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Imperial decree blessing the Boxers with faint blame, and giving all men to understand that no reliance could be placed upon the Government of Pekin. A show, however, was made of showing a stern front towards the Boxers, and General Nieh was ordered to take some troops and disperse the Boxers who had fastened upon the railway line from Pekin, destroying it to within thirty miles of Tientsin. General Nieh went up by train to Lofa, where he dispersed and killed some of the Boxers, but soon abandoned the attempt as hopeless. From that day the Boxers appear to have kept undisputed possession of the northern half of the Tientsin-Pekin line.
-BUT REALLY APPROVED.
There appears to be no doubt that the Empress really approved of the movement. A secret order is said by the Tientsin correspondent of the Hong Kong Telegraph to have been addressed, about three months ago, to the Governor of Shan-tung :
In reply to the Governor of Shan-tung, who reports that he has found it necessary to repress the Patriotic Boxer Society with a strong and heavy hand, we remark that it cannot be expected that such a simple people can know that they have done anything amiss. If the strong hand is manifest, will there not be a permanent grudge against the Governor? We assure the Governor that if future trouble arise he himself must bear the consequences. Let the good people be dealt with in a merciful and generous way, to the benefit of all.
THE SPREAD OF THE MOVEMENT.
On June 8th the American missionaries fled to Pekin, leaving their college at Tung-Chan to be pillaged and burnt. This punctually took place next day, and was accompanied by the massacre of some seventy-five Chinese converts to Christianity. In many other districts in China the missionaries began to flock to the treaty ports, where they could at least feel secure against massacre. From the West River they began to pour down to Canton and Hong Kong. From the districts in the Yang-tseKiang valley they came flocking to Shanghai. One hundred and fifty American and British missionaries assembled at Chefoo; fifty French missionaries came down to the mouth of the Yellow River. Everywhere there was anxiety and alarm. Hung Chang in vain asserted his authority to dispel panic in Canton. The Viceroys in the Yang-tse-Kiang valley declared that they could answer for order; but the merchants in the river trembled before the mere report that an emissary from the palace was coming to raise the cry," Death to the devils-death!" In China there are between 10,000 and 15,000 Europeans, of whom 5,000 are British and 2,000 American. The majority of these are in the treaty ports, and therefore comparatively safe. But all who lived inland felt that they were in peril of their lives, and under the shadow of that great dread began the great trek to the sea.
THE MASK THROWN OFF.
June 9th appears to have been the decisive date. On that day the Empress with the Emperor in her train returned to Pekin. The Tsung-li
Yamen was strengthened by the addition of four pure Manchus, while Tuan, the father of the Heir to the throne and a notorious patron of the Boxers, was made president in the place of Prince Ching. From that moment the die seems to have been cast. Ministers arrayed themselves behind the Boxers. The Empress and her
Events followed each other in quick succession. Telegraphic railway communication had been severed between Pekin and Tientsin for some days. The Siberian wire, however, still afforded the Ministers at the Chinese capital a means of communicating with the outer world. The small force that had been sent up to Pekin on May 31st to protect the Legations was felt to be inadequate for the protection of the European residents.
ADMIRAL SEYMOUR'S RELIEF EXPEDITION.
Admiral Seymour got together a relief command of 2,000 men: British, 915; German, 350; Russian, 300; French, 158; American, 104; Japanese, 52; Italian, 40; Austrian, 25, and started by rail on June 10th. distance is covered in a day if the railway is open, and The the little column only took one week's rations and 150 cartridges per man. For the first eighteen miles, as far as Yang-tsun, the line was practically uninjured. Beyond Yang-tsun the trains had to creep warily along, for it was evident that the Boxers had made various attempts to destroy bridges and damage the line. deserted. The country was The railway was repaired as rapidly as possible, but the progress was slow, and it was not till late at night that the little army steamed into the station at Lofa.
