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OTHER ARTICLES.

Hezekiah Butterworth remarks on "the old age of New England authors," and quotes one of them who said :

A literary life, without dissipations or selfish competitions and ambitions, tends to extreme old age. It is not difficult to explain why this is so. Nothing brings contentment like creative work, and a life for influence and contentment is true life.

There are two social articles. "Making a Way out of the Slum" is a title given to Mr. Jacob A. Riis' description of the Hirsch Colony at Woodbine, which is successfully transforming Russian Jews into contented agriculturists. Lillian W. Betts tells the working of a women's "town and country club," originated by a New York settlement. It has given tenement families not only a closer reciprocal life, but through its country home, and family holidays arranged at different times, it has also supplied the element of rural recreation.

THE NATIONAL REVIEW.

THE December number is distinctly alive and actual. "Young England's" cry for a New Fourth Party will probably make most stir. Mr. Reeves's record of "The State as Moneylender at the Antipodes " may be found to contribute more material progress. These, along with Mr. Boscawen's and Dr. Maguire's indictment of our military “system,” claim separate notice.

ENGLISH JUDGESHIPS PARTY PRIZES!

A writer signing himself " E," after an admiring tribute to the unimpeachable impartiality of Her Majesty's judges, goes on to lament that judgeships are almost exclusively given as a reward for Party services, and lie as much in the hands of the "Whips" as the Chancellor's. As a consequence our judges are declared to be very defective in legal erudition: "The ordinary judge, from the Lords downwards, would be puzzled by even such a ludicrous test as the solicitors' final examination." Of our present Bench, "some of its judges are destitute of all but a slight smattering of legal knowledge; others are acquainted with the Annual Practice' and a textbook or two." If this be so the writer may well exclaim, "The system is essentially rotten." This is the cure he recommends :

The remedy, therefore, must be drastic and speedy. The only sure and effectual way to deal with this anomalous evil is to take away the legal patronage from the Lord Chancellor and place it in other hands. And whose? Well, I would tentatively suggest that a committee of judges and barristers should be appointed for the express purpose of nominating the highest and lowest judicial officers for the consideration of the Crown. If this were done, the canker of Party politics would cease to gnaw at the effective administration of the law.

GERMAN AND ENGLISH CHILDREN COMPARED.

Miss Catharine Dodd compares German and English school-children on the strength of 196 German and 600 English answers to her two questions: "Which would you rather be-a man or a woman-and why?" "Which man or woman of whom you have ever heard or read, would you most wish to be-and why? Fifty per cent. of the girls wished to be like Queen Louise and forty per cent to be like the holy Elizabeth of the Wartburg. "The German boy's heroes are chiefly inspired by the military spirit, the scholarly ideal, and hatred to England." Bismarck, Blücher, the Kaiser, and Frederick the Great are their chief military heroes. Several would like to be President Kruger

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because he had won three battles over the English: "it is a glorious thing to beat the English." In general Miss Dodd allows the German teaching of history and literature to be more systematic than ours; but the pious, domestic, and subordinate character of the German woman is extolled at the expense of her individuality. "Our girls are at least allowed to develop naturally and to think independently." The German boy is " a person of character, of aspirations and

dreams

The English boy is far below him in aspiration, yet in the matter of forming a healthy judgment the English boy is immeasurably his superior. .... The German boy does not play; he has no playground. He becomes introspective and argumentative at an early age. While the English boy is a healthy young barbarian, the German boy is rapidly becoming a mature thinker. The English boy passes out of his stage of barbarism and becomes almost civilised in time, but the German boy never civilises. At best the German man is still half-child, halfphilosopher, and often whole pedant.

This criticism will be felt by many readers to be itself a judgment on the English type it applauds. "The German boy never civilises," forsooth!

PRESIDENT MCKINLEY'S CHARACTER.

