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the "permissive" type; the obligatory type; and the type in which a complete and well-rounded system was sought.
THE PERIOD FROM THE CIVIL WAR TO THE PRESENT.
1. Statistics of Growth.- From the Civil War to 1890 data upon this point are very incomplete and inaccurate. The United States Bureau of Education, formally established in 1866, almost immediately began to collect_statistics regarding secondary institutions. Difficulties were at once met in classifying such institutions and in getting reports from them. Work of secondary character was done in schools bearing all sorts of titles: academies, high schools, seminaries, female seminaries, institutes, grammar schools, preparatory schools, colleges, universities, schools of science and normal schools. It was well into the eighties before the public high schools began to rival their competitors in numbers of students. Since 1890 the growth in such schools as well as in the number of students enrolled in them has been phenomenal. The following table is compiled from the reports of the United States Commissioner of Education:
1,632 7,209 94,931 2,180 8,559 118,347
1,978 10,117 110,797 1,627 9,850 107,207 1,781 11,146 117,400 2,093 14,946 229,046
The tremendous growth shown has been the result of a large number of factors. In the first place, social changes of great significance have been taking place since the Civil War period. A number of these changes peculiarly important in their bearings upon secondary education need but be mentioned: the rapid increase of population containing a large percentage more or less unacquainted with our political conditions; the growth of science with resultant discoveries and inventions; and, largely in consequence of these, the multiplication of industries and vocational opportunities requiring special training. Along with these, the increase in wealth, both public and private, the growth of cities, the systematization of business and the opportunities afforded for leisure have produced far-reaching results upon secondary and higher education. In the second place, education as a study has taken a place among the sciences. In this development secondary education has received attention, especially in the field of adolescent physiology and psychology. G. Stanley Hall's notable work on 'Adolescence' (q.v.), published in 1905, started a new interest in both the kind and the extent of education which youth should receive. All of these factors are extremely complex in their bearings; and in spite of the great advances so far made, the principles of secondary education both in their administrative and theoretical aspects constitute problems rather than fixed conclusions. Some
of the most important of these problems may be reviewed.
2. The Relation of Secondary to Higher Education. While the public high school grew up primarily to serve the students who did not plan to enter college, the new institution did not long remain uninfluenced by the demands of higher institutions. In the seventies and eighties, much discussion took place relative to the wisdom of high schools emphasizing preparation for college; but the question was soon dropped and the problem of adjusting the relation between these institutions became probably the most important question in secondary education for the ensuing three or four decades.
One of the earliest methods of adjusting this relationship, and one which remains to-day as probably the most effective, is the so-called "accrediting system." This system was inaugurated by the University of Michigan in 1871. Under it the university admitted to its freshman class, without examination, such graduates of approved secondary schools as were especially recommended for that purpose by the principals of those schools. It depended upon a purely voluntary agreement between the secondary schools and the higher institutions, so that the school rather than the individual was examined; and the inquiry related chiefly to the vitality, intelligence and general effectiveness of the instruction. A large number of other State universities have adopted this general plan; some have developed elaborate and rigid means of inspecting the secondary schools, while others have failed to do so because of the large amount of work and expense involved. Some have relied to a large extent upon written reports; others have insisted upon first-hand inspection by a university officer. In 1914, according to the bulletin of the United States Bureau of Education on "Accredited Secondary Schools in the United States" (Bulletin, 1915, No. 7), at least 19 State universities relied upon lists prepared by their own authorities. A number of private universities and colleges likewise build their own lists; some examples of these are University of Chicago, Johns Hopkins University, Catholic University of America and Saint John's College.
In a considerable number of cases State laws have empowered their own State departments of education to classify and standardize secondary schools. Some erect very elaborate systems of grading and employ an adequate inspection force. In 1914 New York had an inspections division under the Board of Regents consisting of a chief and 13 assistants, of whom 10 at least gave their whole time to the work. Ohio and Minnesota are other notable examples of this system, but with a less highly developed technique than New York. In many cases, State universities accept the lists of accredited secondary schools made by the State departments; such is the practice at present in at least 10 States. In some of the Southern States the success of this system has been made possible through co-operation with the General Education Board of New York city. These State lists have served other accrediting boards throughout the country and have exerted a powerful influence toward raising standards within the States preparing them.
