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the committee's report. The committee adopted 1.1 resolutions, of which the following are of the greatest general significance :

1. That the principle of election be recognized in secondary schools.

4. That we favor a unified six-year high school course of study, beginning with the seventh grade.

6. That while the committee recognizes as suitable for recommendation by the colleges for admission the several studies enumerated in this report, and while it also recognizes the principle of large liberty to the students in secondary schools, it does not believe in unlimited election, but especially emphasizes the importance of a certain number of constants in all secondary schools and in all requirements for admission to college.

12. That we recommend that any piece of work comprehended within the studies included in this report that has covered at least one year of four periods a week in a well-equipped secondary school, under competent instruction, should be considered worthy to count toward admission to college.

In more recent times a number of attempts have been made to solve the problem of the relation between secondary and higher institutions. One of these has accomplished considerable good on the side of the mechanical aspects involved in the adjustment; namely, the National Conference Committee on Standards of Colleges and Secondary Schools, formed in 1906. This committee is composed of representatives from the accrediting associations mentioned earlier in this section, together with representatives from the National Association of State Universities, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the United States Bureau of Education. This committee has defined the "unit" for purposes of accrediting as follows: "A unit represents a year's study in any subject in a secondary school, constituting approximately a quarter of a full year's work. This statement is designed to afford a standard of measurement for the work done in secondary schools. It takes (1) the fouryear high school course as a basis, and assumes that (2) the length of the school year is from 36 to 40 weeks; that (3) a period is from 40 to 60 minutes in length; and that (4) the study is pursued four or five periods a week; but under ordinary circumstances a satisfactory year's work in any subject cannot be accomplished in less than 120 60-minute hours, or their equivalent."

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching gave very serious consideration to the question of the relation of high school to college in the annual reports of 1910, 1911 and 1912. These reports make rather severe attacks upon certain practices in both the high school and the college. The former is criticized for superficial work -- the covering of too many subjects with thoroughness in none. The college is criticized for insisting upon too rigid prescriptions in traditional subjects for admission; they ignore changing social conditions. The burden of solving the problem is placed primarily upon the higher institutions : they must insist upon solid four-year high school courses, but must permit a wider range in the subject-matter in them.

The National Education Association has been giving renewed attention to the problem in the past five years. In 1910 the Committee of Nine on the Articulation of High School and College was appointed. The report was presented to and adopted by the Secondary Education Department of the Association the following year. In basic principles this report is in sympathy with the position of the Carnegie Foundation. Adopting the (unit) set by the National Conference Committee on Standards of Colleges and Secondary Schools, it recommends the following standard high_school course: Nine specified units; three of English, two of one foreign language, two of mathematics, one of social science, including history, and one of natural science; two additional academic units, and four units left as a margin for whatever work best mects the need of the individual. A much more radical and fundamental solution of the question has been under consideration for the past four years by a committee of the National Education Association known as the Committee on Economy of Time in Education. A report of this committee was published by the United States Bureau of Education in 1913 and remains essentially unchanged as it is being discussed to-day. So far as the question here at issue is concerned, the following of its recommendations are most significant: The elementary school should take the child from 6 to 12; the high school period should be from 12 to 18 or 12 to 16, and the college period from 18 to 20 or 16 to 20. «The proposition,” says the report, «to make the high school period 12–18 or 12–16 and the college period 18–20 or 16–20 will adjust itself in the following ways: (1) It begins high school work at the proper time and continues it to the recognized age of college admission or of beginning life (12–18); (2) it provides for a large number who will enter vocations at 16 and adjusts itself to the idea of an intermediate industrial school (12–16); (3) it provides for the contingency that the college course in the reorganized scheme will end with the sophomore year and that the two years of college may be done in the university or in the larger high schools, and that the independent colleges may make a four-year course (16–20), admitting from the smaller high schools at 16.")