Mr. Maurice Low finds the secret of Mr. McKinley's triumph in the impossibility of Mr. Bryan. He has no high opinion of the victor :

Mr. McKinley is neither a Lincoln nor a Jackson nor a Hayes. He is an amiable, well-meaning, pious, but weak man. His amiability is the reason of his weakness. He is too fond of peace, and of having everybody around him content and happy, to exert the force which the President must frequently display. He has been too much the friend of his friends. He has paid an over-exaggerated deference to public opinion, which has led him to subordinate his own convictions and to yield his scruples because he thought the public differed with him. Hence his administration has been marked by vacillation, by timidity, and by negation. Yet, as things go, he has been successful.

The President will not, Mr. Low thinks, make any great use of his "sublime opportunity." "Peace, prosperity, contentment, are the symbols of the McKinley faith, and the greatest of these is prosperity."

OTHER ARTICLES.

Mr. Arthur Galton deplores the bad habit of the last fifteen years or so, that Australian Governors should spend a great deal more than their official salaries; and urges that the new order now being set up should do away with this abuse. Coulson Kernahan discusses the question, "Is Emerson a Poet?" and answers Yes and No -in effect, "sometimes." "He was never more than a notebook draughtsman." Major C. B. Mayne objects to the proposal to make church parade optional in the army. He regards it as part of the homage and service due from the nation to its supreme Ruler and Governor, and would make the attendance of officers compulsory too.

THE Humanitarian for December is distinctly above the average. Quoted elsewhere are M. Guyot's remarks on English problems, and Professor Ferrero's on criminals and savages. Mr. Andrew Merry puts forward a very strong plea for cheap lodging-houses for women, with no more exacting standard of character than is maintained at the Rowton Hotels for men. Dr. Axon asks, are more boys than girls born? and quotes a variety of statistics to prove that there is an excess of male births. But as there is an excess of male mortality in infancy, there are more females than males from childhood to old age.

BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE.

Blackwood's Magazine is a good number, although rather overladen with articles about the war. It opens with a paper upon Army Organisation, written by one whose object is to point out

some radical defects in our present system of training and administration, being absolutely convinced that unless these defects are remedied, all attempts at reform in other directions, and all increase of expenditure, will in the end prove unavailing. The root of the whole matter is-the assumption of the offensive policy for our home army.

WANTED-AN ASIATIC OFFICE.

The last article deals with the organisation of the Foreign Office, and recommends that the administration of our empire should be remodelled. The writer

says:

The official divisions into Foreign, Indian, and Colonial do not, in fact, correspond with the natural divisions, and any recasting of the offices concerned should be based upon the natural rather than the artificial classification. What seems most urgently needed, and it has been pointed out repeatedly for years past, is an Asiatic department which would relieve the Colonial Office of the charge of Hongkong, the Straits, Borneo, New Guinea, and other distant possessions, and the Foreign Office of China, Japan, Corea, Persia, etc. With such a distribution of labour each department might be able to train its staff and concentrate its efforts on its appropriate work, which might then have some chance of being efficiently done. The India Office would have its hands quite sufficiently occupied with India proper, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, and Ceylon, which is by nature a pendant to the Indian peninsula. The Colonial Office would be enabled to do more justice than it possibly can at present to the great and growing English communities in the three Continents before mentioned.

The best paper in the magazine, however, is an admirable ghost story, one of those weird tales which make you feel creepy all over. It is entitled "The Watcher by the Threshold," by John Buchan. Whoever Mr. Buchan may be, he is a man who knows his subject, and is not writing out of his own imagination. It is a story of the haunting of a living man by a kind of evil spirit, the suggestion being that it is the disembodied spirit of the Emperor Justinian, who for some strange reason obsesses a commonplace Scotch squire, and nearly drives him mad. But the tale must be read in its entirety to be appreciated. The Psychical Research Society might profitably address an inquiry to Mr. Buchan, for I do not remember in any of their annals having come upon any case in which the invisible control was physically quite so vigorous.

