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EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY OF

of eight theological schools are above $1,000,000 each, three passing $2,000,000 and one (Princeton). passing $3,000,000, while the grounds, buildings and library of the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church are reported at more than $2,000,000. The building and library of the law school of the University of Chicago are estimated at $500,000, and the properties of the Harvard Law School (including $600,000 of endowment) at $2,000,000.

Bibliography.- Annual Reports of the United States Commissioner of Education; United States Bureau of Education (Bulletin, 1913, No. 4, G. E. MacLean, "Present Standards of Higher Education in the United States"); Annual Educational Numbers of the Journal of the American Medical Association (in reprints); Annual Reports of the Conferences of the Council on Medical Education; Annual Reports of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; Bulletins of the same: Flexner, "Medical Education in the United States and Canada" (No. 4, 1910); Redlich, "The Case Method in American Law Schools" (No. 8, 1914); Annual Reports of the Meetings of the Religious Education Society. KENDRIC C. BABCOCK, Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Illinois.

EDUCATION, Psychology of. In some branches of the subject, educational psychology is differentiated clearly from the general science of psychology, while in other branches the two subjects overlap. The investigation of the laws of memory, of learning, of the determinants of attention or of individual differences in endowment, has been carried on by psychologists whose interest is in the theoretical development of the science, as well as by those whose interest is in the application of psychology to education. But even in such cases, in which there is an overlapping in subject matter, the aim of the educational psychologist, which is to discover how mental growth may most effectively be promoted, usually causes him to emphasize different questions than those upon which the pure psychologist dwells. Certain branches of educational psychology, such as the psychology of learning to read, write and spell, or the construction of tests of proficiency in the school subjects, or the technique of tests of intelligence or maturity, belong wholly to this field.

The education of the child is the product of the sum of the external influences which are brought to bear upon him, and of the reactions which he makes to these influences. The study of these reactions and of their laws is the scientific foundation for rules of practice in attempting to guide and modify them. In so far as these reactions are mental their study constitutes the subject matter of educational psychology.

The differences in the child's interests and capacities as he advances from babyhood to maturity are important factors in his reactions. For the treatment of this phase of educ nal psychology, see the article on CHILD PSY

CHOLOGY.

Principles of Learning.- In the second place the child's reactions are governed by the laws of learning, both those which are gen

eral in their application and those which depend upon the child's stage of development. The effect of practice upon skill or excellence of performance has been studied in the case of a variety of types of learning. One of the earliest and most valuable studies was made upon the growth of ability in the telegraphic language. A number of studies have been made of the somewhat allied process of typewriting. Some light has been thrown on human learning by studies of the behavior of animals in escaping from a cage or learning to find their way through a maze. In the field of sensory discrimination and the development of perception a number of studies have been made-as, for example, in learning to discriminate between tones or colors, to overcome illusions, to apprehend and draw unusual figures. The progress in learning a foreign language has been traced. Numerous studies have been made of associative learning and memorizing. Memorizing has been investigated to discover the best mode of presentation, the best way of dividing material

e.g., into large or small parts, the effect of the learner's attitude, the permanence of memory under various conditions, etc. Finally the process of problem solving, as in the solution of puzzles, has been subjected to analysis.⠀

One of the characteristic features of the study of learning is the construction of the practice curves, which represents graphically the rate of progress at different stages. The form of some practice curves indicates a rapid progress in the early stages, followed by a gradually decreasing rate until progress almost ceases. In other cases, however, the progress is nearly uniform while it lasts; while in a few the progress is slow at the beginning and more rapid later on. The difference may perhaps be explained by the varying ease with which old habits may be adapted to the new task.

There are various sorts of fluctuations in the curve of progress, some of short duration and some lasting over weeks or even months. A cessation in progress over a number of practice periods has been termed a plateau. Plateaus have been found to exist in several forms of learning. A number of explanations have been suggested. The earliest was that the learner develops first certain simple habits and later more complex ones, and that while he is perfecting the simpler habits as a preparation for the complex habits no apparent progress is made. Another explanation is that the learner either spurts and hence makes errors and becomes confused, or becomes lazy and fails to push ahead.

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have proved favorable, but it is unsafe to apply this rule very widely.