3. Relation of the High School Course to Social Conditions and to the Needs of the Student.-In spite of the so-called domination of the college over the high school, the latter institution has at no time in its history suppressed its original ideal of serving the youth of all classes. The lack of an energetic response on the part of the high school to changing social demands has been due in part to a basic principle of social psychology; namely, custom. The Renaissance ideal of 'a liberal education was the ideal of secondary education everywhere. It was well into the last half of the 19th century before the modern social view of education affected practice to any significant extent. Certain important changes in the course of study responding to this view have been made; many others are in the process of adoption.

One of the earlier movements of this character was the manual training movement, inaugurated by the foreign exhibits at the Phila

delphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. The first ment centers for the most part in the secondary manual training high school established in the school period; and in this country the fixing of United States was that opened in 1880 in con this period between the ages of 14 and 18 and nection with Washington University at Saint the almost universal provision for it of a type Louis. In 1884 the Commercial Club of Chi of education essentially liberal in character cago established the first private independent cause the movement to be attended with tremanual training high school in the country; the mendous difficulties which bid fair to produce first public high school of this character was iar-reaching and fundamental reorganization opened the same year at Baltimore. By 1890 within the whole secondary system. Significant at least 38 cities had such high schools; and by steps in this reorganization have already been 1905 at least 63 cities had followed the example. ventured. One of these may be found in the Besides these, many academic courses had in newer type of technical or vocational high cluded the subject. In these schools and courses schools. In these the older kinds of manual the idea of mánual training for the purpose of training work have been given a distinctly new general culture was usually uppermosi, their turn toward the practical; trade courses oí a projectors disclaiming any intention of estab high order have been added; and the academic lishing schools ior the teaching of trades. At subjects retained have in large part been treated present there is a tendency to view the sub from the standpoint of their bearing upon the ject from the social and practical standpoint practical work. Notable examples are the Alrather than from the disciplinary.

bert G. Lane Technical High School of Chicago, The commercial branches had their first ap opened in 1908; the Technical High School of pearance in secondary school courses very carly Cleveland, opened in the same year; the Techniin the form of bookkeeping and commercial cal High School of Newton, Mass., opened in arithmetic. In the second quarter of the last 1909, and the High School of Practical Arts century, private business Schools began to for Girls, opened in Boston in 1907. A second flourish; and during the period from 1850 to type of readjustment, which has received at 1890 they multiplied rapidly and furnished prac least a trial, is the so-called "Part-Time Coopertically all of the training demanded for purely ative Plan, well illustrated in the High School clerical positions. The first Commercial High at Fitchburg, Mass. In 1908 a number of manuSchool, now in existence, was established by the facturers together with the school authorities city of Pittsburgh in 1872; the next was the agreed upon the establishment of a combined Business High School of Washington, D. C., shop and school course four years in length. established in 1890; Los Angeles, Cal., came During the first year the student spends his third in 1895. Other large cities followed: whole time in the school; for the next three Louisville, Ky.; San Francisco, Cal. ; Philadel years, he alternates weekly between shop and phia, Pa.; Syracuse, Brooklyn and New York school, getting pay for the time he spends in the City. Commercial courses were multiplied in former. By this method the student gets academic high schools, and private business actual shop training under shop, conditions and colleges waned in popularity for a time. In 1914 secures a type of school work bearing directly the United States Bureau of Education reported upon the problems to be faced later in the call2,914 public and private high schools offering ing. The Continuation School, so prominent commercial courses to 178,707 students. Very in Germany, seems to offer a third type of recently criticism has begun to the effect that desirable reorganization suitable to the needs commercial courses in public high schools do of this country. Under this plan the employers not after all really fit students for business; permit their employees to attend vocational they approach their work from a point of view courses from sour to six hours a week without 100 academic. Some of the better commercial

loss of pay:

Cincinnati began a high school high schools are attempting to overcome this course of this character in 1909. A fourth form weakness by articulating the courses directly of readjustment seems destined to give promwith commercial life; Boston and Cleveland inence to a kind of secondary school which is furnish good examples of this tendency.