A third series of agencies influential in developing the accrediting system may be found
in a number of associations formed in different sections of the country and made up of representatives from both secondary schools and higher institutions. These grew up primarily to bring these representatives together for the purpose of discussing common problems; and while retaining the original purpose, they have added the work of preparing lists of accredited secondary schools for the use of the institutions represented. The parent society of this sort is the New England Association of College and Preparatory (now Secondary) Schools organized at Boston in 1885. This organization prompted the establishment_of The New England College Entrance Certificate Board in 1902. This is now made up of representatives from all the leading colleges and universites of New England and has a list containing the names of more than 400 accredited secondary schools. The Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Middle States and Maryland came into existence in 1892. Out of this grew the College Entrance Examination Board in 1900. While this board relies for the most part on the examination of the individual student, its influence upon the relation between secondary and higher education is essentially the same as that of the accrediting system. The North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools was formed at Evanston, Ill., in 1895; and The Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools of the Southern States at Atlanta, Ga., in the same year. Both of these associations have extensive lists of accredited schools.
The criteria used by these different accrediting bodies differed widely in the demands they made upon secondary schools, and they still continue to do so. For example, at the present time the College Entrance Examination Board recognizes but 11 subjects as permissible in a standard high school course while the University of Minnesota recognizes 22. Some means of securing uniformity, therefore, became a significant problem; and this problem remains as vital to-day as it was in 1890. Inasmuch as no mechanical adjustment between secondary schools and colleges can settle this problem, the important attacks that have been made upon it have attempted to go to the bottom of the educational questions involved in order to get a basis for determining the details of relationship.
The first and one of the very most significant attempts at solution was made by the Committee on Secondary School Studies, appointed by the National Education Association in 1892 and known as "Committee of Ten." Nine sub-committees of 10 members each were appointed to prepare reports on the several ordinary departments of secondary school instruction; namely, Latin, Greek, English, other modern languages, mathematics, physics (with astronomy and chemistry), natural history (biology, including botany, zoology and physiology), history (with civil governinent and political economy), geography (physical geography, geology and meteorology). The Committee of Ten, having secured carefully prepared reports from its sub-committees and having examined a large number of the courses in actual use in secondary schools, drew up a report which was published by the United States government in December 1893, together with the reports of the several sub-committees.
Great stress was laid on the correlation of studies in secondary schools, the unifying of many subjects into a well-knit course of instruction, through the recognition of their numerous inter-relations. The committee would have continuous instruction in the four main lines of language, mathematics, history and natural science. In particular they recommended that in the first two years of a four-year course each student should enter all of the principal fields of knowledge, in order that he may fairly "exhibit his quality and discover his tastes"; and urge the postponement of the beginning of Greek to the third year, in order that the student may not find himself at the bifurcation of the course into classical and Latin-scientific courses before he is ready, or his advisers sufficiently informed as to his capabilities, to make an intelligent choice. The committee would require in each course a maximum of 20 recitation periods a week; but they would have five of these periods devoted to unprepared work; and would reserve double periods for laboratory exercises whenever possible. With reference to requirements for admission to college, the committee recommend "that the colleges and scientific schools of the country should accept for admission to appropriate courses of their instruction the attainments of any youth who has passed creditably through a good secondary school course, no matter to what group of subjects he may have mainly devoted himself in the secondary schools." "A good secondary school course" they describe as consisting of any group of studies from those considered by the sub-committees, "provided that the sum of the studies in each of the four years amounts to 16, or 18, or 20 periods a week,-as may be thought best,- and provided, further, that in each year at least four of the subjects presented shall have been pursued at least three periods a week, and that at least three of the subjects shall have been pursued three years or more."