The importance of mental fatigue in hindering progress in learning or in impairing mental work has been variously estimated. A distinction must be made between true mental fatigue, as represented by an actual falling off in ability to do mental work, and the mere feeling of weariness, which may or may not indicate real reduction in ability. What has often been thought to be mental fatigue may be merely loss of interest or suggestion. But the modicum of true mental fatigue which remains when this illusory fatigue is allowed for, probably hinders learning and interferes with the more difficult mental operations.

Learning in the School Subjects.- The third branch into which education psychology may be divided deals with the processes of learning which are characteristic of the school subjects. Important studies have been made of reading which reveal the nature of the behavior of the eye and of the perception of reading matter. The eyes are shown to move along each line of print intermittently, the words being perceived during the pauses only. The pauses vary in number and duration according to the subject matter, the size of print and arrangement of the lines, and the training and individuality of the reader. It is probable that the increase in the scope of perception during a reading pause and the consequent reduction in the number of pauses is a close correlate of efficiency. The most important fact about perception in reading is that it is by word wholes or groups of, words. Some attention to the letters must be given in the early stages of learning, but the letters are soon subordinated by their organization into words. A factor in this organization is the association of printed with spoken words, and even in silent reading there is a more or less distinct accompaniment of inner speech.

The writing movement has been studied chiefly by making records of the movements of the fingers, hand and arm as they contribute to the total movement as it appears at the pen point, and by measuring the speed of the pen. movement and the pressure which it exerts. The fingers, hand, forearm and upper arm unite in various ways in different individuals to form a very complex and difficult movement co-ordination. Some diversity among individuals is desirable. Changes in pressure and in the speed of the stroke accompany the production of the particular letter forms. The speed changes determine the rhythm of writing, which is closely related to ease and good form.

In the field of number some work has been done, particularly with the early stages of learning. The child gets his abstract idea of number through such concrete experiences as counting, measurement and manipulating grouped objects, and there has been a good deal of discussion of the relative advantage of these experiences. Among other subjects of discussion are imagery types and their bearing on number operations, the nature of the mental process in calculation and the amount and conditions of improvement in reckoning. Little study has been made of the mental process in solving complex problems.

The problem of spelling has been attacked

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Tests in the School Subjects.- Besides experiments which are designed to discover the nature of the learning process in school subjects there have been in the past few years for the most part since 1910-many attempts to devise standard methods or tests to make possible comparable measurement of the proficiency of children in the school subjects. These tests in some cases are made by the help of "scales" or series of specimens of pupils' products in the subject in question, graded so as to represent regularly ascending degrees of excellence, with which the products to be graded may be compared. Of this sort are several handwriting scales, a scale for judging English composition and a scale for drawing. Such scales do not by any means eliminate judgment in grading, and it is found necessary to give graders training before their scoring is uniform or comparable to the scoring of other grades; but it is possible by the use of such scales to obtain more accurate comparisons of the work of different groups of pupils than without them. The handwriting scales have proved the most successful on account of the greater ease with which excellence can be defined in handwriting than in such subjects as composition or drawing.

The other type of test consists of a series of tasks which are carefully selected so as to represent essential phases of a subject of study, and which elicit responses from the pupils which can be definitely and objectively graded. The units which enter into such a test are carefully graded by preliminary application. Sometimes they are made of as nearly equal difficulty and sometimes of progressive difficulty. The latter arrangement is desirable when pupils of a wide range of ability are to be tested. Tests of this general nature have been used chiefly in the subjects of arithmetic, reading, spelling and algebra, while beginnings have been made in some of the other subjects.

Among the questions which are being vigorously attacked by the use of tests are individual differences in the attainment of pupils in their mastery of the school subjects and the accompanying large overlapping in the ability of pupils of different ages and school grades, the large variation in the results obtained in different classes, schools or school systems, the causes of these variations and the relation of

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General Tests. Finally a branch of educational psychology which has been energetically pursued within the past 10 years and in which there has already been considerable development both in methodology and in outcomes, consists of tests which are designed to measure some phase of a mental function of a more general sort than is involved in one of the school subjects. Tests of sensory acuity as of vision and hearing and of keenness of sensory discrimination have been developed and used for a much longer puriod than 10 years. But apart from the detection of special sensory defects, for which elaborate technique and special instruments have been devised, and from the interests of theoretical psychology, the study of these elementary mental functions has in large measure given place to the attempt to measure the higher mental processes. Exception should perhaps be made of tests of pitch discrimination, which has proven significant as a means of detecting capacity for musical education, and of some other simple processes which may be important as means of determining vocational fitness. But in general the burden of opinion is that tests which involve such processes as memory, association, reflective thought and originality in meeting problems give much more valuable insight into intellectual capacity.

