science et de la France, nous saurons fidèlement le remplir."
The American Journal of Science, April 1890.-On the æolian sandstones of Fernando de Noronha, by John C. Bran
These sandstones lie upon the eastern or south-eastern sides of the island, at an elevation of 70 feet on Ilha do Meio, 90 feet on São José, and about 100 feet on the Ilha Rapta, and at the base of Atalaia Grande. The author has closely investigated the formation, and finds that the material was originally deposited in the form of sand-dunes blown up by winds from the south or south-east. Analyses of several specimens of the rock are given.-A mountain study of the spectrum of aqueous vapour, by Charles S. Cook. The author has devised a means of producing an artificial line whose intensity can be varied at will alongside the line whose intensity is required. The variations in the blackness of the artificial line are effected by the use of a micrometer screw, the readings of which constitute an arbitrary value of intensities. It is found, (1) that the spectroscope studies vapour height primarily, and humidity only secondarily; (2) during stormy weather vapour ascends to altitudes greater than is usually supposed; (3) the great absorption of storm clouds is due to their great thickness, or to extensive strata of damp air associated with them, more than to any peculiar behaviour as clouds.-On the occurrence of basalt dykes in the Upper Palæozoic series in Central Appalachian Virginia, by Nelson H. Darton; with notes on the petrography, by J. S. Diller. Additional notes on the tryolite from Utah, by W. F. Hillebrand and E. S. Dana. The composition and crystalline form of this mineral are considered.-W. S. Bayley, on the origin of the soda-granite and quartz-keratophyre of Pigeon Point, Minnesota. These rocks have been previously described by the author (Amer. Journ., January 1889). In the present note the reasons are pointed out which lead to the conclusion that the red rock is of contact origin, and produced by the action of the gabbro upon the slate and quartzites.-Frank Waldo, in recent contributions to dynamical meteorology, gives a general idea of the nature of each of fourteen papers on meteorology; most of the papers being by German physicists. The attitude of the writers towards meteorology is also indicated by reference to other work done in the same direction.-Two methods for the direct determination of chlorine in mixtures of alkaline chlorides and iodides, by F. A. Gooch and F. W. Mar.-On the occurrence of polycrase, or of an allied species, in both North and South Carolina, by W. E. Hidden and J. R. Mackintosh. The analyses, so far as they go, show that a mineral previously noticed (Amer. Journ., November 1888) is very closely allied to, if not identical with, the polycrase from Hitteroe, Norway, analyzed by Rammelsberg.-Origin of some topographic features of Central Texas, by Ralph S. Tarr.-On the formation of silver silicate, by J. Dawson Hawkins. A simple method for the preparation of this compound is described. made use of is Na,SiO3 + 2AgNO3 Ag2SiO, + 2NaNO3.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES
Royal Society, April 17.-"Preliminary Note on Supplementary Magnetic Surveys of Special Districts in the British Isles." By A. W. Rücker, M. A., F. R.S., and T. E. Thorpe, Ph.D., B.Sc. (Vict.), F. R.S.
During the summer of 1889 we carried out additional magnetic surveys of the Western Isles and the West Coast of Scotland, and of a tract of country in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. Both districts were selected with special objects in view. had found that powerful horizontal disturbing forces acted westwards from the Sound of Islay, from Iona, and from Tiree, and we had deduced a similar direction for the disturbing force at Glenmorven from Mr. Welsh's survey of Scotland in 1857-58. The whole district presents peculiar difficulties, partly from the fact that local disturbance is likely to mask the effects of the regional forces, partly because the normal values of the elements
must be especially uncertain at stations on the edge of the are of our survey.
If, then, the general westward tendency of the horizontal disturbing forces was due to some source of error, stations in the extreme south of the Hebrides would in all probability be simi larly affected. If the directions of the forces were due to a physical cause, such as a centre of attraction out at sea to the west of Tiree, then the disturbing forces in the Southern Hebrides would almost certainly be directed southwards towards it.