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THE AMENITIES OF MODERN CONTROVERSIALISTS. The Right Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, M.P., who writes "Musings Without Method," will have to look to it or else in future he had better alter the title of his article to Musings without Manners." He used to write like a gentleman; he seems to have got tired of it, and to have relapsed into the old style of Maga when Christopher North used to rule the roast. In this month's Musings he devotes a couple of pages to my recent broadsheet on the way in which we are waging war in South Africa. He is pleased to impute to me an indifference to truth, and then by way of setting me a good example, he charges me in the most offensive way with palming off upon the public an elaborate fraud, of which I am quite incapable. He denies the existence of the British officer in the field, whose description of the house-burning now carried on in South Africa has roused so much indignation throughout the land. I am sure I

need not assure my readers, or even Sir Herbert Maxwell, that he is what he professes-an officer holding her Majesty's commission, and now in command of Her Majesty's troops at the seat of war. He is every whit as honourable a gentleman as Sir Herbert Maxwell himself, and he has done good service both to the Army and to the Empire by affording information-first-hand information—as to the policy of devastation which is now being carried out in the Transvaal. Sir Herbert Maxwell further comments unkindly upon what he regards as my indifference to sifting truth from falsehood, and then forthwith, without having taken any pains whatever to ascertain the accuracy of his information, that I have recently stated that I regretted being an Englishman. I have never expressed any such regret. The origin of the story was a misrepresentation of a remark which I made at the Peace Congress at Paris, to which even Sir Herbert Maxwell could not have taken any objection. I was speaking to a representative of the friends of peace from all nations, and I prefaced my remark by saying that I owed them an apology for venturing to speak about peace, being an Englishman, as my country at this moment was waging what I regarded as an unjust war. As this was the only foundation for the statement made by Sir Herbert Maxwell, I think he will admit, being a gentleman, that an apology is due from somebody else in this matter. It does not matter to me very much what Sir Herbert Maxwell says, but I would submit to him whether the passage with which he concludes his observations is quite worthy of his pen. So, Mr. Stead, he says:

So he is no more than a curiosity, an interesting specimen of cannibalism who has rarely satisfied his rapacious maw. Let us, then, put him in a glass case with a pin through his back, label him in the best Latin that entomology affords, and straightway forget all about him and his unhappy appetite.

To call a person who differs from you in politics a cannibal is only worthy of the literary bargee. At the same time, as he brackets me with Charles James Fox, whom he describes as the first of the cannibals, I think I may almost accept the epithet as a compliment.

Harper's.

Harper's Christmas number contains much picturesque variety. "The Pilgrimage of Truth," by Erik Bögh, is done from the Danish into English by Mr. Jacob Riis, and illustrated by Howard Pyle. Truth fares forth from Fairyland to the earth-world, to be welcomed and then renounced by king, priest, philosopher, and mob, and only accepted by the fool. Victor Hugo's love-letters continue. The editor insists on their superiority to the Brownings. The Brownings mixed much else beside their mutual passion with their letters; Hugo's were pure love alone. The comparison once challenged will, we fear, turn the scale of interest in favour of the Brownings. There are several specimens of Victor Hugo's work as an artist presented by Mr. B. Constant. Dr. Carl Peters relates the evidence which he has found for the identification of Ophir with Furd on the Zambesi. Parents come in for some shrewd, almost mordant remarks by E. S. Martin. He says, for example: "Fathers have their uses in families, uses besides that of providing." "Undoubtedly it is the duty of every father to do what he can to supplement the schoolmasters, doctors, ministers, and others on whom the protection and guidance of the fatherless devolve."

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW.

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THE Fortnightly Review for December is a very excellent number. It contains a new feature in the shape of the publication of the text of Mr. J. M. Barrie's play The Wedding Guest." There is a short story by Mr. Maurice Hewlett, entitled "St. Gervase of Plessy," and two very carefully written literary reviews, one by Mr. Stephen Gwynn, dealing with " The Autumn's Books," chiefly novels, and the other by Mr. Aflalo, entitled "The Sportsman's Library-Some Books of 1900." There is also a very brief paper describing Maeterlinck's latest drama 66 Bluebeard and Aryan; or Useless Liberation.”

THE CYCLIST SOLDIER.