The recent revival of mental tests is due in large measure to the work of the French psychologist, A. Binet. Binet was given a commission to prepare a method of selecting children from the schools of Paris who were to be put into special schools for retarded pupils. In collaboration with T. Simon he arranged a series of tests graded in difficulty and designated certain points in the series as corresponding to the capacity of children at particular stages of development. In the first revision of the series in 1908 a group of tests was chosen to represent each age from 3 to 13. A still further revision in 1911 brought some rearrangement but no change in the principle of construction,

The Binet-Simon graded tests have stimulated very extensive trial of the series itself and very many attempts to standardize other single tests or groups of tests. The fundamental principle, which is that the child's advancement with age is accompanied by the attainment of the ability to perform tasks of regularly increasing difficulty and that the ability of a child to perform tasks above those which are found to be typical for his age indicates superior intelligence, while his inability to perform tasks which are typical for his age or for a lower age indicates inferior intelligence-this principle of age standards has proven to be very fruitful, although many questions of detail have arisen in the application or interpretation of the tests.

A more radical reconstruction is represented in the Yerkes-Bridges point scale which uses almost entirely Binet tests but discards the arrangement by ages. The child is given a certain number of points of credit for successfully passing each test (or partial credit for partial success) and his score is obtained by adding all his points of credit. The score is then interpreted by comparison with age, sex, etc., norms. It is obviously of advantage to have con

venient means of determining in an examination of an hour or less the degree of intelligence of the child. Imperfect as the methods thus far developed admittedly are, they are already very useful in selecting children for special education, either because they are retarded or advanced and in examining delinquents in the courts to determine whether the delinquency is due primarily to intellectual defect.

The very extensive recent experimentation with single tests has resulted largely from the use of tests of the higher mental processes as already noticed and from the derivation and adoption of the more refined methods of calculating correlation. The significance of a test can only be determined by working out the relation between ability in the test and ability in some other test, or general ability as measured for example the estimate of teachers or acquaintances. A test is useful according to the closeness of the correlation between attainment in the test and some other attainment representing the ability which it is designed to measure. Besides tests of general intelligence some attempt has been made, with only limited success up to the present, to devise tests of the special sorts of ability which are required in the various vocations. Tests of general intelligence themselves have proved to be of some value for vocational guidance.

Bibliography.— Binet, Alfred, and Simon, Th., Mentally Defective Children) (authorized trans. by W. B. Drummond, New York 1914); Ebbinghaus, H., Memory (trans. by H. A. Ruger and Clara E. Busenius, New York 1913); Freeman, F. N., 'Psychology of the Common Branches (Boston 1916); Huey, E. B., The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading' (New York 1908); Judd, C. H., The Psychology of High School Subjects' (Boston 1915); Meumann, E., Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die experimentelle Pädagogik, etc. (Leipzig 191114); Monroe, Walter S., De Voss, J. C., and Kelley, F. J., Educational Tests and Measurements (Boston 1917); Swift, E. J., 'Mind in the Making (New York 1908); Terman, L. M., 'The Measurement of Intelligence' Boston 1916); Thorndike, E. L., 'Educational Psychology (New York 1913); Whipple, G. M., ‹Manual of Mental and Physical Tests' (Baltimore 1914); Yerkes, R. M., Bridges, J. W., and Hardwick, Rose S., A Point Scale for Measuring Mental Ability (Baltimore 1915).

FRANK N. FREEMAN, Associate Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Chicago.

EDUCATION, Public School Organization. See PUBLIC SCHOOL ORGANIZATION; PUBLIC OR COMMON SCHOOLS.

EDUCATION, Retardation.

See EDUCATION OF THE FEEBLE-MINDED AND MENTAL DEFECTIVES; RETARDATION OF PUPILS.

EDUCATION, Religious, in the United States. See RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

EDUCATION, Rural. When school systems were first organized in America, the people of this country were almost wholly engaged in agricultural pursuits. The social and civic life of the people was extremely simple. The increase in population, our great development in industrial and commercial activities, the rise

of great cities in all parts of the country, and the advancement in science and invention have been the means of establishing advanced standards of civilization which require complicated services from the social and civic institutions of the country.

