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districts to provide these facilities for the children. The most progressive communities are giving this subject attention. The tendency throughout the country is to erect attractive school buildings in the country districts. It costs but little more to make a country school building attractive, sanitary and to conform to the modern principles of lighting, heating and ventilating. The State school authorities of each State in the Union should possess the authority to approve the plans and specifications of every rural school building which is constructed. The grounds should also be made attractive.

There is no factor in a rural school so important as the teacher. Proper courses of study, suitable and attractive buildings with adequate equipment, the maintenance of schools for a longer period of time will not lead to the progress required in the administration of the rural schools unless teachers of better qualifications are employed in such schools. Lower standards of qualifications are now maintained for the teachers employed in rural schools than in the city and village schools. The children in attendance upon these schools will not receive the efficient instruction to which they are entitled until teachers are employed in these schools who have qualifications substantially equivalent to the qualifications provided for teachers in the populous centres. The teachers in these schools should, therefore, be required to show the completion of a four years' academic course of training and thereafter the completion of a professional course of two years which relates especially to the conditions and needs of rural life.

Consolidation of Rural Schools.- To effect the general change in the administration of rural schools to enable these institutions to accomplish the purposes which are now demanded of them, there must be a reorganization of rural school systems. Two elements are essential for the maintenance of successful rural schools. There must be a sufficient number of children to create the interest essential to the school and a sufficient amount of property to support such school without the taxation becoming burdensome. The modern idea in all parts of the country is to consolidate small rural schools into central schools so that these schools may be properly graded and advanced instruction be provided. The daily rural free delivery, the telephone, electric lights, good roads, the automobile, the auto bus and the trolley line are the advance agents of the consolidated rural school.

The first State in the Union to enact a law providing for the consolidation of school districts was New York. That State took such action as early as 1853. The action taken, however, applied to cities and villages. It did not extend to country districts. Massachusetts proIvided for the consolidation of schools as early as 1869 and made provision at the same time for the transportation of pupils. The consolidation act of Massachusetts related to rural schools. About 1890 Massachusetts paid less than $23,000 for the tranportation of children who lived so remote from schools that they could not walk to and from school daily. Twenty-five years later Massachusetts was paying for the same purpose $500,000. The movement for the consolidation of schools and the

transportation of children has gradually extended until it has reached every State in the Union. Indiana, North Dakota, Ohio and many of the central western States have been leaders in this movement. Indiana has undoubtedly done more in the matter of consolidation of rural schools than any other State. The success of the great effort which is now being made throughout the country to improve the rural schools depends very largely upon the the consolidation of schools and the transportation of pupils. It has been established in all parts of the country that it is feasible without injustice to the taxpayer or hardship to the children to organize consolidated rural schools which will afford the country children practical, cultural and advanced courses of instruction which are the equivalent in every particular of courses which are maintained in cities and villages. It is just as feasible to maintain courses in these schools which will prepare a boy for admission to college or for industrial or professional life, as it is to maintain such courses in the cities and villages. Agricultural and industrial arts and home economic courses should form an important part of the curriculum of a school of this type, and the boys and girls desiring to pursue vocations along these lines are entitled to the same aid and encouragement that is given to the boys and girls who desire to pursue the long established traditional


Transportation.- There is now an extended system of transportation of school children in operation in all parts of the country. Many agencies are now utilized extensively in taking children to and from school when these children reside too far from the school to walk to and from it daily. Boys and girls go to school portions of the year on bicycles. Various types of individual conveyances are used. The automobile has been brought into extensive use for this purpose. Automobile busses are employed in several communities. Electric lines, steam lines, motor boats, etc., are also employed. Where transportation is provided systematically and with good business regulations and supervision, the objections that have been raised are generally overcome. A child may

ride from two to four miles in a comfortable wagon or other conveyance in order to attend a good school without hardship. Under proper regulation it is just as safe for children to be conveyed to school as it is for them to walk to school. Where busses or conveyances. are employed for the transportation of children, they must be operated under definite regulations which are strictly observed. There should be an established route with scheduled hours for arrival and departure and drivers should carry watches and be required to meet this schedule. It is possible to arrange schedules so that children will be on the road the minimum period of time and be required to travel a minimum distance. These matters are being arranged in all parts of the country without inconvenience to the home and without interfering with the established hours which regulate farm life. No person should be employed as a driver to carry children to and from school who has not the full confidence of the community. He should be made responsible for the conduct of the children during the time they are under his care to the same extent that a teacher is re



sponsible for their conduct while they are in school. Transportation should be provided at public expense. In many States appropriations are made to communities which provide transportation.