The observations made last summer prove (1) that the direc tion of the disturbing horizontal force at Bernera, which is the southernmost island of the Hebridean group, is due south; and (2) that, as this point is approached from the north, the down ward vertical disturbing attraction on the north pole of the needle regularly increases, which exactly agrees with the sup position that a centre of attraction is being approached.
There is, therefore, now no doubt that there is a centre of attraction on the north pole of the needle to the south of the Hebrides and to the west of Tiree.
(2) In one of the maps communicated to the Society last year we drew two lines, bounding a district about 150 miles long and 40 miles broad, in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, and gave reasons for the belief that a ridge line or locus of attraction lay between them.
This conclusion has now been tested by means of thirty-five additional stations, with the following results :
(1) At all stations (with one exception) on or near the two lines, the horizontal disturbing forces tend towards the centre of the district they bound.
(2) The downward vertical disturbing forces are greater in the centre of the district than at its boundaries. In particular, there are two well-marked regions of very high vertical force.
(3) The greatest vertical force disturbances occur at Market Weighton, where the older sedimentary rocks are known to approach the surface, and at Harrogate, which is on the apex of an anticlinal.
(4) The central ridge line runs from the Wash parallel to the line of the Wolds to Brigg. Thence it appears to turn west, and reaches Market Weighton vid Butterwick and Howden. One or two additional stations are, however, required to determine whether this bend is real, or whether the line runs direct from Brigg to Market Weighton. From the latter town it passes to the limestone district of Yorkshire and traverses its centre. It has not yet been traced west of the line of the Midland Railway between Settle and Hawes, but there is ground for believing that it continues to the Lake District.
Although, therefore, one or two points of detail remain for further investigation, the existence of a line of attraction 150 miles long is proved beyond the possibility of doubt, and for about 90 miles its position is known to within 5 miles.
There are, then, even in those parts of England where the superficial strata are not magnetic, regions of high vertical force comparable in size with small counties, and ridge lines or loci of attraction as long and almost as clearly defined as the rivers. Their course is closely connected with the geology of the districts through which they run.
Royal Meterological Society, April 16.-Mr. Baldwin Latham, President, in the chair. --The following papers were read -The cold period at the beginning of March 1890, by Mr. C. Harding. At the commencement of the month a rather heavy fall of snow was experienced in many parts of England, and very cold weather set in over the midland, eastern, and southern districts, the temperature on the 3rd and 4th falling to a lower point than at any time in the previous winter. The lowest authentic thermometer readings, in approved screens. were 5° at Beddington, 6° at Kenley in Surrey and Hillington in Norfolk, 7° at Chelmsford and Beckenham, 8° at Addiscombe. 9° at Reigate and Brockham, and 10° in many parts of Kent and Surrey. At Greenwich Observatory the thermometer registered 13°, which has only once been equalled in March during the last 100 years, the same reading having occurred on March 14, 1845During the last half century the temperature in March has only previously fallen below 20° in three years, whilst during the whole winter so low a temperature has only occurred in eight years. -Note on the whirlwind which occurred at Fulford, near York, March 8, 1890, by Mr. J. E. Clark. A sharp and heav thunderstorm occurred at York about 2.30 p.m. At the same time. or shortly afterwards, a whirlwind passed a little to the south of the city, from Bishopthorpe to Heslington, a distance of about
4 miles, its width varying from 3 or 4 to 250 yards. The author made a careful survey of the track of the whirlwind, and described the damage done by it to trees, buildings, &c.-On the possibility of forecasting the weather by means of monthly averages, by Mr. A. E. Watson. The author is of opinion that the average values of meteorological phenomena are constant quantities, and that any variation from them is sure to be met by a compensating variation in the opposite direction.