The next attempt at an adjustment of the relations of secondary schools and colleges, to the educational advantages of both, is contained in the report of the Committee on College Entrance Requirements, appointed in 1895 by the National Educational Association and consisting of 14 members, representing the high schools and universities of different sections of the country, under the chairmanship of the superintendent of high schools of the city of Chicago. The first important service rendered by the committee was the preparation and publication of a table showing the actual entrance requirements of 67 representative colleges, universities and higher technical schools in the United States. The committee's final report, presented at the meeting of the National Educational Association in July 1899, is mainly devoted to the attempt to establish "national units, or norms," in the several subjects taught in the secondary schools as preparatory to the college course. The fundamental problem "is to formulate courses of study in each of the several subjects of the curriculum which shall be substantially equal in value, the measure of value being both quantity and quality of work done." In the determination of these norms the committee received assistance from several bodies of expert scholars in the several branches of instruction. The supplemental papers received from these bodies are published in connection with
In more recent times a number of attempts have been made to solve the problem of the relation between secondary and higher institutions. One of these has accomplished considerable good on the side of the mechanical aspects involved in the adjustment; namely, the National Conference Committee on Standards of Colleges and Secondary Schools, formed in 1906. This committee is composed of representatives from the accrediting associations mentioned earlier in this section, together with representatives from the National Association of State Universities, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the United States Bureau of Education. This committee has defined the "unit" for purposes of accrediting as follows: "A unit represents a year's study in any subject in a secondary school, constituting approximately a quarter of a full year's work. This statement is designed to afford a standard of measurement for the work done in secondary schools. It takes (1) the fouryear high school course as a basis, and assumes that (2) the length of the school year is from 36 to 40 weeks; that (3) a period is from 40 to 60 minutes in length; and that (4) the study is pursued four or five periods a week; but under ordinary circumstances a satisfactory year's work in any subject cannot be accomplished in less than 120 60-minute hours, or their equivalent."
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching gave very serious consideration to the question of the relation of high school to college in the annual reports of 1910, 1911 and 1912. These reports make rather severe attacks upon certain practices in both the high school and the college. The former is criticized for superficial work- the covering of too many subjects with thoroughness in none. The college is criticized for insisting upon too rigid prescriptions in traditional subjects for admission; they ignore changing social conditions. The burden of solving the problem is placed primarily upon the higher institutions: they must insist upon solid four-year high school courses, but must permit a wider range in the subject-matter in them.
The National Education Association has been giving renewed attention to the problem in the past five years. In 1910 the Committee of Nine on the Articulation of High School and College was appointed. The report was presented to and adopted by the Secondary Education Department of the Association the following year. In basic principles this report is in sympathy with the position of the Carnegie Foundation. Adopting the "unit" set by the National Conference Committee on Standards of Colleges and Secondary Schools, it recommends the following standard high school course: Nine specified units; three of English, two of one foreign language, two of mathematics, one of social science, including history, and one of natural science; two additional academic units, and four units left as a margin for whatever work best meets the need of the individual. A much more radical and fundamental solution of the question has been under consideration for the past four years by a committee of the National Education Association known as the Committee on Economy of Time in Education. A report of this committee_was published by the United States Bureau of Education in 1913 and remains essentially unchanged as it is being discussed to-day. So far as the question here at issue is concerned, the following of its recommendations are most significant: The elementary school should take the child from 6 to 12; the high school period should be from 12 to 18 or 12 to 16, and the college period from 18 to 20 or 16 to 20. "The proposition," says the report, "to make the high school period 12-18 or 12-16 and the college period 18-20 or 16-20 will adjust itself in the following ways: (1) It begins high school work at the proper time and continues it to the recognized age of college admission or of beginning life (12-18); (2) it provides for a large number who will enter vocations at 16 and adjusts itself to the idea of an intermediate industrial school (12-16); (3) it provides for the contingency that the college course in the reorganized scheme will end with the sophomore year and that the two years of college may be done in the university or in the larger high schools, and that the independent colleges may make a four-year course (16-20), admitting from the smaller high schools at 16."
3. Relation of the High School Course to Social Conditions and to the Needs of the Student. In spite of the so-called "domination" of the college over the high school, the latter institution has at no time in its history suppressed its original ideal of serving the youth of all classes. The lack of an energetic response on the part of the high school to changing social demands has been due in part to a basic principle of social psychology; namely, custom. The Renaissance ideal of a liberal education was the ideal of secondary education everywhere. It was well into the last half of the 19th century before the modern social view of education affected practice to any significant extent. Certain important changes in the course of study responding to this view have been made; many others are in the process of adoption.
One of the earlier movements of this characwas the manual training movement, inaugurated by the foreign exhibits at the Phila
delphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. The first manual training high school established in the United States was that opened in 1880 in connection with Washington University at Saint Louis. In 1884 the Commercial Club of Chicago established the first private independent manual training high school in the country; the first public high school of this character was opened the same year at Baltimore. By 1890 at least 38 cities had such high schools; and by 1905 at least 63 cities had followed the example. Besides these, many academic courses had included the subject. In these schools and courses the idea of manual training for the purpose of general culture was usually uppermost, their projectors disclaiming any intention of establishing schools for the teaching of trades. At present there is a tendency to view the subject from the social and practical standpoint rather than from the disciplinary.