Highways and the Schools. There is another modern factor which enters into the ability to provide better educational facilities in country districts and this is the improved system of highways which is being established in many of the States. Not only are the States developing improved highways, but the national government is making appropriations for the construction of highways. These roads have made rural life more attractive, have made agricultural pursuits more profitable by bringing the farm in closer touch with the markets, and they afford those living in the rural regions the opportunities of social life which prevail in the village and city. These roads have also enhanced the value of farm property. We may, therefore, confidently expect that improved State roads will be extended and developed in the future.

The greatest obstacle in the way of better rural schools is the increased cost involved in their maintenance. The relation of the country district to the city and to the State at large is such that States may with propriety and with justice to all parts of the State appropriate more money in proportion for the maintenance of rural schools than does for the maintenance of schools in cities. The relation of the maintenance of proper rural schools to the needs of the nation itself is such that the national government has instituted a plan which contemplates national aid for rural education. The results which could be accomplished for the national service through appropriations by the national government justify the government in making such appropriations. The rural school systems of the several States should be made as practical and as efficient as the schools maintained in any of the populous centres of the country. THOMAS E. FINEGAN, Superintendent of Public Instruction for the State of Pennsylvania, Formerly Assistant Commissioner for Elementary Education, State Department of Education, Albany, N. Y.

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away by the Indian massacre of 1622 and the school seems never to have been opened. The town of Boston set up a Latin school in 1635, which has had a continuous existence down to the present time. This school was established by vote of the citizens in a town meeting; it was supported by private donations and by the rent of certain islands in the harbor, designated by the town for that purpose; and a town rate seems to have been levied when necessary to make up a salary of $244.50 a year for the master. Other Massachusetts towns followed the example of Boston. School fees were commonly collected. A town rate, which was depended upon at first only to supplement other sources of revenue, gradually came to be the main reliance; and by the middle of the 18th century most of the grammar schools of Massachusetts charged no fee for tuition. Latin schools were early established in Connecticut; one at New Haven in 1641 and one at Hartford not later than 1642. A notable bequest of Edward Hopkins, sometime governor of Connecticut colony, available soon after the middle of the 17th century, was devoted to the maintenance of Latin grammar schools in Hartford and New Haven, and also in the towns of Hadley and Cambridge in Massachusetts. The Dutch at New Amsterdam opened a Latin school in 1659, continued for some years after the colony passed under English rule. Secondary schools were established in Pennsylvania in the latter part of the 17th century. One of these, the William Penn Charter School at Philadelphia, has continued down to the present day. King William's school at Annapolis was erected by the legislature of Maryland in 1696, and similar schools were established in different sections of the same colony. The 18th century saw schools of like character opened, partly by legislative enactment, partly by private initiative, in these and in the remaining colonies. Some of the number, like the University Grammar School in Rhode Island and the Free School at New York, were the forerunners or the accompaniments of colonial colleges.

2. Character of the Grammar Schools.The chief emphasis in these colonial schools was laid on preparation for the college entrance examination and the requirements for admission to college determined the course of study. The colonial grammar schools accordingly taught Latin, a little Greek, religion and little else. Both grammar schools and colleges were intended especially for the directive and professional classes and had little connection with such elementary schools as there were. In Massachusetts, towns which maintained grammar schools were not required to maintain reading schools. Sometimes pupils were taught to read in grammar schools, but the grammar school teachers objected to this burden; and, too, the mixing of the two grades of instruction in one school was recognized as an evil. The grammar schools exercised a kind of selective function, discovering latent capacity for the higher studies and starting talented youth on the way to college. Those who showed capacity of a lower grade or of a different sort received little attention or encouragement.

3. The Organization of Colonial Systems.In the organization of colonial systems of sec

ondary education important beginnings were made. In 1647 the colonial legislature of Massachusetts decreed that an elementary school should be maintained in every town of 50 families; and that in every town of 100 families there should be a grammar school, in which students might be fitted for the university. This provision was copied by the colonies of Connecticut and New Hampshire, and in Connecticut the provision was afterward changed to require a grammar school in each county town. These New England colonies maintained and enforced such provisions down to and after the Revolution. Maryland also established by law a system of county grammar schools. When the colonies were transferred into States, after the Declaration of Independence, the systems of schools in the four colonies mentioned were continued with little change, but no other of the 13 States had anything that could be called a system of public instruction.