at total variance with the traditional ideals; Preparation for agricultural pursuits through namely, the Trade School. Such schools take the high school began about 20 years ago, when boys and girls 16 years of age or over and, Alabama established a school of this character with little regard to their previous training, aim in each of the nine congressional districts oi to provide them with skill in a particular trade. the State. Five years later Wisconsin instituted Examples are the Manhattan Trade School for its system of county schools of agriculture and Girls in New York City; the_Philadelphia domestic economy. This movement has gone Trades School; the Milwaukee Trade School steadily forward, and there are now at least for Boys and a like one for girls, and the Wor1,677 high schools, either public or private, giv cester Trade School in Massachusetts. ing courses in agriculture to 34,367 students. Another form of adjusting the relation be

At present there is no more important proh tween secondary education and vocational life lem facing secondary school administration than is so significant that it deserves special mention. that relative to the extension of vocational work For a long time it has been a question among in the high schools. States, cities and even the educators whether our secondary schnol period National government are taking an active in did not begin too late; evidences of this feeling terest in the question. Some States are encour have been mentioned in connection with the disaging the establishment of such courses by cussion relative to the articulation of high means of appropriations; many of the larger school and college, notably

report of the cities have already established them and are Committee on Economy of Time in Education. making elaborate vocational surveys looking In more recent times, studies in retardation and toward their extension; and the question of elimination have brolight the question distinctly Federal support to the movement in smaller to the foreground. li boys and girls who need places is being discussed. This whole move it most are to get any school training at all

new

which is directly correlated with the demands high school and college is being supplanted by later to be made upon them, they must begin the problem of adjusting courses of study to before the close of the elementary school period the needs of individual students and to social as it now exists. To meeť this situation, what and civic life. The conception of liberal educais known as “prevocational work has been tion is undergoing change; and in partial reestablished in the seventh and eighth grades. sponse to it, the "general course) is appearing In some schools a ninth grade has been insti among the parallel groups. Certain tuted and shares in this kind of work. At studies have begun to appear, likewise, such as present there is a strong movement toward "general science, “community civics, art, hisgiving these grades, in whole or in part, a dis tory of art and music appreciation. Two very tinctive organization and name. So far as the significant criticisms of the high school course titles are concerned, two are struggling for have been issued recently by the General Educadistinction, «The Intermediate School and the tion Board of New York city: one prepared "Junior High School.” According to Briggs's by Charles W. Eliot, entitled Changes Needed treatment of the movement in the report of the in American Secondary Education, and the United States Commissioner of Education for other by Abraham Flexner, entitled A Modern 1914, at least 193 cities have effected an organ School. The former would, aside from the ization of the upper grades in some ways cor introduction of vocational subjects, have more responding to the ideas contemplated in the emphasis placed upon sense training through movement. By many it is hoped that the next the sciences and drawing and more time for step in the movement will be the general adop music. The latter article would have four tion of a junior high school, taking the student fields represented in the curriculum – science, from 12 to 15, to be followed by a senior high industry, æsthetics and civics; and within some school carrying the work on to the 18th year. of the subjects, radical reforms are contemBy this organization the differentiated courses plated in the way of bringing them into more of the one school would be directly articulated direct bearing upon cultural and social life. with those of the other. Just what this differ Such reforms are proposed in particular for entiation shall be is now under discussion; four mathematics, ancient history and the modern types of courses are already prominent: the languages; grammar, Latin and Greek would be academic, the commercial, the household arts eliminated entirely. for girls and the industrial arts for boys.

