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THE CIVIL WAR.
ondary education important beginnings were versity. Through the efforts of Benjamin made. In 1647 the colonial legislature of Mas Franklin, a school was established at Philadelsachusetts decreed that an elementary school phia, legally incorporated as an academy in should be maintained in every town of 50 fam 1753, and probably the first institution in Amerilies; and that in every town of 100 families ica formally designated by that title. It was there should be a grammar school, in which under the control of a self-perpetuating board students might be fitted for the university. of trustees. A fund raised by private subscripThis provision was copied by the colonies of tion for its establishment and maintenance Connecticut and New Hampshire, and in Con was supplemented by a grant from the city necticut the provision was afterward changed treasury and by tuition iees, which were reto require a grammar School in each county mitted in the case of those unable to pay. This town. These New England colonies maintained academy organized in three departments or and enforced such provisions down to and after schools; namely, the Latin, the English and the the Revolution. laryland also established by mathematical, put little stress on the theological law a system of county grammar schools. element and much on English language and litWhen the colonies were transferred into States, erature and the mathematical sciences. The after the Declaration of Independence, the sys school ultimately developed into the University tems of schools in the four colonies mentioned of Pennsylvania. Within two or three decades were continued with little change, but no other after the founding of this school at Philadelof the 13 States had anything that could be phia, a number of schools somewhat similar in called a system of public instruction.
character, and some of them bearing the name
academy, were established in_the middle and THE PERIOD FROM THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR TO southern colonies. In New England the two
Phillips academies, one at Andover in Massa1. The Founding of Academies.- As we ap chusetts and the other at Exeter in New Hampproach the Revolutionary period, we find new shire, were incorporated in 1780 and 1781, resocial conditions giving rise to a new order of spectively. The influence of these two schools schools. With the growth of sectarian differ extended to remote States, especially in the ences there appeared a decided tendency to growing West; and they still rank among the ward the separation of governmental from ec strongest and most influential secondary schools. clesiastical affairs and thus the position of edu The academy movement begun in Revolutionary cational institutions was disturbed. This change times grew apace even down to the period of the lessened the prestige of colonial systems of edu Civil War. More than 150 were incorporated cation among the adherents of the religious de in Massachusetts alone between 1780 and 1865. nominations and a growing distrust of the col Dexter in his History of Education in the leges appeared among those who were most in United States) tabulates 6,085 academies in the accord with the secularizing tendency of the United States in 1850, employing 12,260 teachtime. The old grammar schools were weakened ers and giving instruction to 263,096 pupils. by these influences and in their stead there 2. The Character of the Older Academies.grew up a new type of secondary school, com The old academies were generally endowed inmonly known as the academy.
stitutions, organized under the control of selfBoth the name and the character of the new perpetuating boards of trustees or of religious institution were suggested by precedents in Eng bodies, established to serve the need of a wide land, where the Dissenters were excluded from constituency and not merely of a single comgrammar schools and universities, In the lat munity, and often located in small country ter part of the 17th century the non-conformist places. Many of them made provision for bodies first established “academies, schools in hoarders as well as for day pupils. They were the main secondary, which, however, undertook not intended in any exclusive sense for the to prepare candidates for the non-conformist training of future members of the learned proministry. The fame of these English acade fessions, although many of them developed mies seems to have influenced the thought of the into preparatory schools. In the Western American colonists in the matter of public edu States preparatory schools attached to colleges cation ; first the strong theological bent of their were commonly called (academies.) But such English prototypes reappeared in the new Amer was not the earlier purpose of the academies, ican schools; and then the resemblance was which were largely schools for the middle more obvious in the wide range of studies of classes and answered to a growing desire after fered, for the English academy had been more learning for its own sake, or for the increased practical and technical than the university. efficiency it would give in other than profesBut the American academies soon came to have sional pursuits. a well-defined character of their own, apart Their training was more “practical than from any conscious imitation of English models. that of the colleges, wider and more liberal
In 1726, a school for classical and theologi than that of the grammar schools, or of some cal studies was established by a Presbyterian of the colleges. They laid new stress on the minister at Neshaminy, in Pennsylvania. It study of the English language, together with was commonly known as the “Log College, as grammar, rhetoric and public speaking. They its home was a building made of logs. This taught mathematics, often including surveying school in the wilderness was the centre of deep and navigation; began the study of natural and widespread interest in classical studies as science, especially of natural philosophy (physwell as in the religious life. It sent out large ics), of which astronomy constituted an importnumbers of zealous pastors and teachers, who ant division; gave courses in geography, anestablished "log colleges all over the highlands cient history, English and above all American of the middle and southern colonies. The history, French often and German seldom. Neshaminy Log College itself was later in Latin and Greek were the substantial core of corporated with what is now Princeton Uni the instruction offered. In the earlier days, the
course of study was not well defined. In Eng added, since these institutions began and conlish, Latin and mathematics a good degree of uinued to devote a large share of their time to continuity of work was apparently maintained, work essentially academic in character and of but in others
, classes were formed at irregular secondary rank. periods, because of the exigencies of rural life 3. The Rise of the Public High School.which demanded certain courses be confined to In the early part of the 19th century there a short winter term not interfering with farm appeared a strong demand for schools under labor. When finally definite courses of study the exclusive control of the State. The Calwere laid out, they varied in length from three vinistic view of the civil power had prepared to four or five years. Parallel courses were of the way for State agency in education, and the fered. That including classical studies and steadily advancing, separation between Church covering the required preparation for admis and State kept alive the question as to the sion to some college was commonly regarded as relation of the schools to both. The wellthe standard course of the school. With this established theory that the State should grant might be found an English course. Afterward charters to colleges, authorizing them to mana scientific course was often provided.