The commercial branches had their first appearance in secondary school courses very carly in the form of bookkeeping and commercial arithmetic. In the second quarter of the last century, private business schools began flourish; and during the period from 1850 to 1890 they multiplied rapidly and furnished practically all of the training demanded for purely clerical positions. The first Commercial High School, now in existence, was established by the city of Pittsburgh in 1872; the next was the Business High School of Washington, D. C., established in 1890; Los Angeles, Cal., came third in 1895. Other large cities followed: Louisville, Ky.; San Francisco, Cal.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Syracuse, Brooklyn and New York City. Commercial courses were multiplied in academic high schools, and private business colleges waned in popularity for a time. In 1914 the United States Bureau of Education reported 2,914 public and private high schools offering commercial courses to 178,707 students. Very recently criticism has begun to the effect that commercial courses in public high schools do not after all really fit students for business; they approach their work from a point of view too academic. Some of the better commercial high schools are attempting to overcome this weakness by articulating the courses directly with commercial life; Boston and Cleveland furnish good examples of this tendency.
Preparation for agricultural pursuits through the high school began about 20 years ago, when Alabama established a school of this character in each of the nine congressional districts of the State. Five years later Wisconsin instituted its system of county schools of agriculture and domestic economy. This movement has gone steadily forward, and there are now at least 1,677 high schools, either public or private, giving courses in agriculture to 34,367 students.
At present there is no more important problem facing secondary school administration than that relative to the extension of vocational work in the high schools. States, cities and even the National government are taking an active interest in the question. Some States are encouraging the establishment of such courses by means of appropriations; many of the larger cities have already established them and are making elaborate vocational surveys looking toward their extension; and the question of Federal support to the movement in smaller places is being discussed. This whole move
ment centers for the most part in the secondary school period; and in this country the fixing of this period between the ages of 14 and 18 and the almost universal provision for it of a type of education essentially liberal in character cause the movement to be attended with tremendous difficulties which bid fair to produce far-reaching and fundamental reorganization within the whole secondary system. Significant steps in this reorganization have already been ventured. One of these may be found in the newer type of technical or vocational high schools. In these the older kinds of manual training work have been given a distinctly new turn toward the practical; trade courses of a high order have been added; and the academic subjects retained have in large part been treated from the standpoint of their bearing upon the practical work. Notable examples are the Albert G. Lane Technical High School of Chicago, opened in 1908; the Technical High School of Cleveland, opened in the same year; the Technical High School of Newton, Mass., opened in 1909, and the High School of Practical Arts for Girls, opened in Boston in 1907. A second type of readjustment, which has received at least a trial, is the so-called "Part-Time Cooperative Plan," well illustrated in the High School at Fitchburg, Mass. In 1908 a number of manufacturers together with the school authorities agreed upon the establishment of a combined shop and school course four years in length. During the first year the student spends his whole time in the school; for the next three years, he alternates weekly between shop and school, getting pay for the time he spends in the former. By this method the student gets actual shop training under shop conditions and secures a type of school work bearing directly upon the problems to be faced later in the calling. The Continuation School, so prominent in Germany, seems to offer a third type of desirable reorganization suitable to the needs of this country. Under this plan the employers permit their employees to attend vocational courses from four to six hours a week without loss of pay. Cincinnati began a high school course of this character in 1909. A fourth form of readjustment seems destined to give prominence to a kind of secondary school which is at total variance with the traditional ideals; namely, the Trade School. Such schools take boys and girls 16 years of age or over and, with little regard to their previous training, aim to provide them with skill in a particular trade. Examples are the Manhattan Trade School for Girls in New York City; the Philadelphia Trades School; the Milwaukee Trade School for Boys and a like one for girls, and the Worcester Trade School in Massachusetts.
Another form of adjusting the relation between secondary education and vocational life is so significant that it deserves special mention. For a long time it has been a question among educators whether our secondary school period did not begin too late; evidences of this feeling have been mentioned in connection with the discussion relative to the articulation of high school and college, notably the report of the Committee on Economy of Time in Education. In more recent times, studies in retardation and elimination have brought the question distinctly to the foreground. If boys and girls who need it most are to get any school training at all
which is directly correlated with the demands later to be made upon them, they must begin before the close of the elementary school period as it now exists. To meet this situation, what is known as "prevocational work" has been established in the seventh and eighth grades. In some schools a ninth grade has been instituted and shares in this kind of work. present there is a strong movement toward giving these grades, in whole or in part, a distinctive organization and name. So far as the titles are concerned, two are struggling for distinction, "The Intermediate School" and the "Junior High School." According to Briggs's treatment of the movement in the report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1914, at least 193 cities have effected an organization of the upper grades in some ways corresponding to the ideas contemplated in the movement. By many it is hoped that the next step in the movement will be the general adoption of a junior high school, taking the student from 12 to 15, to be followed by a senior high school carrying the work on to the 18th year. By this organization the differentiated courses of the one school would be directly articulated with those of the other. Just what this differentiation shall be is now under discussion; four types of courses are already prominent: the academic, the commercial, the household arts for girls and the industrial arts for boys.