1. The Founding of Academies.- As we approach the Revolutionary period, we find new social conditions giving rise to a new order of schools. With the growth of sectarian differences there appeared a decided tendency toward the separation of governmental from ecclesiastical affairs and thus the position of educational institutions was disturbed. This change lessened the prestige of colonial systems of education among the adherents of the religious denominations and a growing distrust of the colleges appeared among those who were most in accord with the secularizing tendency of the time. The old grammar schools were weakened by these influences and in their stead there grew up a new type of secondary school, commonly known as the academy.

Both the name and the character of the new institution were suggested by precedents in England, where the Dissenters were excluded from grammar schools and universities. In the latter part of the 17th century the non-conformist bodies first established "academies," schools in the main secondary, which, however, undertook to prepare candidates for the non-conformist ministry. The fame of these English academies seems to have influenced the thought of the American colonists in the matter of public education; first the strong theological bent of their English prototypes reappeared in the new American schools; and then the resemblance was more obvious in the wide range of studies offered, for the English academy had been more practical and technical than the university. But the American academies soon came to have a well-defined character of their own, apart from any conscious imitation of English models.

In 1726, a school for classical and theological studies was established by a Presbyterian minister at Neshaminy, in Pennsylvania. It was commonly known as the "Log College," as its home was a building made of logs. This school in the wilderness was the centre of deep and widespread interest in classical studies as well as in the religious life. It sent out la numbers of zealous pastors and teachers, who established "log colleges" all over the highlands of the middle and southern colonies. The Neshaminy Log College itself was later incorporated with what is now Princeton Uni

versity. Through the efforts of Benjamin Franklin, a school was established at Philadelphia, legally incorporated as an academy in 1753, and probably the first institution in America formally designated by that title. It was under the control of a self-perpetuating board of trustees. A fund raised by private subscription for its establishment and maintenance was supplemented by a grant from the city treasury and by tuition fees, which were remitted in the case of those unable to pay. This academy organized in three departments or schools; namely, the Latin, the English and the mathematical, put little stress on the theological element and much on English language and literature and the mathematical sciences. The school ultimately developed into the University of Pennsylvania. Within two or three decades after the founding of this school at Philadelphia, a number of schools somewhat similar in character, and some of them bearing the name academy, were established in the middle and southern colonies. In New England the two Phillips academies, one at Andover in Massachusetts and the other at Exeter in New Hampshire, were incorporated in 1780 and 1781, respectively. The influence of these two schools extended to remote States, especially in the growing West; and they still rank among the strongest and most influential secondary schools. The academy movement begun in Revolutionary times grew apace even down to the period of the Civil War. More than 150 were incorporated in Massachusetts alone between 1780 and 1865. Dexter in his 'History of Education in the United States' tabulates 6,085 academies in the United States in 1850, employing 12,260 teachers and giving instruction to 263,096 pupils.

2. The Character of the Older Academies.The old academies were generally endowed institutions, organized under the control of selfperpetuating boards of trustees or of religious bodies, established to serve the need of a wide constituency and not merely of a single community, and often located in small country places. Many of them made provision for boarders as well as for day pupils. They were not intended in any exclusive sense for the training of future members of the learned professions, although many of them developed into preparatory schools. In the Western States preparatory schools attached to colleges were commonly called "academies." But such was not the earlier purpose of the academies, which were largely schools for the middle classes and answered to a growing desire after learning for its own sake, or for the increased efficiency it would give in other than professional pursuits.

Their training was more "practical" than that of the colleges, wider and more liberal than that of the grammar schools, or of some of the colleges. They laid new stress on the study of the English language, together with grammar, rhetoric and public speaking. They taught mathematics, often including surveying and navigation; began the study of natural science, especially of natural philosophy (physics), of which astronomy onstituted an important division; gave courses in geography, ancient history, English and above all American history, French often and German seldom. Latin and Greek were the substantial core of the instruction offered. In the earlier days, the



course of study was not well defined. In English, Latin and mathematics a good degree of continuity of work was apparently maintained, but in others, classes were formed at irregular periods, because of the exigencies of rural life which demanded certain courses be confined to a short winter term not interfering with farm labor. When finally definite courses of study were laid out, they varied in length from three to four or five years. Parallel courses were offered. That including classical studies and covering the required preparation for admission to some college was commonly regarded as the standard course of the school. With this might be found an English course. Afterward a scientific course was often provided.