Mr. H. G. Wells, forsaking his familiar field of scientific romance, shows in this paper that he is not less capable as a merciless critic. He takes as his text the second Cyclists' Handbook, published by the War Office, which he subjects to the most scathing criticism. His article is capital reading. Sir John Ardagh had better withdraw the old one, and ask Mr. Wells to write a new second guide. Mr. Wells makes merciless fun of the present little handbook, and then presents the public with a sketch of the way in which he would use the force of 1,500 cyclists. Mr. Wells may be all wrong, but there is no doubt that his picture of what might be done by such a force equipped and organised as he describes, appeals very strongly to the imagination of the ordinary man. Imagine, he says, what a cyclist force of 1,500 men, capable of moving 12 miles an hour, and covering 120 miles in a day, could do :

The cyclist section could creep like a noiseless snake all round the outposts and make a spluttering of shots here, and anon, a spluttering ten miles away-it would, for all practical purposes, be a twenty-three barrelled Pathan sniper in seven-league boots. It could hide as no cavalry could hide, do evil and presently get away faster than ever cavalry rode.

THE KAISER'S MOUSTACHES AND SPEECHES.

Mr. Ludwig Klausner-Dawoc's paper upon the Kaiser opens with the remark that

Nobody will deny that the German Emperor the most interesting sovereign alive, perhaps one of the most interesting monarchs in the history of the world.

It is difficult to say whether Mr. Klausner-Dawoc is qualifying to be prosecuted for lèse-majesté, for he suggests that the Kaiser is too much a Jack-of-all-trades to be master of any; and in the course of his article he gives us a new piece of information to the effect that the famous turned-up moustaches of the Kaiser are now turned down, for, says Mr. Klausner-Dawoc :

Alas! The new Moustache à la William II. has already gone, and will not rival in history the Henri Quatre, the beards and moustaches of Napoleon III., Victor Emmanuel, etc. The Emperor has got tired of turning his moustache upwards, and the thousands of captains, lieutenants, heroes of the Stock Exchange and other young men are left in the lurch-most of all the hairdresser who had invented a sort of machine to force the moustache to take the unnatural but imperial flight skywards, and who named his machine "Es ist erreicht" (it is achieved), which is now a byeword in Germany.

As for the Emperor's speeches, over which Mr. Klausner-Dawoc groans and is troubled, he says:

William II. does not so much speak as an Emperor, scarcely as a political or public orator, but more as a poet who is under the influence of his inspiration and carried away by it, by his rhymes and rhythms. The fact is that, when speaking, he delights, as poets do when they are writing, in hyperboles, metaphors, and all sorts of exaggerations, and he thinks as little as a poet does that his words will always be taken literally.

At the end of his article, however, he lights on the safe side, and it is to be hoped that the writing of this passage may be regarded as an extenuating circumstance should he ever have the ill-fortune to be prosecuted for poking fun at the Kaiser :

Mystic as he may seem-we ourselves don't quite believe in his mysticism, which very likely, too, is only a means to further his ends he is above all a modern sovereign, a thoroughly modern man, so much so that he even gave university privileges to technical schools, that he is about to modify classical learning in the high schools, and that not one year has elapsed since he ascended the throne without a law being passed in favour of the working classes.

A NEW ATTACK ON THE COUNTY COUNCIL.' The London County Council has been so much attacked for doing too much, and going too fast, that it is quite a welcome change to read Mr. C. S. Jones's article in which he roundly assails them for doing too little. His subject is the housing question, and he declares that the net result of their activity in this matter is

that the Council has displaced, or helped to displace, about 15,000 persons, and has re-housed 11,000. In fact, the result of ten years' work at a cost of over a million sterling has been to render 4,000 persons houseless.

He presses strongly for the building of houses in the outskirts of London, and he accuses the Council of resorting to every subterfuge and excuse to escape doing their plain duty.

The last stage of the Council is not much better than the first. A month or two ago the Housing Committee cheerfully asked for half a million to deal with an insanitary area in St. Luke's. About three thousand persons are to be displaced, about four thousand are to be re-housed. In other words, another half million is to be spent in providing extra accommodation for a thousand persons. It is, of course, useless to ask the Council how many more could be provided for, were the half million spent in buying, and building on, the vacant land.

THE DOOM OF THE SCOTCH UNIVERSITIES.

"Mair siller! Mair siller!" is the cry of Dr. William Wallace in his paper on "The Scottish University Crisis " :

A lump sum of not less than £1,500,000 is required to place all the Scottish Universities in such a position that their Degrees would be regarded as of equal value with those of England, Germany, or even of America.