age their own affairs under close corporations, Many of these schools were established by with incidental aid from the State in the shape religious bodies. Catholic Secondary schools of gifts of land or money, was long applied to began to appear in this period, established by secondary education as well. The first step in the several teaching orders. The Society of the establishment of public secondary schools Jesus founded institutions of secondary and
was taken by the larger towns and municipalihigher education in the United States after the ties, under the lead of Boston, where in 1821 was Revolutionary War; the Brothers of the Chris established an English Classical School," which tian Schools opened their first school in Amer soon took the name of English High School, ica at Montreal in 1838; soon after set up estab probably imitating the style of the Edinburgh lishments within the United States, at Balti High School. The report to the school commitmore and New York, and followed these ele tee made at the time of its founding said: “The mentary schools with secondary courses; and mode of education now adopted, and the besides many conventual schools for girls were
branches of knowledge that are taught at our established, which drew a large clientage from English grammar schools are not sufficiently other than Catholic families. The academies extensive nor otherwise calculated to bring the established by Protestant bodies usually termi powers of the mind into operation nor to nated their formal connection with ecclesiasti qualify a youth to fill usefully and respectably cal societies upon their legal incorporation. The many of the stations, both public and private, religious instruction which they carried on con
in which he may be placed.” A three-year cerned itself for the most part with the broad
was adopted, embracing. English lanunderlying principles of Christianity, so that guage and literature, mathematics, navigation the non-Catholic academies, even such as had and surveying, geography, natural philosophy arisen from the initiative of religious societies, (including astronomy), history, logic, and moral tended toward the non-sectarian character and political philosophy. Latin and modern which has been more fully exemplified in the languages were added afterward and the course public schools of later times.
was extended to four years. Students were The grammar schools had been exclusively received into the high school from the elemenfor boys. Such was the case with many of the tary schools of the city, but at first were not academies. But others were coeducational, and prepared for admission to college, that being there grew up also a large number of acad the function of the Latin school. But with the emies for girls, which were all too often addition of foreign languages to its course of weighed down with the title of female semi study the English High School fitted its stunary.” The last two prepared the way for two dents for admission to certain higher institutions. types in higher education, appearing in the Other Massachusetts towns followed the fourth decade of the 19th century; namely, the lead of Boston in this matter. Philadelphia, in coeducational college and the college for women 1838, established the Central High School, under exclusively.
special authorization from the Pennsylvania The academies broadened the intellectual legislature. Baltimore followed with the estabhorizon of families and communities and re lishment of a city college. Providence opened inforced the protest which was arising against
a public high school in 1843. Hartford, in 1847, the narrow curriculum of the American col transformed her old grammar school into a leges. In the absence of special schools for the school of the newer type. New York opened training of teachers, the better elementary a «free academy) in 1848, the name of which schools were for a long time in the hands of was afterward changed to the College of the academy graduates. Special classes were or City of New York. This school was estabganized in New York and Pennsylvania acad lished in accordance with a special act of the emies for instruction in the art of teaching State legislature, ratified by vote of the people and a seminary for teachers was opened in con of the city. The growth of public high schools nection with Phillips Academy at Andover. prior to the Civil War was not rapid. The When State normal schools began to be estab exact number established in the first 40 years lished in Massachusetts in the year 1839, sug of the movement has not been accurately degestions for their organization and management termined, due to the inaccuracy and meagerness were drawn from this seminary and from the of data upon the question. Inglis, compiling current practice of academies. With the intro from data given in the report of the United duction and subsequent rapid growth of normal States Commissioner of Education for 1904, schools in this country, a new means of sec estimates the total number established prior to ondary training of considerable importance was 1860 at 321, indicating, however, that the esti
mate is probably very inexact. Cubberley, following a table prepared by William T. Harris while United States Commissioner of Education, says that as late as 1860 but 69 of our present cities are regarded as having organized a clearly defined high-school course of study. Prior to the Civil War, and for a long time after it, the public high school movement encountered hostility from those who regarded the academy as the final or best solution of the problem of public secondary education. It also encountered hostility from those who were opposed on principle to the recognition of secondary education as a proper field for governmental agency.