Next morning, the 11th, the advance was resumed. But the Boxers had done their work much more thoroughly, and by nightfall Admiral Seymour was only three miles nearer Pekin than in the morning. The Boxers had attacked the working party and had to be
A View of Tientsin,
driven off by the marines. In this first skirmish the Boxers lost some two score killed and wounded. It was hoped the lesson would lead them to abandon the attempt to block the line. It did no such thing. Next day the Admiral's little force succeeded in forging ahead till it reached Lang-fung, the midway station between Pekin and Tientsin. There it halted.
A CHINESE ST. BARTHOLOMEW.
Threatened by the advance of a hostile army to their capital, the Chinese dealt their counter-stroke. The same night on which Admiral Seymour had encamped at Lang-fung, a storm of popular fury burst out in the city of Pekin. Some of the finest buildings in the eastern part of the city, including the Roman Catholic Cathedral and the large premises of the London Missionary Society and the American Board of Missions, as well as those occupied by the employés of Sir Robert Hart, were burnt to the ground. Hundreds of native Christians and servants employed by foreigners were massacred by the mob. The Chinese troops do not seem to have made even a pretence of opposing the popular frenzy. From that moment it may be said of the Chinese soldiers that they are all Boxers now. The Chinese St. Bartholomew marks the definite acceptance by the Chinese Government of the gauge of battle hurled at them by the West.
THE EMPRESS'S COUNTER STROKE. :
The Empress did not lose any time. The troops under her favourite General Tung-fuh-siang, a man famous for the ruthlessness with which he suppressed the Moslem rebellion in the Western Provinces, were placed in battle array to resist the advance of Admiral Seymour upon Pekin. She then organized a counter attack. The Boxers cut the railway line twenty miles behind Admiral Seymour, severing his communications with his base, which itself became the object of a fierce attack by a large force of Chinese troops well supplied with heavy artillery.
On June 11th the telegraph from Pekin to Siberia was cut, and all means of communicating with the Legations was lost. On the 15th Tientsin, which was held by a foreign garrison of 3,000, was also cut off from communication with the outer world. The Boxers attacked the European quarters, and the garrison, which was but scantily supplied with munitions of war, stood at bay.
Meantime in the far south of China similar disturbances broke out, the French and British missionary stations in Yunnan were destroyed, and the French Resident was made prisoner.
THE CAPTURE OF THE TAKU FORTS.
News reached the international flotilla at Taku that a determined attempt would be made to close the mouth of the Peiho against the foreigner. On the 16th an ultimatum was despatched to the Chinese officer in command, insisting upon the immediate disbandment of the troops which were being massed at Taku. A mixed force of 1,200 men was landed to take the forts in the rear. The ultimatum was to expire at two o'clock on the morning of the 17th, but at 12.50 the Chinese took the initiative by opening fire upon the gunboats in the harbour. A fierce conflict ensued. For six hours the firing was incessant. The allied force under Russian command consisted entirely of gunboats, sloops, and torpedo-destroyers. The larger ships could not approach near enough to fire with effect. The Russians, who had three gunboats, appear to have borne the brunt of the fighting. The French and Germans had one gunboat each; the British had one sloop and two torpedo-destroyers. Two of the forts were blown up;
the others were attacked and stormed from the land side. Two of the Russian gunboats were seriously injured. The allies lost 120 men killed and wounded, of whom eighty-seven were Russians. The slaughter of the Chinese was terrible; over 1,000 corpses were collected by the victors and burnt. The forts were charnel-houses reeking with blood. The Taku forts passed for the second time into the hands of the foreign devils.
Meanwhile Admiral Seymour was hard pressed. His rations were only calculated to last him till the 17th. He was confronted by an overwhelming force of Chinese troops, which barred all access to Pekin. Tientsin in his rear was besieged by an army of 10,000 men with quickfiring guns and heavy artillery. On the 16th he decided to fall back on Yang-tsan.
On the 19th, when the news of the capture of the Taku forts reached Pekin, twenty-four hours' notice was given to the Foreign Ministers to clear out. Where they were to go, and in what direction, did not exactly appear.
THE MUSTERING OF THE WHITE MEN.