Administration of Rural Schools. The great agency in America which is to prepare our citizens for the highest possible kind of service and which is to enable them to meet successfully the great problems of a democracy, is the public school system. This enlarged scope of the function of the school has brought prominently to the attention of the public many problems which affect the economic and efficient administration of our school systems. One of the most difficult of these problems and one of paramount importance to the country at large is the proper organization and administration of rural schools. This question is, of course, one of primary importance to the agricultural sections of the country and, yet it is not exclusively related to the interests of rural communities. The number of people residing in the cities of the country has constantly increased until nearly one-half of the entire population now reside in cities. The number of the cities in the country and the population of these cities will constantly increase. There has been a decrease in the population of the agricultural sections of nearly every State in the union. The prosperous and growing cities and villages with their increasing millions of people and their great industrial plants turning out billions of dollars' worth of manufactured products to be distributed throughout the civilized world are placing additional burdens and affording greater opportunities and advantages to those who are living upon the farms.

The agricultural lands of America must supply not only the food products for the people living in the cities as well as the country and certain raw materials which are needed in the great manufacturing establishments, but they should also be able to reap the financial reward which will come from supplying the demands of foreign trade. To accomplish this result, there must be more intelligent, scientific management in our agricultural pursuits. The administration, therefore, of rural schools must. have a direct and vital bearing upon the economic, industrial and commercial activities as well as upon the social and civic progress of the nation. The interdependence of the people living in the cities and those living in the rural sections must be recognized, and the schools maintained in the rural or agricultural sections must be administered from the broad standpoint of the general needs of the nation.

There has not been the same measure of improvement in the rural schools of the country that there has been in the advancement of the schools of the cities and populous sections of the nation. The general trend of educational movements in the cities for a long period of years has been to enable the schools maintained therein to meet the living conditions and necessities of the people whom such schools serve. Unfortunately, this general object has not been in view in the administration of rural schools. There has, however, been a great change in school administration and in public sentiment in this respect within the last 15

years. Many of the leaders in national movements have come to see that the rural school problem is one of the great constructive problems in the public affairs of the country. Great energy is now being devoted to an effort to make the country schools the equal of the city schools. There has been much legislation in all parts of the country to accomplish this result. The school term has very generally been extended; compulsory education laws have been made more effective; there has been an enlarged use of school buildings and grounds with the idea of organizing the school itself as a social center; provision has been made for organizing instruction in agricultural courses in all schools; consolidation of small schools has been encouraged by the payment of larger quotas of state funds; medical inspection of school children has been authorized as a means of conserving life in agricultural communities, and provision has been made in various ways to afford boys and girls living in the remote farm sections the advantages of academic or high school training. This is a long list of important legislative measures which have been considered in many of the States. The effect of the enactment of these laws upon the efficiency of rural schools is now yielding results. However, to make the work of the rural school as efficient and as well adapted to the needs of the people as the city schools are, several important things must be done. Among these are:

1. The courses of study maintained in the rural schools must be adapted to the social and economic conditions of rural life.

2. The schools maintained in the rural sections must be in operation for a period of time equal to that which schools are maintained in the city or more populous sections.

3. The same care must be taken to conserve the life of the child in the rural community which is now generally exercised in the city.

4. The school buildings, grounds and equipment of the rural school must be as adequate and as attractive as those of the city schools.

5. The teachers employed in the rural schools must be the equal in culture, scholarship, professional training and experience of the teachers employed in the city schools.

In recent years there has been a great expansion in the courses of study intended to meet the conditions of industrial centers. The theory is that the school is not only to teach children the fundamentals of an education but it is intended to train them so that the instruction which they receive shall be of service to them when they leave school to assume their obligations of citizenship. To meet the necessities of boys and girls who go into industrial life, manual training, industrial and vocational schools have been authorized. If courses of study are to be maintained in populous centres for the purpose of meeting the needs of the industrial workers, the obligation rests upon the State to make provision for equal opportunity in the education of boys and girls who are to assume the responsibility of the future operation and management of the agricultural interests of the country. Instruction in industrial and vocational courses may be given as satisfactorily in the rural schools as in the city schools. Agriculture is the greatest industry of the nation. The schools maintained in the