4. The Beginnings of State Systems of Secondary Education.- Soon after the close of the Revolutionary War, new State systems of education began to be established, in which special provision was made for sccondary schools. The University of the State of New York, erected in 1784, is a notable example of the strong influence which French thought then exercised in American affairs, as it realized the conception of a university put forth by Diderot and others of the great French writers of the latter half of the 18th century. It embraced the whole provision for secondary and higher education within the State, with the exception of schools of a purely private character. Its control was vested in a Board of Regents, consisting of the governor and the lieutenant-governor, ex officio, and 19 members elected by the State legislature. The reorganization of 1787 made the Board of Regents distinct from the Board of Trustees of Columbia College, with which it had been identical. This (university exercised great influence on later systems; and in Georgia, by an act passed in 1785, «All public schools instituted, or to be supported by funds or public moneys in this State, shall be considered as parts or inembers of the university); and in the territory of Michigan an act was passed in 1817 instituting a university of imposing character. The latter establishment existed mainly on paper, and the act incorporating it was repealed in 1821. The Georgia "university) also never amounted to much in its original form. But although the comprehensive type of university organization was not widely adopted, there was a general desire in the early part of the 19th century to establish complete and well-rounded systems of public instruction. The legislature of Tennessee declared in 1817 that 'Institutions of learning, both academies and colleges, should ever be under the fostering care of this legislature, and in their connection with each other form a complete system of education. Even more significant is the provision of the constitution of Indiana, adopted in 1816, that 'It shall be the duty of the general assembly, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide by law for a general system of education, ascending in regular gradation from township schools to a State university wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all.”
For the most part, however, actual State agency in secondary education was as yet limited to the subsidizing of privately managed academies. In Massachusetts the provision for grammar schools under town control was continued after the colony became a State, but the law was so changed that only the larger towns
were left subject to this requirement. At the same time academies established by private initiative were endowed by the legislature with grants of public lands. In Kentucky the State legislature granted 6,000 acres of public lands to an academy in each county. In Pennsylvania colleges and academies received financial aid from the State for many years, culminating in 1838 in a general State system of educational subsidies. Five years later such aid was discontinued. In other States the granting of State subsidies, in money or lands, to secondary and higher schools was customary for many years. For the most part there was but little system or consistency observable in the distribution of such aid; and the State-aided institutions were not subjected to any sort of State control.
It would scem an easy transition from the State policy of granting subsidies to private secondary schools to the policy of providing by law for the establishment, and even the support, of such institutions. This transition was not, however, readily made, since, as has been mentioned, many objected to the principle involved regarding secondary education as a proper field of governmental agency. The legal questions wrapped up in this latter contention were not settled until 1874, when the Supreme Court of Michigan, in what is known as the Kalamazoo Case,) decided: "Neither in our State policy, in our constitution, nor in our laws do we find the primary school districts restricted in the branches of knowledge which their officers may cause to be taught, or the grade of instruction that may be given, if their voters consent, in regular form, to bear the expense and raise the taxes for the purpose.” The principle involved was applied long before this decision, however. As early as 1798 Connecticut authorized the opening of higher schools by the local authorities («school societies”). In Massachusetts the law requiring grammar schools in the towns was so far weakened, in 1824, that towns having a population of less than 5,000 were allowed to substitute therefor an elementary school. But three years later, 1827, it was enacted that every town having 500 families should provide a master to give instruction in the history of the United States, bookkeeping, geometry, surveying, and algebra; and every town having 4,000 inhabitants a master capable of giving instruction in Latin and Greek, history, rhetoric and logic. Due to the strong entrenchment of the district system, this law was modified and even weakened many times prior to the Civil War; but in the revision of 1859 all of the essential provisions were reenacted and even bettered. Iowa adopted a provision in 1849 expressly permitting the aiding of higher grades to the public schools; and in 1858 authorized the establishment of county high schools. In New York, systematic grading of schools went steadily forward; and the (academic departments of these schools corresponding to the high schools of other States, formed a part of the University of the State of New York and received financial aid from the literature fund. In Maryland, the county academies, which had displaced the grammar schools of colonial days, continued for many years to receive financial aid from the State. Prior to the Civil War, therefore, all later types of State interest in secondary schools of a public character were at least represented :
the “permissive" type; the obligatory type; and the type in which a complete and well-rounded system was sought.