On the 20th a message was despatched from Tientsin saying that the need for reinforcements was urgent. Supplies were running short, and the Chinese kept up an incessant fire with heavy guns. The Powers were hurrying up all available forces from every direction. On the 18th it was calculated that the Russians had 2,500 men at Taku, the British 1,000, and the Germans 1,300. The Japanese were hurrying up 2,000 men. The French had only 2,000 men in Chinese waters. They made haste to despatch 2,000 more. Germany got ready reinforcements of 2,800 marines. Britain gave orders for the despatch of 10,000 troops from India. The Tsar ordered his army in Eastern Siberia to be put on a war footing. For the immediate relief of Tientsin an army of 8,000 troops, of whom 1,300 were Germans, was despatched from Taku, and Europe waited in suspense to hear the news of its fate.
THE RELIEF OF TIENTSIN.
Not till the 26th was the welcome news received that the relief column entered Tientsin on the 23rd. It appears to have been under the command of the Russian General Stössel, who had with him a small contingent of American and Japanese soldiers. Another report says that the force was under the command of a Japanese general, and that the British Naval Brigade led the van.
Admiral Seymour was reported to be at Peitsang, nine miles north of Tientsin. Heavy firing was heard. was known to be short of food and encumbered with sick. Sixty-two of his gallant force had been killed. After another day of terrible suspense, the welcome news came to hand that on the night of the 25th a Russian detachment of four companies, with an equal number of allies, had succeeded in reaching Admiral Seymour and brought his wounded back to Tientsin. The honour of his relief is claimed by the British under Colonel Durward. There is some danger lest international rivalry may mar the fruits of the international alliance.
THE REVOLT SPREADING.
The situation, although the immediate tension was relieved, continued to be formidable in the extreme. Admiral Seymour had failed to reach Pekin. The Chinese counter-attack on Tientsin had been beaten off, but the Legations, with all the European residents, were at the mercy of the Chinese authorities, whose armed forces were estimated at 60,000 men. It would be weeks before the Indian contingent could arrive. The Japanese were hurrying up 13,000, and the Russians were sending on all the men they could spare. The need for troops, however, increased daily. The Boxers threatened
Neu Chwang, and destroyed the military school at Mukden. More massacres of missionaries were reported from the interior. More appalling than the slaughter of the few missionaries were the reports reaching the coast of horrible massacres committed upon their unfortunate converts. The Protestant Mission station at Kwei-hsien was burned down on the very night Admiral Seymour was relieved. The Boxers burnt down the city of Wa-hsiou, three days' march from the British fortress of Wei-Hai-Wei. From all the great rivers fugitives came streaming into the seaports. Trade was at a standstill. Scores of thousands of Chinese labourers suddenly found themselves thrown out of work. In Hong Kong and at Shanghai all thought of business, or of anything save self-defence, was abandoned. And at this point, with panic on the coast and massacre in the interior, the curtain falls for the moment.
A pretty commentary upon the plum-cake theory upon which the Kaiser was so keen to act.
THE SLUMBERING KRAKEN.
The mariners in the old legend who disembarked upon the back of a monstrous kraken, mistaking it for an island, were very comfortable for a while. But when they proceeded to light a fire upon their island, the heat woke the slumbering monster, and their "island" suddenly disappeared, leaving them floundering in the waves. It is even so with the white men in China.
III. THE OUTLOOK.
The question of what is to happen now depends chiefly upon whether the present revolt is really Chinese or only Manchu. If it is only confined to the Manchus, and the great mass of the Chinese are indifferent, the Empress may be dethroned, Pekin occupied, and everything may go on pretty much as before. But if, as seems not improbable from the widespread nature of the rising, the Chinese masses have decided that the hour has come to kill out the foreign devils once for all, anything may happen. The Chinese stood to their guns under the hail of modern explosives at the Taku forts. They appear to be armed with good artillery, and they are not likely to want for cartridges. Admiral Seymour reports: Boxers (?) when defeated in one village retiring on next, and skilfully retarding advance by occupying well-selected positions from which they had to be forced often at point of bayonet in face of galling fire difficult to locate." The Boxer, it would seem, is not unlike his brother the Boer. They are not likely to stand up in pitched battle against the allied forces. If they do they will be defeated. But the assumption that, because we can defeat them in a pitched battle and take their capital, we can settle the question, is a fallacy which our South African experience should be sufficient to dispel.