Zoological Society, April 15.-Mr. G. A. Boulenger, in the chair.-Mr. A. Smith-Woodward, read a paper on some new fishes from the English Wealden and Purbeck Beds, referable to Detailed the genera Oligopleurus, Strobilodus, and Mesodon. descriptions of several fossils of these genera, now in the British Museum, were given. Oligopleurus was stated to be represented by a single species in the Wealden of the Isle of Wight, occurring also in the Purbeck of Dorsetshire; and the latter formation had pelded at least one species both of Strobilodus and Mesodon. Previous researches had already indicated a close connection between the fish-fauna of the English Purbeck Beds and that of the Upper Jurassic Lithographic Stones of France, Bavaria, and Wartemberg; and the new forms now described tended to demonstrate that alliance even more clearly.-Mr. G. A. Boulenger read the second of a series of reports on the additions to the Harachian Collection in the Natural History Museum. Since 1556, when the first report was made on this subject, examples of 74 additional species of Batrachians had been acquired. Amongst these was a remarkable new form allied to the family Engystomatida, proposed to be called Genyophryne thomsoni, Lased on a single specimen obtained by Mr. Basil Thomson on Sudest Island, near South-East New Guinea. The form was stated to be unique in having teeth in the lower, but none in the upper jaw.-Mr. Frank E. Beddard read a paper on the structure of Pophia, and on its relations to other birds. The author was adlined to consider Psophia most nearly allied to Cariama and Change, and more distantly to Rhinochetus, but entitled to stand as a distinct family in the group of Cranes and their allies.-Mr. Henry Seebohm gave an account of a collection of birds from the northern part of the province of Fokien, South-Eastern China. Several interesting species were represented in the series, mongst which was a new Hemixos, proposed to be called H. canipennis.
Linnean Society, April 3.-Mr. Carruthers, F. R.S, President, in the chair.-Prof. P. Martin Duncan exhibited a transverse section of a coral, Caryophyllia clavus, showing septa and irregular theca between them.-Mr. B. D. Jackson exhibited some seeds of Mystacidium filicornu, an epiphytic Orchid forwarded from South Africa by Mr. Henry Hutton, of Kimberly.A paper by Prof. W. H. Parker, on the morphology of the Gallinacea, in the unavoidable absence of the author was read by Mr. W. P. Sladen; and a discussion followed, in which Dr. St. George Mivart, Prof. Duncan, and Mr. J. E. Harting took PARIS.
Academy of Sciences, April 14.-M. Hertnite, President, in the chair. On the theory of the optical system formed by a telescope and a plane mirror movable about an axis, by MM. LEWY and Puiseux. One of the problems studied is to deterBune the exact co-ordinates of a star with a telescope and a lane mirror placed in front of the object-glass. On the elements of peritoneal serum, by M. L. Ranvier. The humour was obtained from the domestic rabbit, the rat (Mus decumanus), and the cat. Microscopical examination of the preparations showed the presence of red globules of blood (hæmatics) whatever precations were taken. It is therefore considered as a normal clement, physiological, not accidental, of peritoneal serum. Colourless spherical lymphatic cells, having dimensions from 20μ to 100%, are also described; the volume, structure, and reactions of these cells from the three animals, however, is found to vary. On the artificial production of silk, by M. Emile Blanshard. — Résumé of solar observations made at the Royal Observalory of the College of Rome during the first three months of the year 1890, by M. P. Tacchini.-Observations of sun-spots tade in 1889 at the Lyons Observatory, by M. Em. Marchand. The first three months of this year are also included in the list. Tables are given showing the number of days without spots, the duration and latitude of spots, and their mean total surface (umbra alui penumbra) expressed in millionths of the sun's visible surface. -Approximate rectification of an arc of a curve, by M. A. E. Jellet-Construction for the radius of curvature of symmetrical
triangular curves, of plane anharmonic curves, and of asymptotic lines of Steiner's surface, by M. G. Fouret.-A paper by M. A. Ditte, on the action of nitric acid on aluminium, shows that this acid acts upon aluminium in much the same way as sulphuric acid. The slowness of the reaction is due to the formation of a protecting covering of gas. As in the case of zinc, when weak nitric acid is employed the gases produced consist of nitric oxide and nitrogen, together with some ammonia ; with 3 per cent. acid in presence of a little platinum chloride, ammonia is almost the sole product. Just as with the sulphate, the nitrate forms with aluminium in presence of water a basic nitrate with liberation of hydrogen.-On the preparation of hydrobromic acid, by M. A. Recoura. The author passes a stream of HS through bromine, and washes the gaseous HBr produced by passing it through a solution of HBr containing a little red phosphorus in suspension. The method admits of the production of gaseous HBr at any desired rate, and without the necessity of the continual watching required by the methods formerly employed. On the oxidation of hypophosphorous acid by hydrogenized palladium in the absence of oxygen, by M. R. Engel. In the precipitation of palladium by hypophosphorous acid according to the method followed by Wurtz and Graham, the author finds that the product, contrary to the statements of those investigators, contains hydrogen. The spongy palladium produced decomposes an unlimited quantity of phos phorous acid, hydrogen being evolved.