THE PERIOD FROM THE CIVIL WAR TO THE PRESENT.
1. Statistics of Growth.- From the Civil War to 1890 data upon this point are very incomplete and inaccurate. The United States Bureau of Education, formally established in 1866, almost immediately began to collect_statistics regarding secondary institutions. Difficulties were at once met in classifying such institutions and in getting reports from them. Work of secondary character was done in schools bearing all sorts of titles: academies, high schools, seminaries, female seminaries, institutes, grammar schools, preparatory schools, colleges, universities, schools of science and normal schools. It was well into the eighties before the public high schools began to rival their competitors in numbers of students. Since 1890 the growth in such schools as well as in the number of students enrolled in them has been phenomenal. The following table is compiled from the reports of the United States Commissioner of Education:
of the most important of these problems may be reviewed.
2. The Relation of Secondary to Higher Education.- While the public high school grew up primarily to serve the students who did not plan to enter college, the new institution did not long remain uninfluenced by the demands of higher institutions. In the seventies and eighties, much discussion took place relative to the wisdom of high schools emphasizing preparation for college; but the question was soon dropped and the problem of adjusting the relation between these institutions became probably the most important question in secondary education for the ensuing three or four decades.
One of the earliest methods of adjusting this relationship, and one which remains to-day as probably the most effective, is the so-called "accrediting system.” This system was inaugurated by the University of Michigan in 1871. Under it the university admitted to its freshman class, without examination, such graduates of approved secondary schools as were especially recommended for that purpose by the principals of those schools. It depended upon a purely voluntary agreement between the secondary schools and the higher institutions, so that the school rather than the individual was examined; and the inquiry related chiefly to the vitality, intelligence and general effectiveness of the instruction. A large number of other State universities have adopted this general plan; some have developed elaborate and rigid means of inspecting the secondary schools, while others have failed to do so because of the large amount of work and expense involved. Some have relied to a large extent upon written reports; others have insisted upon first-hand inspection by a university officer. In 1914, according to the bulletin of the United States Bureau of Education on Accredited Secondary Schools in the United States” (Bulletin, 1915, No. 7); at least 19 State universities relied upon lists prepared by their own authorities. A number of private universities and colleges likewise build their own lists; some examples of these are University of Chicago, Johns Hopkins University, Catholic University of America and Saint John's College.
In a considerable number of cases State laws have empowered their own State departments of education to classify and standardize secondary schools. Some erect very elaborate systems of grading and employ an adequate inspection force. In 1914 New York had an inspections division under the Board of Regents consisting of a chief and 13 assistants, of whom 10 at least gave their whole time to the work. Ohio and Minnesota are other notable examples of this system, but with a less highly developed technique than New York. In many cases, State universities accept the lists of accredited secondary schools made by the State departments; such is the practice at present in at least 10 States. In some of the Southern States the success of this system has been made possible through co-operation with the General Education Board of New York city. These State lists have served other accrediting boards throughout the country and have exerted a powerful influence toward raising standards within the States preparing them.
A third series of agencies influential in developing the accrediting system may be found
The tremendous growth shown has been the result of a large number of factors. In the first place, social changes of great significance have been taking place since the Civil War period. A number of these changes peculiarly important in their bearings upon secondary eduication need but be mentioned: the rapid increase of population containing a large percentage more or less unacquainted with our political conditions; the growth of science with resultant discoveries and inventions; and, largely in consequence of these, the multiplication of industries and vocational opportunities requiring special training. Along with these, the increase in wealth, both public and private, the growth of cities, the systematization of business and the opportunities afforded for leisure have produced far-reaching results upon secondary and higher education. In the second place, education as a study has taken a place among the sciences. In this development secondary education has received attention, especially in the field of adolescent physiology and psychology. G. Stanley Hall's notable work on Adolescence (q.v.), published in 1905, started a new interest in both the kind and the extent of education which youth should receive. All of these factors are extremely complex in their bearings; and in spite of the great advances so far made, the principles of secondary education both in their administrative and theoretical aspects constitute problems rather than fixed conclusions. Some
in a number of associations formed in different sections of the country and made up of representatives from both secondary schools and higher institutions. These grew up primarily to bring these representatives iogether for the purpose of discussing common problems; and while retaining the original purpose, they have added the work of preparing lists of accredited secondary schools for the use of the institutions represented. The parent society of this sort is the New England Association of College and Preparatory (now Secondary) Schools organized at Bošton in 1885. This organization prompted the establishment of The New England College Entrance Certificate Board in 1902. This is now made up of representatives from all the leading colleges and universites of New England and has a list containing the names of more than 400 accredited secondary schools. The Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Middle States and Maryland came into existence in 1892. Out of this grew the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. While this board relies for the most part on the examination of the individual student, its influence upon the relation between secondary and higher education is essentially the same as that of the accrediting system. The North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools was formed at Evanston, Ill., in 1895; and The Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Southern Siates at Atlanta, Ga., in the same year. Both of these associations have extensive lists of accredited schools.