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agricultural regions contain the great bulk of recruits for farm life in the nation. Practical courses should be given in these schools along the lines of scientific agriculture. Potato clubs, corn clubs, canning clubs and other similar clubs related to agricultural work should be organized in every rural school. Home project work will be an important feature of a modern, efficient rural school. To illustrate: the pupils in a corn club could be shown what soil is adapted to the growing of corn and what fertilizer is essential. They could be shown. how to prepare the soil for planting corn; the selection of seed could be carefully determined; the planting could be done at the proper time, and the crop could be properly cultivated; the value and necessity of frequent cultivation and of rotation in crops could be illustrated. The harvesting could be done at the proper time and under the best approved methods and the method of placing the crop in the market with the least expense and the greatest advantage to the producer could be learned. The farms located in every school district in the country should be made the great laboratories on which experimental work in farming could be carried out. The parents of children in the schools will generally be willing to co-operate with a successful teacher in the experiments which such teacher desires to make in the real live, active management of a farm. The same process could be pursued in sections where potatoes are the principal crop. Similar experiments could be made in relation to all farm products, fruit growing, etc. Matters pertaining to the management and care of the home will interest the girls; the canning of fruit, preserving vegetables, making bread, etc., are activities in which they may be interested and given instruction. In most of the great agricultural States, a State college of agriculture is maintained at public expense. These institutions are all doing great research work and are making scientific experiments and are producing information for the benefit of the farmer. This information, however, will not be of great service to the State unless there is some medium able to bring it to the general knowledge of the farmers of the State and to make of such information a practical application. Fruit exhibits and contests, vegetable exhibits and contests, similar exhibits and contests in grain and other products, the common rules to be observed in caring for poultry, and a dairy are matters which may be included in courses of study in rural schools and increase the interest in school work and make the work of the school more effective, practical and efficient. In the year 1917 800 boys pursued in the schools of New York State what is known. as home project work. After paying all expenses incurred in their experiment and being assigned for their own labor $20,000, these 800 boys had a net profit of $40,000. Each of these boys earned on the average $75. Of course, some of them earned more than $75; some received less; and some sustained a loss. Is not this, however, the rule in the actual affairs of life including farming? Does not this experiment present the opportunity to show the boy who failed the causes for such failure, to point out to him how such failure may be turned to success, and to offer to him the necessary encouragement to achieve this result? These il

lustrations are sufficient to indicate the type of work which is to form a prominent feature of the courses of study in the future work of the rural schools of America.

It is not the custom in any of the States to maintain rural schools for the same period of time which schools are maintained in the cities. In most of the States there is a provision of law which requires the school to be maintained in every district and city of the State for a certain number of months. This period of time varies from four months to nine months. It is the custom, however, in cities to maintain school for ten months. Four weeks is usually considered a month. It is not possible to give the boy or girl in the country districts the same opportunity to obtain an education which is afforded to the boy or girl in the city unless the period of time which school is maintained in the country district equal to the period of time that the school is maintained in the city.

Supervising and directing the health interests of children is now regarded as essential as the supervision and direction of matters pertaining to their intellectual development. This work has been organized as a part of the regular school work in nearly all the cities of the country. It should be extended to all rural schools. The conditions of children in the country districts is generally at a lower standard than the health of children in cities. The child who is compelled to attend a country school is just as much entitled to the benefits of health instructions as the child residing in the city. A child in the country district is subjected to the danger of contracting a contagious disease and is, therefore, entitled to every precaution which the State can afford to protect him from this danger. There is not the same careful supervision of the physical condition of children living in the country that there is of those living in the cities. The rural school should, therefore, be made the great agency not only in the development of health regulations, but of a knowledge of sanitary principles in all rural communities. Physical training should form a part of the curriculum of every rural school. The children in the country undoubtedly have more open air exercise than children living in the cities. This does not mean, however, that they do not need physical training which is provided for the children in the cities. The children in the country districts are generally in greater need of systematic training in physical education than the children living in the cities.

The children of the cities are afforded greater facilities for play purposes than the children of the country. It is argued that children of the country have the entire farming area in which to play and to obtain recreation. They may not obtain these privileges, however, without becoming trespassers. The children living in the country are entitled as a matter of right to playground facilities. The sites on which country schools are erected should contain a sufficient amount of land so that a playground, croquet ground and other necessary recreation and play may be organized and maintained for the benefit of the children attending such school. These facilities may be provided without large expenditure. It is entirely within the financial ability of school

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