Numerous as the difficulties of mechanical adjustment are in this whole movement for vocational training, they by no means exhaust the problems. The internal make-up of the courses is hard to effect, due to the lack of texts and to the lack of first-hand knowledge regarding the demands of the numerous callings; teachers who combine teaching ability with wide vocational experience are rare; and the relative amounts of attention to give to theory and to practice are very difficult to determine. Experience in the field has led to an increasing number of new needs and possibilities. The Vocational Guidance movement may be cited as one of the most significant. For the student to decide upon a calling he needs to have a rather wide knowledge about the demands of numerous vocations as well as a knowledge of his own capabilities and tastes. His location in a proper position, too, requires caution and direction. The course of study must provide for the first and a capable director is needed for guidance in the latter two. A few cities have made great advance already in attacking the question; the best known of these are Boston, Mass., and Grand Rapids, Mich. The vocation bureau of the former city was established in 1908 by Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw under plans worked out by the late Dr. Frank Parsons. Meyer Bloomfield, the present director, has extended the work greatly and has described the results and problems in his 'Youth, School and Vocation. The developments in Grand Rapids have been largely due to the work of the principal of the high school, Jesse B. Davis, whose book on 'Vocational and Moral Guidance' is exceptionally strong on the side of the educational aspects of the question.
The traditional secondary school course has not remained uninfluenced by the social and vocational movements in education; the course of study is receiving severe attacks from many quarters. The older problem of articulating
high school and college is being supplanted by the problem of adjusting courses of study to the needs of individual students and to social and civic life. The conception of liberal education is undergoing change; and in partial response to it, the "general course" is appearing among the parallel groups. Certain new studies have begun to appear, likewise, such as "general science," "community civics," art, history of art and music appreciation. Two very significant criticisms of the high school course have been issued recently by the General Education Board of New York city: one prepared by Charles W. Eliot, entitled Changes Needed in American Secondary Education, and the other by Abraham Flexner, entitled 'A Modern School. The former would, aside from the introduction of vocational subjects, have more emphasis placed upon sense training through the sciences and drawing and more time for music. The latter article would have four fields represented in the curriculum science, industry, æsthetics and civics; and within some of the subjects, radical reforms are contemplated in the way of bringing them into more direct bearing upon cultural and social life. Such reforms are proposed in particular for mathematics, ancient history and the modern languages; grammar, Latin and Greek would be eliminated entirely.
4. Problems in Method and Management.The great changes in the aim and course of study have been accompanied by changes equally significant in method and management. The laboratory method which came with the introduction of the sciences, needs but mere mention. Means for vitalizing these subjects, as well as of others, have multiplied greatly: pictures, charts, diagrams, museums, models, and moving picture appliances are examples. For the past 10 years New York State has appropriated annually $20,000 for visual aids to instruction. The numerous criticisms of the results obtained in modern language instruction have led to the partial adoption of the "Direct Method" in these branches. Dissatisfaction with results in English have led to an interest in the "Co-operation Plan," whereby all of the teachers in a given school submit part of their written work to the English teachers. Analytic and drill methods in history and literature are felt to be overdone and the so-called "Appreciation Lesson" is receiving a place in the newer books on high school method. Wider reading, fewer technical questions, dramatic presentation and more flexibility in general are required in this type of recitation. The learner, finally, is coming to be looked upon as a more important item in discussions of method than the teacher, and "teaching the pupil how to study» has come to be one of the newer efforts in the high school. A part of this involves library instruction or how to use books. All of these advances in method are virtually attempts to avoid a part of the cramming procedure which grew up while college entrance was looked upon as the chief purpose of the high school.
Changes quite as important are taking place in the field of management. The rapid growth of high schools has resulted in the bringing together of a large number of students in a single school; and athletic associations, dramatic societies, debating teams, fraternities, and all kinds of clubs have grown up. Both the social