4. Problems in Method and Management.Numerous as the difficulties of mechanical The great changes in the aim and course of adjustment are in this whole movement for study have been accompanied by changes vocational training, they by no means exhaust equally significant in method and management. the problems. The internal make-up of the The laboratory method which came with the courses is hard to effect, due to the lack of introduction of the sciences, needs but mere texts and to the lack of first-hand knowledge mention. Means for vitalizing, these subjects, regarding the demands of the numerous call as well as of others, have multiplied greatly: ings; teachers who combine teaching ability pictures, charts, diagrams, museums, models, with wide vocational experience are rare; and and moving picture appliances are examples. the relative amounts of attention to give to For the past 10 years New York State has aptheory and to practice are very difficult to de propriated annually $20,000 for visual aids to termine. Experience in the field has led to an instruction. The numerous criticisms of the increasing number of new needs and possibili results obtained in modern language instructies. The Vocational Guidance movement may tion have led to the partial adoption of the be cited as one of the most significant. For the <Direct Method” in these branches. Dissatisstudent to decide upon a calling he needs to faction with results in English have led to an have a rather wide knowledge about the de interest in the "Co-operation Plan, whereby all mands of numerous vocations as well as a of the teachers in a given school submit part knowledge of his own capabilities and tastes. of their written work to the English teachers. His location in a proper position, too, requires Analytic and drill methods in history and literacaution and direction. The course of study ture are felt to be overdone and the so-called must provide for the first and a capable director (Appreciation Lesson is receiving a place in the is needed for guidance in the latter two. A few newer books on high school method. Wider cities have made great advance already in at reading, fewer technical questions, dramatic tacking the question; the best known of these presentation and more flexibility in general are are Boston, Mass., and Grand Rapids, Mich. required in this type of recitation. The learner, The vocation bureau of the former city was finally, is coming to be looked upon as a more established in 1908 by Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw important item in discussions of method than the under plans worked out by the late Dr. Frank teacher, and teaching the pupil how to study) Parsons. Meyer Bloomfield, the present di has come to be one of the newer efforts in the rector, has extended the work greatly and has high school. A part of this involves library described the results and problems in his instruction or how to use books. All of these (Youth, School and Vocation. The develop advances in method are virtually attempts to ments in Grand Rapids have been largely due avoid a part of the cramming procedure which to the work of the principal of the high school, grew up while college entrance was looked upon Jesse B. Davis, whose book on Vocational and as the chief purpose of the high school. Moral Guidance) is exceptionally strong on the Changes quite as important are taking place side of the educational aspects of the question. in the field of management. The rapid growth

The traditional secondary school course has of high schools has resulted in the bringing tonot remained uninfluenced by the social and gether of a large number of students in a single vocational movements in education; the course school; and athletic associations, dramatic soof study is receiving severe attacks from many cieties, debating teams, fraternities, and all quarters. The older problem of articulating kinds of clubs have grown up. Both the social

and educational philosophy of the past two or either through custom or law. What pedagogy three decades have pointed to the "Self-govern that is required is usually of the general kind. ment” scheme as the wisest solution of most of About 50 per cent of the high school teachers the questions of control involved. In New of Vermont in 1914 had not even had this. The York city, a "General Organization” has been State Commissioner of Education for Massaeffected to which a large number of the high chusetts in the report of 1912–13 complains that schools of the city have subscribed. Each while most of the high school teachers of the student in a given school, upon payment of state are college graduates and that while many twenty-five cents, becomes a member of this have taken pedagogical courses in such instiorganization as effected in his own school. tutions, they “are, in relation to the work they Such student members then adopt a constitu are expected to do, deficient in professional tion and a set of by-law's which govern all the training” and “approach their work as learners, societies and clubs of the school. In some high as apprentices, to whom practical means and schools, school savings banks are instituted and methods of effectively teaching boys and girls placed under the management of students. Co are as yet almost wholly unknown." Definitely operation with the home, with the authorities planned systems for the training of secondary of the local government, and with other asso teachers do not exist in this country. Aside ciations or societies in the community may be from the State College for Teachers at Albany, cited as added evidences of the ideal to bring N. Y., which makes the preparation of high the high school into close connection with all school teachers its main purpose, and several the better forces in society.