If they do not get this money, either from the State or from some munificent millionaire, Dr. Wallace tells them

that

the fate of these institutions will be sealed. They may drag on for many years of inglorious life, giving second-rate degrees to second-rate students. But they will have lost their place in British education and the national life of Scotland.

THE PRICE OF IMPERIAL FEDERATION.

Mr. Edward Salmon, in an article entitled “ Imperial Federation; the Condition of Progress," tells the Britons at home that Imperial Federation cannot be had except at a price, which, it must be admitted, he puts pretty high. First, we must diminish to some extent our insular freedom of action. Secondly, we must give up the superstition of Free-trade. Thirdly, we must consent to Home Rule. Fourthly, we must allow India some half-adozen members as representatives in the Imperial Parliament. If we think protection plus Home Rule and Parliamentary representation for India are not worth conceding, then, he tells us, that the greatest "secular agency for good now known in the world," as Lord Rosebery described the Empire, will go to pieces. Dissolution seems unavoidable.

THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW.

THE general complexion of the December number is academic, with theology and philosophy as preponderating tints. Separate notice has been taken of Mr. John Ross and Louise Brown's papers on the Chinese question, as also of Mr. Hogarth's explorations in prehistoric Crete and of Mr. Wm. Clarke's social future of England.

WHY RUSSIA "VACILLATES.”

"A Russian Publicist" discusses Russia's foreign policy. He refers the alleged vacillation of Russia, notably in Chinese affairs, to the water-tight compartments of Russian administration; there being no common Cabinet or Premier, each Minister goes his own gait, subject only to the Tsar.

So the Minister of War telegraphed, with the Tsar's authority, the annexation of the right bank of the Amur, while the Foreign Minister formally declared Russia's decision not to take any part of Chinese territory. The writer urges that peace is an economic necessity to Russia, that the Foreign Office needs to be in close touch with the Finance Ministry, and that in order to develop her resources Russia needs freedom and alliance with the Western peoples far more than mere extension in the Far East. He considers that Count Lamsdorf, though at first necessarily reserved, has now put his foot down, meaning resolutely to carry out his predecessor's policy of crippling the influence of the military party.

IN DEFENCE OF CROMWELL.

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Mr. John Morley's Cromwell is examined by Mr. Samuel Gardiner, with much generous recognition of its value. But Mr. Gardiner remarks on Mr. Morley's complete ignorance of manuscript sources, and takes strong exception to Mr. Morley's suggestion that Oliver's conduct was oblique" in appearing to consent to the self-denying ordinance. The facts, according to Mr. Gardiner, go to show that Oliver was perfectly sincere, and did think of retiring from the country over-sea. He did not, as Waller said, believe at that time he had "extraordinary parts." Though this want of selfknowledge may seem almost incredible, yet, Mr. Gardiner urges, “it will have to be taken as the rootfact of the situation." Mr. Morley, it would seem from Mr. Gardiner's criticism, has not sufficiently accepted Cromwell's humility. Mr. Gardiner does not feel that Mr. Morley's horror at the employment of force quite justified in the case of Charles's death. The policeman employs force to arrest the criminal, the judge employs force to execute the murderer; the army did no more when it set up the court which sent Charles to the block for taking up arms against the nation. Mr. Gardiner objects to Mr. Morley's statement that the British Constitution has proceeded on lines that Cromwell utterly disliked. He argues that Cromwell attempted prematurely to bring into existence the main principles of our present Constitution. Mr. Gardiner closes by comparing Cromwell in politics, with Bacon in science: a position not shaken by the fact that modern men reject the methods of both.