-M. P. Cazeneuve contributes a paper on the oxidizing and decolorizing properacids, shows that the separation of several acids is poss.b.e ties of charcoal.-M. E. Jungfleisch, in a note on camphoric when advantage is taken of their differing solubilities.-A the acid malonate, the quadromalonate, and the quadroxalate of potassium, by M. G. Massol, gives the thermal properties of these salts, and an analysis of the quadromalonate.-M. L. Lindet describes a method for the extraction of raffinose from molasses, and for the separation of raffinose from saccharose, the separation depending upon the greater solubility of raffinose in absolute methyl alcohol, and its much. inferior solubility in 80 per cent. ethyl alcohol, as compared with the solubility in each medium of saccharose.-On a pseudotyphoid bacillus found in river water by M. Cassederat. The author has found in Marseilles drinking-water a bacillus having a great resemblance to that of typhoid fever. The investigations, so far as they have gone, seem to fully establish the identity of the two bacilli.-On the microbes of hæmoglobinuria of the bull, by M. V. Babes. An examination of the character of this organism shows that it has no well-established place in the clas sification of microbes, and that the conditions of culture are not yet well determined. Nevertheless, its special reactions, its localization in the red globules, and its transmissibility to animals, leave no room for doubt as to its pathological significance.-Nutrition in hysteria, by MM. Gilles de la Tourette and H. Cathelineau. It is noted that in hysteria, notwithstanding nervous pathological manifestations other than permanent affections, nutrition is effected normally.-On operation for strabismus without tenotomy, by M. H. Parinaud.-On the function of air in the physiological mechanism of hatching, sloughing, and metamorphosis among Orthopterous insects of the family Acridides, by M. J. Kunckel d'Herculais. -On a new Lycopodium of the Coal-measures (Lycopodiopsis Derbyi), by M. B. Renault.-Pebble impressions, by M. Ch. Contejean. The paper refers to Tertiary pudding-stones found near Montbéliard.
Physiological Society, March 28.-Prof. du Bois-Reymond, President, in the chair.-Prof. Salkowski spoke on fermentative processes which occur in animal tissues, employing chloroformwater to discriminate between the action of ferments (organized) and enzymes (unorganized). He had thus found that a fermentation (zymolysis) occurs in yeast-cells, by which their cellulose is partly converted into a lævo rotatory sugar and the nuclein into substances of the xanthin series. He had further isolated from yeast-cells, apart from their cellulose, two other carbohydrates, one belonging to the gum series and one resembling glycogen ; either of these might have been the source of the abovementioned sugar. In a similar way he had studied the fermentative changes which take place in liver and muscle, and found them to yield a series of distinct products which could be determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. He concluded from his researches that fermentative (zymolytic) processes are continually taking place in living tissues, and play a most
important part in the chemistry of their metabolism.-Dr. Rosenberg demonstrated a new reaction of uric acid. urine is made faintly alkaline, it yields a dark blue colouration on the addition of phosphotungstic acid, which he had satisfied himself was due to the presence of uric acid alone among the other constituents of the excretion.-Dr. Goldscheider gave an account of some experiments which he had made some five years ago, to show that the principle of "specific nerve energy" holds good for the sense of taste. By isolated stimulation of separate taste-papillæ he succeeded in showing that there exist, in all, four kinds or qualities of taste-sour, sweet, bitter, and salt; and that specific end-organs exist for each kind of taste. By electrical stimulation there arises at the anode not only the sensation of sour, but also of bitter and sweet; at the kathode purely sensory impulses are aroused in addition to the gustatory, and to the fusion of these two is due the "alkaline" taste of which some authors speak. It appeared from his researches that the hard palate contained end-organs chiefly for the perception of sweet tastes.Dr. I. Munk spoke on muscular work and nitrogenous metabolism. He criticized the recent work of Argutinsky, according to which the work done in climbing a mountain, and the heat produced, are the outcome of a breaking down of nitrogenous material. Having recalculated Argutinsky's results, he came to the conclusion that (1) his body was not in nitrogenous equilibrium even during rest; (2) the amount of carbohydrate which he took was insufficient to account for the heat-production during rest. As is well known, both these factors lead to an increased nitrogenous metabolism when extra work is done, the energy required for the excess of work being obtained from the breaking down of proteids; hence no conclusions as to what normally takes place can be drawn from Argutinsky's experiments. He further pointed out that Oppenheim's experiments have shown that dyspnoea leads to increased nitrogenous metabolism, and that hence dyspnoea may very probably have played some part during the exertion of excessive climbing. While not doubting the accuracy of the experiments, he did not feel that the conclusions which Argutinsky had drawn from them were justifiable.