Many of these schools were established by religious bodies. Catholic secondary schools began to appear in this period, established by the several teaching orders. The Society of Jesus founded institutions of secondary and higher education in the United States after the Revolutionary War; the Brothers of the Christian Schools opened their first school in America at Montreal in 1838; soon after set up establishments within the United States, at Baltimore and New York, and followed these elementary schools with secondary courses; and besides many conventual schools for girls were established, which drew a large clientage from other than Catholic families. The academies established by Protestant bodies usually terminated their formal connection with ecclesiastical societies upon their legal incorporation. The religious instruction which they carried on concerned itself for the most part with the broad underlying principles of Christianity, so that the non-Catholic academies, even such as had arisen from the initiative of religious societies, tended toward the non-sectarian character which has been more fully exemplified in the public schools of later times.

The grammar schools had been exclusively for boys. Such was the case with many of the academies. But others were coeducational, and there grew up also a large number of academies for girls, which were all too often weighed down with the title of "female seminary." "The last two prepared the way for two types in higher education, appearing in the fourth decade of the 19th century; namely, the coeducational college and the college for women exclusively.

The academies broadened the intellectual horizon of families and communities and re

inforced protest whic was arising against

the narrow curriculum of the American colleges. In the absence of special schools for the training of teachers, the better elementary schools were for a long time in the hands of academy graduates. Special classes were organized in New York and Pennsylvania academies for instruction in the art of teaching and a seminary for teachers was opened in connection with Phillips Academy at Andover. When State normal schools began to be established in Massachusetts in the year 1839, suggestions for their organization and management were drawn from this seminary and from the current practice of academies. With the introduction and subsequent rapid growth of normal schools in this country a new means of secondary training of considerable importance was

added, since these institutions began and continued to devote a large share of their time to work essentially academic in character and of secondary rank.

3. The Rise of the Public High School.— In the early part of the 19th century there appeared a strong demand for schools under the exclusive control of the State. The Calvinistic view of the civil power had prepared the way for State agency in education, and the steadily advancing separation between Church and State kept alive the question as to the relation of the schools to both. The wellestablished theory that the State should grant charters to colleges, authorizing them to manage their own affairs under close corporations, with incidental aid from the State in the shape of gifts of land or money, was long applied to secondary education as well. The first step in the establishment of public secondary schools was taken by the larger towns and municipalities, under the lead of Boston, where in 1821 was established an "English Classical School," which soon took the name of "English High School," probably imitating the style of the Edinburgh High School. The report to the school committee made at the time of its founding said: "The mode of education now adopted, and the branches of knowledge that are taught at our English grammar schools are not sufficiently extensive nor otherwise calculated to bring the powers of the mind into operation nor to qualify a youth to fill usefully and respectably many of the stations, both public and private, in which he may be placed." A three-year course was adopted, embracing English language and literature, mathematics, navigation and surveying, geography, natural philosophy (including astronomy), history, logic, and moral and political philosophy. Latin and modern languages were added afterward and the course was extended to four years. Students were received into the high school from the elementary schools of the city, but at first were not prepared for admission to college, that being the function of the Latin school. But with the addition of foreign languages to its course of study the English High School fitted its students for admission to certain higher institutions.

Other Massachusetts towns followed the lead of Boston in this matter. Philadelphia, in 1838, established the Central High School, under special authorization from the Pennsylvania legislature. Baltimore followed with the establishment of a "city college." Providence opened a public high school in 1843. Hartford, in 1847, transformed her old grammar school into a school of the newer type. New York opened a "free academy" in 1848, the name of which was afterward changed to the College of the City of New York. This school was established in accordance with a special act of the State legislature, ratified by vote of the people of the city. The growth of public high schools prior to the Civil War was not rapid. The exact number established in the first 40 years of the movement has not been accurately determined, due to the inaccuracy and meagerness of data upon the question. Inglis, compiling from data given in the report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1904, estimates the total number established prior to 1860 at 321, indicating, however, that the esti

mate is probably very inexact. Cubberley, following a table prepared by William T. Harris while United States Commissioner of Education, says that as late as 1860 but 69 of our present cities are regarded as having organized a clearly defined high-school course of study. Prior to the Civil War, and for a long time after it, the public high school movement encountered hostility from those who regarded the academy as the final or best solution of the problem of public secondary education. It also encountered hostility from those who were opposed on principle to the recognition of secondary education as a proper field for governmental agency.