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the progress of the Boer." Mr. John Morley's denunciation of this "hideous carnage," its "horrid waste" and "hellish panorama is traced by the writer to the “humanism which pulls down the altar of sacrifice and puts up another to the Unknown God." This is the rhetoric with which he would correct Mr. Morley's :--

All our colonies have wakened up to this Imperialism. It makes a noble spectacle, perhaps the noblest of this century, this army of ours in South Africa, and its chivalrous Commander, and the ambulance, and the hospital, and the graves of peer and peasant on the African sands. We look on your graves, ye martyr soldiers, as the silent bivouac of the eternal that was in your service, and the shroud of the African dust quivers with the boundless hope that was in it, and glitters with the gold of the crown you have received. We shall find strength for our service in the tale of your martyred blood, which will live in the storied urn of a nation's grateful memory. You have made dearer to us the land of our fathers, and greater the empire they founded, and dearer and greater the Fatherland elsewhere which you have won in agony and blood. The rapture of the battle is your hymn now in the unseen.

Apparently Moloch has annexed the Cross.

A WORLD WITHOUT RELIGION.

Mr. Goldwin Smith closes the century for the Contemporary with a doleful wail over the decadence of religion. He essays a bold task-nothing less than a general survey of the whole field of the science of religion, from its dim origins up to Christianity; and all, all pronounced untenable, with perhaps a saving clause for the faith of Zoroaster. Rome in her latest dogmas has openly broken with reason. Criticism has destroyed the infallible book on which Protestantism was based. Even the evidence for theism is destroyed. "Science has substituted evolution for creation, and evolution of such a sort as seems to shake our belief in a creator and directing mind." Philosophy shows a first cause unthinkable. Scepticism is rife in all classes: atheism is making way among the quick-witted artisans in all countries :

The churches and the clergy of late have, perhaps, been giving the believer in righteousness and humanity reason for grieving less at their departure; flag-worship and the gospel of force can be as well propagated without them; yet their departure simply as moral and social organisations would leave a great void in life, and it is difficult to imagine how that void could be filled.

The tendency of all thought is towards the belief in "a universe without guidance or plan, the relation of man to which can never be known." He concludes by insisting that "our salvation lies in the single-minded pursuit of the truth. Man will not rest in blank Agnosticism: he is irresistibly impelled to inquiry into his origin and destiny." There are, as perhaps the writer will later show, other "irresistible impulses " which offer clues.

OTHER ARTICLES.

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From this groan of terror and despair it is pleasant to turn to Mr. Massingham's " Philosophy of a Saint," as he describes Tolstoy's "Life," with its glorification of love as the law of our being. He quotes the sage's saying, "Go on loving and loving more, and you mix more with the eternal movement of life." Mr. H. Graves exercises powers of abstruse reasoning on A Philosophy of Sport," and insists on recreation without reference to earning a livelihood as its principal element. M. Schidrowitz dreams that the outcome of the Austrian deadlock is the assumption by Franz Joseph of absolute power. The Austrian Kaiser is not older than William, King of Prussia, on the battle day of Sadowa, "and William reigned twenty-two years after that victory."

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SCIOLISM IN POLITICS.

"Science in Politics" is merely a translation of unnecessary length of a Daily Mail leader into the academic tongue. It is the ordinary, vulgar, short-sighted Plea for Ferocity in dealing with the Boers, enforced by the usual Jingo sneer at "Lord Roberts's clemency," though where the clemency came in it is difficult to see. Jingoism is always odious, but when it masquerades in the garb of philosophers it is doubly so.

ENGLAND AND GERMANY. The writer of the article on 66 says:

The interest of Germany would seem to be to keep things as they are. The "Open Door" not only suits her commercial interests, but also preserves for her the possibility extending her political power, if that should become desirable. If once China were split up into protectorates or the like she would be driven either to take a share herself, with all the disadvantages of that course, or else to submit to be altogether ousted.

'England and Germany"

The Anglo-German Agreement, says the writer, is not a victory for either Power, but an agreement “equally advantageous to both."

THE LOVE AFFAIRS OF PITT.

Lord Rosebery pieces together with a commentary the correspondence between Pitt and Lord Auckland, on the subject of Pitt's "love episode " with Miss Eden. It was Pitt's ruined fortune and impaired health which prevented his marriage. The correspondence with Lord Auckland is written in the formal style of the last century, and does not even mention the lady by name, nor does it throw much light on the actual state of Pitt's feelings.

FIELD GUNS.