specific courses in other normal schools of the 5. The Preparation of Secondary School country looking in the same direction, the only Teachers.- A committee of the Vational Edu means generally prevalent is that of the college cation Association --- the so-called Committee of and university departments of education, of Fifteen on elementary education – reported in which there are now some 350 of recognized 1895, among other topics, on the training of standing. These, however, emphasize for the teachers for secondary schools. The commit most part the general courses in education; tee declared that, “The degree of scholarship secondary method in some of the branches required for secondary teachers is by common taught in the high school receive attention, but consent fixed at a collegiate education. They usually from the professors in these subjects in proposed a course of special training for such the college; and few have well-organized practeachers, consisting of instruction during the tice teaching. Other means in ihe improvesenior year of the college course in psychology, ment of secondary teachers are summer school methodology, school systems and the history, courses, reading circles, teachers' associations, philosophy and art of education; and a gradu teachers' meetings within a given school, travel ate year of practice in teaching, under close burcaus, sabbatical years, and the like; but these supervision, supplemented by advanced studies must be considered only a very small part of in educational thcory. That this proposal is the solution to the larger problem to be faced far in advance of common practice or require in the systematic professional training of inment no one acquainted with general conditions structors for high schools. can doubt. To just what extent States and 6. Tendencies in the Organization of State cities are tending in the direction of this carly Systems of Secondary Education.— Nothing proposal — which still remains the ideal — can closesly approximating the highly centralized be determined only through a study of the system of French and German secondary eduwidely varying and detailed laws and regula cation exists in this country. While the State tions now in force. Some of the larger cities is the legal unit of educational administration closely approximate these ideals with the excep in this country, powers with reference to detail tion of the graduate study requirements; and the in organization are usually delegated to State latter are often rewarded though not required. boards of education, cities, counties, or even The very general experience requirement smaller units. The real test of the centralizing in large cities makes practice teaching unneces tendency in this country, therefore, resides in sary. One State -- California — has very nearly the extent to which the State, either by law met all of the requirements set forth in the directly or indirectly by delegation to the State proposals of 1895; a college degree from a Board of Education, takes a hand in the vital recognized institution, graduate study both detail of organization in schools. The applicaacad nic and professional amounting to one tion of this test to current practice shows reyear or its equivalent, and practice teaching in sults of a widely varying character so far as the absence of experience are demanded. The secondary education is concerned. A large State Board of Education is empowered by law number of the States provide for inspection of to fix the details of certification regulations. In schools of this kind through an officer usually a considerable number of States, professional called "high school inspector); in a few States study of an undergraduate character is required deputy commissioners of education are apof applicants qualifying under certain condi pointed and assigned to secondary schools; in tions. In general, the teaching force in the some cases, inspection is little more than a smaller high schools is not specifically prepared formality, while in others it is very careful and for the work it has to do. In New York State results in approved lists of schools that are in 1914 very nearly one-half of all the high accepted by the State universitics; some halfschool teachers in the towns (as opposed to the dozen States employ systems of classifying cities) were holding normal school diploma high schools into grades and set minimal course licenses. In most scctions of the country a requirements for each; in very few instances, strong tendency exist, to (mploy only college are actual courses of study directly controlled graduates for high school teachers; but definite by State boards. The law's relative to the and serious sturly in the pedagogy of secondary establishment of high schools are in most of training appears very rarely as a requirement the States "permissive" in character; and while

State aid is quite general for schools in rural districts, it is usually small in amount and cautiously guarded. Complete State certification of secondary teachers seldom exists. Large cities constitute a class by themselves, and central control is almost unknown to them. Neither uniformity nor the centralized systems of Europe would necessarily mean efficiency in America. What is most needed are State boards of education, free from political influence, composed of men with large views and expert knowledge, and devoting themselves to vital questions of policy and vital questions of organization too large for the local administrative units.