4. The Beginnings of State Systems of Secondary Education.- Soon after the close of the Revolutionary War, new State systems of education began to be established, in which special provision was made for secondary schools. The University of the State of New York, erected in 1784, is a notable example of the strong influence which French thought then exercised in American affairs, as it realized the conception of a university put forth by Diderot and others of the great French writers of the latter half of the 18th century. It embraced the whole provision for secondary and higher education within the State, with the exception of schools of a purely private characIts control was vested in a Board of Regents, consisting of the governor and the lieutenant-governor, ex officio, and 19 members elected by the State legislature. The reorganization of 1787 made the Board of Regents distinct from the Board of Trustees of Columbia College, with which it had been identical. This "university" exercised great influence on later systems; and in Georgia, by an act passed in 1785, "All public schools instituted, or to be supported by funds or public moneys in this State, shall be considered as parts or members of the university"; and in the territory of Michigan an act was passed in 1817 instituting a university of imposing character. The latter establishment existed mainly on paper, and the act incorporating it was repealed in 1821. The Georgia "university" also never amounted to much in its original form. But although the comprehensive type of university organization was not widely adopted, there was a general desire in the early part of the 19th century to establish complete and well-rounded systems of public instruction. The legislature of Tennessee declared in 1817 that "Institutions of learning, both academies and colleges, should ever be under the fostering care of this legislature, and in their connection with each other form a complete system of education." Even more significant is the provision of the constitution of Indiana, adopted in 1816, that "It shall be the duty of the general assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide by law for a general system of education, ascending in regular gradation from township schools to a State university wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all."

For the most part, however, actual State agency in secondary education was as yet limited to the subsidizing of privately managed academies. In Massachusetts the provision for grammar schools under town control was continued after the colony became a State, but the law was so changed that only the larger towns

were left subject to this requirement. At the same time academies established by private initiative were endowed by the legislature with grants of public lands. In Kentucky the State legislature granted 6,000 acres of public lands to an academy in each county. In Pennsylvania colleges and academies received financial aid from the State for many years, culminating in 1838 in a general State system of educational subsidies. Five years later such aid was discontinued. In other States the granting of State subsidies, in money or lands, to secondary and higher schools was customary for many years. For the most part there was but little system or consistency observable in the distribution of such aid; and the State-aided institutions were not subjected to any sort of State control.

It would seem an easy transition from the State policy of granting subsidies to private secondary schools to the policy of providing by law for the establishment, and even the support, of such institutions. This transition was not, however, readily made, since, as has been mentioned, many objected to the principle involved regarding secondary education as a proper field of governmental agency. The legal questions wrapped up in this latter contention were not settled until 1874, when the Supreme Court of Michigan, in what is known as the "Kalamazoo Case, decided: "Neither in our State policy, in our constitution, nor in our laws do we find the primary school districts restricted in the branches of knowledge which their officers may cause to be taught, or the grade of instruction that may be given, if their voters consent, in regular form, to bear the expense and raise the taxes for the purpose." The principle involved was applied long before this decision, however. As early as 1798 Connecticut authorized the opening of higher schools by the local authorities ("school societies"). In Massachusetts the law requiring grammar schools in the towns was so far weakened, in 1824, that towns having a population of less than 5,000 were allowed to substitute therefor an elementary school. But three years later, 1827, it was enacted that every town having 500 families should provide a master to give instruction in the history of the United States, bookkeeping, geometry, surveying and algebra; and every town having 4,000 inhabitants a master capable of giving instruction in Latin and Greek, history, rhetoric and logic. Due to the strong entrenchment of the "district system," this law was modified and even weakened many times prior to the Civil War; but in the revision of 1859 all of the essential provisions were reenacted and even bettered. Iowa adopted a provision in 1849 expressly permitting the aiding of higher grades to the public schools; and in 1858 authorized the establishment of county high schools. In New York, systematic grading of schools went steadily forward; and the "academic departments" of these schools corresponding to the high schools of other States, formed a part of the University of the State of New York and received financial aid from the literature fund. In Maryland, the county academies, which had displaced the grammar schools of colonial days, continued for many years to receive financial aid from the State. Prior to the Civil War, therefore, all later types of State interest in secondary schools of a public character were at least represented:

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