Royal Society of Sciences, Oct. 15, 1889.-On the granular pigments occurring in man, by Dr. F. Maas. Two chemically distinct groups of pigments occur: (1) melanin, (2) the granular colouring matters here referred to. The latter are found at all periods of life, but increase in quantity and in the size of the granules with age. They are normal products, not morbid. They are not only transformed but produced by the corpusclecarrying cells. They are not wholly derived from the blood : the pigment found in the heart is derived from a fatty body. The several pigments can be distinguished by their reactions with hydrochloric and acetic acids, and with caustic potash.-On the analogue of Kummer's surface for p = 3, by W. Wirtinger. The author investigates the continuum obtained by taking, as the eight homogeneous point-co-ordinates of a 7-dimension space, eight linearly independent squares of theta-functions of three variables. It appears that this possesses collineations analogous to the system for Kummer's surface, as also the corresponding system of reciprocal transformations into itself.
October 23, 1889.-Determination of the elastic constants of Iceland spar, by W. Voigt. The author uses the refraction observations of G. Baumgarten, and gives elaborate tables of his own measurements. He discusses the property of spar by which the crystal can be forced by shearing into its twin form, and gives diagrams illustrating the changes in the traction and torsion coefficients.-Determination of the elastic constants of certain dense minerals, by W. Voigt and P. Drude. The minerals are dense fluor spar, Solenhofen stone, and dense barytes.
December 3, 1889.-On thermo-electric currents in crystals, by Th. Liebisch. The author confirms some of Backstrom's results, and finds that, in a rectangular parallelepiped of homogeneous conducting crystal of the triclinic system, embedded in homogeneous isotropic "normal" metal, "the thermo-electric force in the direction of the steepest temperature gradient is represented by the squared reciprocal of the parallel radius vector of a certain ellipsoid E."-On contrast-phenomena resulting from suspended attention, by Dr. F. Schumann. Psycho-physical experiments on the estimation of short periods of time, &c.
December 25, 1889.-On the fertilization of the ova of Agelastica alni, L., by Dr. H. Henking. In this insect it is observed that
in ova taken from the oviducts a number of spermatozoa pene trate deeply among the yolk-masses as far as the level of the female pronucleus. Peculiar karyokinetic appearances are described. Contribution to the theory of the even Abelian sigma-function of three arguments, by Ernst Pascal. This is a continuation of the author's previous work on the odd sigma function. The terms of the developments are combinants of a net of quaternary quadratic forms.-On a hyperelliptic multi. plication equation, by H. Burkhardt. This equation for hyperelliptic functions (2) is the generalisation of Jacobi's equation for elliptic functions.