66 Galeatus," writing on "Field Guns," makes the following statement as to the number of guns actually possessed by the Boers :—

Of modern material there were some twenty Krupp field guns and four 47-in. Krupp (not Creusot) howitzers. There were sixteen Creusot 14 33 lbs. field guns, and four Creusot 15-cm. guns (Long Toms), and four 7.5-cm. Maxim-Vickers, two of them taken by the Boers at the time of the Jameson Raid. These were all the modern-type guns (except the considerable number taken from us, and about thirty-five 1-pr. pom-poms) of which the two Republics could dispose. The French field gun which the Boers used had the French service calibre of 2.95 in., with a 14:33 lbs. projectile and a velocity (on paper) of 1837 ft. The maximum elevation allowed by the carriage is stated at 20 deg., and the range of the projectile at eight kilometres, or 8,747 yards. Simple calculations prove that this range is exaggerated, and that the probable maximum would not exceed 7,800 yards.

MOROCCO IN PERIL.

Mr. H. M. Grey contributes an article entitled "A Coming North African Problem," in which he deals with French encroachments on Morocco, and predicts trouble in the future. Morocco is the only North African State which has not fallen under the dominion of foreigners; but it is in a rapid state of decay, and when the French have established a belt of empire from the Mediterranean

to the Atlantic, Morocco will be hemmed in on all sides. The usual remedy of the alarmist is to seize something; and if war should break out between France and Morocco, Mr. Grey advises that we should seize Tangier! But as Mr. Grey describes the South African War as 'suppressing the Boer revolt," he is not likely to have a very clear idea as to the relative importance of

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events.

INTERNATIONAL ETHICS.

Mr. L. Villari deals with the question of how far Christian and private morality should be employed as standards in international relations. His conclusion is that the moral law in politics must be modified by expediency.

AN IMPERIAL FLAG,

Mr. W. Laird Clowes pleads for the institution of an Imperial flag which all British subjects will have a right to fly. In England we have nothing equal to the Tricolour or the Stars and Stripes, but only half-a-dozen flags each restricted in use to a different class. Mr. Clowes thinks that the simple St. George's Cross would make the best flag for the Empire, and that it should have precedence over the existing flags, which should, however, be maintained.

OTHER ARTICLES.

Mr. William Archer, writing on "An Academy of the Dead," lays down the laws which should regulate burial in Westminster Abbey if it should be enlarged, or in any nationa Pantheon that may be established. Edith Sichel writes on "The Religion of Rabelais"; and Mr. R. E. Fry on Giotto. Mr. Anthony Hope's novel, "Tristram of Blent," is continued.

THE WOMAN AT HOME.

THE Christmas number of the Woman at Home is filled out to twice its usual size-inflated by an enormous "patriotic" article on "Women who are Serving the Empire." No doubt, but so are many other women, regularly and consistently, and not by fits and starts. The Empire-servers, who are well sketched by Sarah Tooley's pen, include among others Lady Newton, Lady Wantage, Lady MacCormac, Lady Randolph Churchill, Mrs. and Miss Baden-Powell, and Lady Sarah Wilson, besides many widowed wives of those who went to the front-Mrs. G. W. Steevens, Lady Symons, and Mrs. Wauchope.

THE DOMESTIC SERVANT QUESTION AGAIN. This eternal question is again discussed in the current number of this magazine. Lady Laura Ridding, Mrs. R. W. Perks, and Miss Marion Leslie give their experience. Lady Laura complains that

Domestic science is a rarely studied accomplishment in the farm labourer's cottage, while it is from those homes that girls. gloriously ignorant of the remotest notion of how to make a bed, clean out a room, mend a garment, dust, bake, wash or iron, are perpetually sent forth to service by their mothers with one golden rule to direct them in all their experiences-i.., "Not to let themselves be put upon!"

And adds, most justly, that "in no other line of life does raw, unskilled labour fetch such high market value."

Mrs. R. W. Perks remarks that it seems impossible to impress upon young servants that they must fit themselves for their duties. The frequent listlessness and anæmia of servants she attributes to the fact that "the strain of the present board school work is too great for their strength," often underfed and poorly clothed as they are. She says, however, "The truth is that the

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