the best regular troops equipped with breechloading rifles if the country is at all difficult, and if the men with the spears and the swords outnumber their foe by ten to one. If this is the case when men are armed with spears and swords, it will be much truer when those men are themselves armed with breechloaders. China should never engage in pitched battles; her strength is in quick movements, in cutting off trains of baggage and in night attacks not pushed home-in a continuous worrying of her enemies.-Boulger's "Life of Gordon," Vol. II., P. 52.
There is the probability that a proud people like the Chinese may sicken at this continual eating of humble pie, that the Pekin Government at some time, by skirting too closely the precipice of war, may fall into it, and then that the sequence may be anarchy and rebellion throughout the Middle Kingdom, which may last for years and cause endless misery.
That was Gordon's prognostic. And a is. Gordon was Chinese Gordon, not regarded the Manchu dynasty as doomed.
gloomy one it Manchu. He He wrote:
If I were the Government I would consider the part that should be taken when the inevitable fall of the Manchu dynasty takes place, what steps they would take, and how they would act in the break-up, which, however, will only end in a fresh cohesion of China, for neither we, nor any other power, could ever for long hold the country. At Penang, Singapore, etc., the Chinese will eventually oust us in another generation.
That was Gordon's deliberate judgment. Neither we nor any other Power can ever hold China. Against this, of course, we shall have the confident assurances of the Anglo-Chinese merchants. But as to their vaticinations Gordon also had a word of warning. He said ::
As for the European population in China, write them down as identical with Europe in all affairs. Their sole idea is, without any distinction of nationality, an increased power over China for their own trade, and for opening up the country as they call it, and any war would be popular with them; so they will egg on any Power to make it.
WHAT IS TO BE DONE?
What then is to be done? As little as possible. Stand shoulder to shoulder with Russia, whose Tsar loathes the very idea of undertaking fresh responsibilities in China. Keep the Concert together on the basis of no conquest, and let Japan clearly understand that there to be no disturbance of the general peace for the gratification of Japanese ambitions. Above all, let our aim be to leave the Chinese as much alone as possible to manage their own affairs in their own way. More than that it is at present impossible to say.
V.-And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat, and no man gave unto him. And he said, "I will arise and go to my father."
VI.-When his father saw him he had compassion on him, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. THE STORY OF THE PRODIGAL: BY MURILLO.
PICTURES FOR SUNDAY
Sunday school give us some pictures for our
"I'll try. What do you say to Portfolio No. 2 ?" Portfolio No. 1 has been sold out and reprinted. But fine art collotype pictures like "The Golden Stairs" cannot be printed off as rapidly as the sheets of a daily paper. To produce a portfolio time is essential. I hope, therefore, that impatient correspondents will excuse the unavoidable delay now that their orders have at length been executed. Those who want No. 2 had better order it immediately.
No. 2 is an attempt to meet the demand for pictures that will help to relieve the bare walls of the Sundayschool class-room, the mission-room, and other buildings devoted to the teaching of religion. I am necessarily restricted by the price to reproduction in black and white-the more's the pity. I was in Christ Church Cathedral at Oxford last month, and as I sat under the ministry of Burne-Jones's windows I could not help longing that every church and every chapel and every Sunday-school in the land could place at the disposal of its attendants the same soothing and inspiring influence of beauty, grace, and colour. That, however, is, alas! impossible. Not even Mr. Carnegie, that modern Croesus, could meet the expenditure that would be involved in putting "storied windows richly dight" with the masterpieces of Burne-Jones's brush in every place of worship in the land. But because we cannot do everything that is no reason why we should not do something; and although it is a far cry from a Burne-Jones's window to a shilling portfolio, I venture to hope that those who have enjoyed and profited by the former may not despise the latter. Its contents will at least do something to relieve the flat monotony of plastered wall.