The criteria used by these different accrediting bodies differed widely in the demands they made upon secondary schools, and they still continue to do so. For example, at the present time the College Entrance Examination Board recognizes but 11 subjects as permissible in a standard high school course while the University of Minnesota recognizes 22. Some means of securing uniformity, therefore, became a significant problem; and this problem remains as vital to-day as it was in 1890. Inasmuch as no mechanical adjustment between secondary schools and colleges can settle this problem, the important attacks that have been made upon it have attempted to go to the bottom of the educational questions involved in order to get a basis for determining the details of relationship.
The first and one of the very most significant attempts at solution was made by the Committee on Secondary School Studies, appointed by the National Education Association in 1892 and known "Committee of Ten.” Nine sub-committees of 10 members each were appointed to prepare reports the several ordinary departments of secondary school instruction; namely, Latin, Greek, English, other modern languages, mathematics, physics (with astronomy and chemistry), natural history (biology, including botany, zoology and physiology), history (with civil governinent and political economy), geography (physical geography, geology and meteorology). The Committee of Tcn, having secured carefully prepared reports from its sub-committees and having examined a large number of the courses in actual use in secondary schools, drew up a report which was published by the United States government in December 1893, together with the reports of the several sub-committees.
Great stress was laid on the correlation of studies in secondary schools, the unifying of many subjects into a well-knit course of instruction, through the recognition of their numerous inter-relations. The committee would have continuous instruction in the four main lines of language, mathematics, history and natural science. In particular they recommended that in the first two years of a four-year course each student should enter all of the principal fields of knowledge, in order that he may fairly exhibit his quality and discover his tastes); and urge the postponement of the beginning of Greek to the third year, in order that the student may not find himself at the bifurcation of the course into classical and Latin-scientific courses before he is ready, or his advisers sufficiently informed as to his capabilities, to make an intelligent choice. The committee would require in cach course a maximum of 20 recitation periods a week; but they would have five of these periods devoted to unprepared work; and would reserve double periods for laboratory exercises whenever possible. With reference to requirements for admission to college, the committee recommend that the colleges and scientific schools of the country should accept for admission to appropriate courses of their instruction the attainments of any youth who has passed creditably through a good secondary school course, no matter to what group of subjects he may have mainly devoted himself in the secondary schools." “A good secondary school course they describe as consisting of any group of studies from those considered by the sub-committees, "provided that the sum of the studies in each of the four years amounts to 16, or 18, or 20 periods a week,- as may be thought hest,- and provided, further, that in each ycar at least four of the subjects presented shall have been pursued at least three periods a week, and that at least three of the subjects shall have been pursued three years or more.”
The next attempt at an adjustment of the relations of secondary schools and colleges, to the educational advantages of both, is contained in the report of the Committee on College Entrance Requirements, appointed in 1895 by the National Educational Association and consisting of 14 members, representing the high schools and universities of different sections of the country, under the chairmanship of the superintendent of high schools of the city of Chicago. The first important service rendered by the comınittee was the preparation and publication of a table showing the actual entrance requirements of 67 representative colleges, universities and higher technical schools in the United States. The committee's final report, presented at the meeting of the National Educational Association in July 1899, is mainly devoted to the attempt to establish “national units, or norms, in the several subjects taught in the secondary schools as preparatory to the college course. The fundamental problem is to formulate courses of study in each of the several subjects of the curriculum which shall be substantially equal in value, the measure of value being both quantity and quality of work done.) În the determination of these norms the committee received assistance from several bodies of expert scholars in the several branches of instruction. The supplemental papers received from these bodies are published in connection with