Royal Academy of Sciences, March 29.-Prof. van der Waals, Vice-President, in the chair.-M. H. A. Lorentz dealt with the molecular theory of diluted solutions. He showed how the known formula for the vapour-pressure of such solutions may be derived from considerations on molecular motion and attrac tion, and how a similar theory applies to a conceivable mechanism of osmotic pressure.-M. Baehr gave some observations on the points of inflexion, unless the ellipsoid be not a central one.-M. herpolhodie of Poinsot, and explained that this cannot have any Pekelharing spoke of "the destruction of anthrax spores by
Royal Academy of Sciences, April 9.-On the researches in zoology made at the Zoological Station of the Academy during 1889, by Prof. S. Lovén. -On the possibility of the triangulation of Spitzbergen, by Prof. Rosén.-An analysis of the liquid inclosures in topaz, or the so-called Brewsterlinite, by Otto Nordenskiöld.-On the use of invariants and seminvariants for the solution of common algebraic equations of the four lowest degrees, by Dr. A. Bergen.-On the structure of the fruit-wall in the Labiate, by Miss A. Olbers.-Some researches on accidental double refraction of gelatinous substances, by Dr. G. Bjerken. On the action of iodohydric acid on 1-5 nitronaphthalin-sulphon-acid-amid, by A. Ekbom.
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.
THURSDAY, APRIL 24.
ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-On a Pneumatic Analogue of the Wheatstone
ROYAL INSTITUTION. at 3.-The Heat of the Moon and Stars (The
FRIDAY, APRIL 25.
AMATEUR SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY, at 8.-Stigmaria ficoides of the Coalmeasures: J. W. Hill.
INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, at 7.30.-Some Applications of Elec-
ROTAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Shapes of Leaves and Cotyledons:
SATURDAY, APRIL 26.
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 30.
GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On certain Physical Phenomena exhibited
ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.
THURSDAY, MAY 1.
ANNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Quantitative Examination of Water-meadow
CHEMICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-The Conditions under which Hydrogen
TITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, at 7.30.-Inaugural Address:
VAL INSTITUTION, at 1.30.-Annual Meeting. At 3.-The Heat of the
FRIDAY, MAY 2.
GLOGISTS' ASSOCIATION, at 8.
ROTAL INSTITUTION, at 9.-Théophile Gautier : Walter H. Pollock.
SATURDAY, MAY 3.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3-Colour and its Chemical Action: Captain W. de W. Abney, R. E., C.B., F.R.S.
New Edition of Watts' Chemistry.
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CALVER'S well-known TELESCOPES received the Highest Award for "Excellence and Improvements " at the International Exhibition, London. Catalogues and Testimonials, 15.-G. CALVER, F.R.A.S., Widford, Chelmsford.
for the Cure of NERVOUS COMPLAINTS have received Testimonials from three
The distressing symptoms of NERVOUS EXHAUSTION, loss of MUSCULAR POWER, RHEUMATISM, SCIATICA, PARALYSIS, EPILEPSY, &c., are speedily removed by means of
PULVERMACHER'S World-famed Galvanic Belts,
DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY. which convey the electric current direct to the affected parts, gradually
stimulating and strengthening all the nerves and muscles, and speedily arresting all symptoms of premature waste and decay.
Dr. VINES, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, writes, September 19, 1885 Having used Mr. PULVERMACHER'S BELTS for many years, in the course of medical practice, I am in a position to speak of their great value as a curative agent in cases of nervous disease or functional malady where Electricity is likely to be serviceable. I am entirely convinced of their efficacy."
Dr. C. HANDFIELD JONES, F.R.C.P., F.R.S. Physician to St. Mary's Hospital, says :-"I am satisfied that Mr. PULVERMACHER is an honest and earnest labourer in the field of science, and I think he deserves to meet with every encouragement from the profession and scientific men."
Sir CHARLES Locock, Bart., M.D., says :-"PULVERMACHER'S BELTS are very effective in neuralgia and rheumatic affections, and I have prescribed them largely in my practice for other similar maladies, paralysis, &c.' For full Price List and Particulars see new Pamphlet, "GALVANISM: Nature's Chief Restorer of Impaired Vital Energy." Post free from
194 REGENT STREET, LONDON, W. ESTABLIShed over FORTY YEARS.