OUR SECOND PORTFOLIO: RAPHAEL AND MURILLO.
THE IMPORTANCE OF EYEGATE.
It is an old text on which I have inflicted many a sermon upon the readers of this REVIEW-the Importance of Eyegate as an entrance to the Soul of Man. We Protestants rely far too exclusively upon Eargate. Because pictures abound in Roman Catholic churches, therefore we must make our sacred edifices as bare as a barn, and as hideous as whitewash can make them. Such was the Puritan reaction. Puritanism is one of the best things the world has ever seen. But it is unjust to Puritanism to saddle it with an antipathy to pictures. Idolatrous pictures no doubt it hates as the Moslem hates sculpture. But no poet ever revelled more in the ory and the beauty of art than the Puritan Milton. We have no more right to rob our children and our children's children for ever and ever and evermore of the privilege and the joy of seeing pictures on the wall of schoolTom and church because some people made an idol of art Centuries ago, than we have to starve the scholars in our Board schools year after year because of the gluttony
ich some schools indulged in twenty years ago at a scool treat. To-day everything that succeeds is
strated. Magazines without pictures are magazines without circulation. Newspapers find it more and more cessary to employ the pencil as well as the pen in pealing to the multitude. Eyegate can no longer be glected. Those who will not illustrate what they want teach will have no scholars. A school without pictures
is a school without windows. Pictures let in the light of another and a different world.
SOME PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.
Those who, like myself, have had the unspeakable privilege of an actual compulsory sojourn in a convict prison can testify to the hunger of the eyes for something more human and more beautiful than the stone wall, the barred skylight, and the locked door. The Russians in this, as in many other things, are more humane than the English. A Russian prison chapel is ablaze with colour. The walls glow with pictures, and the convicts have at least the consolation of once a day coming out of their grey grim cells into the light and glory of a radiant art consecrated to the service of religion. The contrast between the St. Petersburg prison chapel and the chapels of Coldbath-in-the-Fields and Holloway impressed me very much.
There is the same contrast, to a greater or less extent, between the churches and class-rooms of the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. I am well aware that to many good people nothing can prejudice my plea for pictures more than this reference to the practice of Romanists. But descending to the level of such critics, may I remind them that the famous maxim that there is no reason why the devil should have all the best tunes, expresses a sound principle which may equally well be applied to pictures. Why should the staunch Protestant give the Papist a monopoly of pictures? There is nothing papistical in a picture per se. Fas est et ab hoste doceri. It is not only lawful but wise to take lessons from the enemy. And the wise man, instead of confounding all pictures in Sunday-schools with the anathema hurled against the Scarlet Woman of Babylon, will carefully utilize all that is good in pictures in the mural decoration of school-rooms and mission-rooms, and only avoid that which is evil.
A CONCESSION TO PREJUDICES. These considerations led me to select as the subject for my second Portfolio a series of pictures suitable for the decoration of the walls of Sunday-schools, class-rooms, and mission-rooms. As a concession to Protestant prejudices, I have made no attempt to embody in my series of pictures the leading events in the Evangelical story. From one point of view the Sunday School Portfolio should have contained pictures of the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Baptism, the Transfiguration, the Lord's Supper, the Crucifixion, and the Ascension. But the best artists who have treated these subjects are not Protestants, and these themes form the common stock-in-trade, so to speak, of the decorators of every papistical conventicle. "To make visible the story that transformed the world, men carved it in stone and built it in the cathedral, and then, lest even the light of Heaven should come to the eye of man without bearing with it the Story of the Cross, they filled their church windows with stained glass, so that the sun should not shine without throwing into higher relief the leading features of the wonder-working epic of His life and death." But this method of enforcing the salient features of the Evangelical story upon the multitude has, in the minds of many, almost come to have a Romanist taint. Therefore I have adopted another line.