A number of States began early to take certain steps toward efficient control, and recent times have added to the number; three or four among these may be mentioned. Massachusetts has already been discussed; the compulsory establishment of high schools, State aid to the poorer districts, and minimum course requirements of earlier years have persisted; and new extensions have been made in the way of State certification of teachers in the State-aided schools, State support for vocational education and inspection. Minnesota began a State system in 1881, headed by a State high school board which still exists and exercises such powers as approving courses of study, inspecting all high schools once a year, and determining what institutions shall receive aid. California and New Jersey have made notable advances in methods of certifying teachers and prescribing requirements for the same. New York, however, represents the most complete State system of control yet developed in this country. This system has been described in part already. Under it, all incorporated secondary schools are controlled by a Board of Regents serving as members of the University of the State of New York. This board manages the State funds to be distributed to secondary schools. Such funds, amounting to nearly $60,000 as early as 1832, have been added to by the legislature until in 1913 the total sum contributed to secondary schools was $650,000. Approximately $140,000 of this was given for books and apparatus and $322,398 for the payment of non-resident tuition, the remainder being apportioned on the basis of attendance of academic pupils. The Board also prescribes rules for awarding the State scholarships of $100 each to graduates of high schools to aid them in pursuing college work. Ultimately there will be 3,000 of such scholarships; in 1914 awards were made to 750 secondary school graduates. A large, force of inspectors, assigned mostly according to branches of study, cxercises supervision of instruction; and an assistant commissioner of secondary education devotes his whole time to this branch of education. For the purpose of instituting a uniform basis for the apportionment of the socalled "literature fund, the Regents adopted in 1864 a system of examinations of clementary pupils. In 1878, this system was extended to the academic branches; and in 1913, such examinations were held in 889' schools, with 404,576 papers written, of which 288,194 were accepted. These papers were first graded at the schools and then regraded under direction of the Regents at Albany. A special examina

tion board under control of the Regents now prepares the questions. Each school falling under control of this central Board of Regents must report yearly to it and gets a rating in the annual report. By these four means apportionment, examinations, inspection and reports — the Board of Regents exercises most of its far-reaching control over the secondary schools of the State.

ELMER ELSWORTH BROWN, Chancellor of New York University. EDUCATION, Secretarial. See SECRETARIAL EDUCATION.

EDUCATION, The State Universities. Sec STATE UNIVERSITIES.

EDUCATION, Study of. The study of education is, on the one hand, the study of a profession the profession of the teacher, of whatever grade; and, on the other, the study of a social force — the force that preserves and improves the civilization of each generation, and transmits it to the next — and of the institutions which society has developed for the organization and administration of this force. It goes without saying that these two aspects of the Study of Education are not independent of each other. Further, it is clear that the study is either a professional or a "liberal” study in accordance with the object with which it is pursued. In this article no pains will be taken to keep these two aspects of the subject distinct. The context will make clear which aspect is under consideration, and also when both aspects are considered together.

The systematic study of education is now carried on in the United States chiefty in normal schools (State, city or private) and in colleges and universities. Less extended but often valuable opportunities for the study of education are afforded by county training schools for teachers, by classes in some high schools and academies, and by some other institutions: as, for example, training schools for kindergartners; some departments of the so-called "Institutes) (like Drexel Institute of Philadelphia, Pratt Institute of Brooklyn); and by «Teachers' Institutes. Teachers' institutes are carried on in towns or counties, for a few days or weeks, usually during the long summer vacation, and commonly receive support from the State treasury; they have been described as normal schools with very short courses of study. This article deals only with the study of education in normal schools, and in colleges and universities; because the work done by them is typical, and sufficiently comprehensive to cover the special work done in the other institutions mentioned. It may be said, however, that in general, the normal school aims only at the professional study of education; that the college or university department of education aims at both a professional and a liberal” study of the subject, but of a higher grade than that of the normal school; and that the university (School of Education” aims at a professional study of education only, but, at present, of the grades undertaken by both the normal schools and the university departments of education. University schools of education are of recent origin, but they are already numerous.

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