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Normal Schools.— The systematic study of predecessors and contemporaries. The normal education in this country has a rather brief his school study of education, in spite of its nartory: Although some beginnings had been rowness, did bear good fruit. But the results made in the academies of New York and New

still unsatisfactory. The means

and England, the study of education really began in methods of education were studied, but the the State normal schools for the training of ele tendency to use them blindly and mechanically mentary school teachers, of which the first was was too obvious to be overlooked. The study founded in Lexington, Mass., in 1839. It began of education, thus far, had not penetrated to there with the study of methods of teaching the the root of the matter. common branches of the elementary school cur The conventional scheme of education as exriculum, and the methods of governing or man pressed in existing programs (“courses”) of aging a class or a school. That is to say, the study, and equally conventional methods of study of education began with the study of teaching and discipline, had been accepted withmethods. For a long time the study of methods out critical analysis of what it was all for, and comprised the whole of the study of education, to what extent the means and methods emalthough it did not cover the whole work of the ployed were adapted to the nature of the chilnormal schools. Most of these schools gave, dren to be taught and to the demands of modfrom the very beginning, and many of them still ern life. Accordingly, it began to be clear that give, more attention to the study of the branches the study of education must mean more than the that the prospective teachers are to teach, and study of methods — the devices of teaching and to extending the range of their scholarship be governing It was perceived that the mere yond those branches, than they gave and give to acquisition of these devices often failed to imthe study of methods. At the same time they part life and purpose to the teacher's work. naturally emphasized the study of methods Gradually it was perceived that what was lackfrom the beginning, and they still do so. This ing in the study of education was the assimilawas natural, and, within reasonable limits, de tion of guiding principles which should forever sirable. It happened, however, that many nor prevent the teacher from conceiving his work mal schools pursued the study of methods with as a mere routine, but should enable him to consuch exaggeration of emphasis and such minute ceive it throughout as a rationalized endeavor. ness of detail that they are chiefly responsible It was natural that these guiding principles for the development of an erroneous conception should be sought, first of all, in psychology, - namely, that the study of education is still which, as the science of mind, should reveal the practically identical with the study of methods; process of learning; and by implication should and this conception has done much to discredit therefore give an insight into the process of the proper study of education and to prevent its teaching. "As we learn, so must we teach.” appropriate development. How narrow and in Moreover, the Prussian normal schools, which adequate this conception is has already been had served as models for our own, had long suggested. It is not strange that the normal incorporated the study of psychology into their schools should emphasize the study of methods. programs of study, and ihis feature of their Their function is to train teachers; and to teach programs, which, to be sure, had also found well and govern wisely is the first duty of the its way into our own but had been without teacher. But a good teacher not merely pos special significance, was now seized upon as the sesses a good method; he uses that method with

chief source of the guiding principles we were discriminating insight into its efficacy, and with secking. This was about 1885. Before that careful adaptation to the needs of every pupil. time psychology or “mental philosophy) had He not only commands the technique of his art, been pursued in our normal schools as an inbut he understands the principles on which his dependent study without vital relation to the art is based, and has a clear conception of the study of education. Now, however, this relaends which his methods are to serve. More tion was perceived, and an extraordinary devoover, the study of methods was, too often, tion to psychology as the key to all educational merely the study of a particular way of doing problems was the result. Before long, also, cera particular thing.– how to tcach reading, tain phases of psychology or particular psyspelling, writing, arithmetic and so on; or how chological theories, notably the Herbartain to secure conformity to this, that or the other theory of apperception and the derived theorule of conduct; and this was (and is still) too ries of the concentration) or "correlation of often done in such a way as to convey the im studies, were heralded as the very gospel of pression to the neophyte that there is no other educational salvation. There is truth in the correct way. The tendency of such instruction theory of apperception and of the correlation is, of course, to mechanize and not to vitalize of studies; but these theories were pursued instruction. In the hands of the less capable and applied for a time with such extravagant the study of education becomes under such cir and misguided enthusiasm, particularly in the cumstances the inculcation of a mere routine; Middle West, that they became “fads); and individual initiative and self-criticism are sup many sins were committed in their names by pressed or discouraged. In the hands of the large numbers of well-meaning but not well-inmore capable the result is not so bad; but even formed teachers and other students of cducain their hands the study of methods is elevated tion. Naturally, also, educational charlatans into an importance that enables it to obscure saw their opportunity in this conspicuous popother fundamental aspects of the study of edu ularity of psychology, and were not slow to cation and of the right training of teachers. grasp a profit from it by the sale of their wares Instruction in methods did, however, develop in the form of lectures and books; and inuch systematic teaching where before there had been useless or misleading talk and trivial and unloose or haphazard procedure. By and large, scientific psychological literature was abroad in The teachers trained in the normal schools the land. proved their superiority over their untrained The most extravagant development of the

VOL. 9-42

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study of psychology by students of education the study of education had gradually come to was child study) which swept the country over include educational psychology, and in parfrom border to border

years ago. ticular the psychology of childhood and Parents, teachers or other students of educa adolescence. tion were discredited unless they endeavored Meanwhile, again following the lead of the themselves to make some contribution to the Prussian normal schools, light for the path of psychology of childhood, and these contribu the student of education was also sought in the tions were actually attempted by teachers of all records of the past. The history of education grades and by other persons of all degrees of was appealed to for guidance in solving conintelligence. This excitement was, however, temporary problems of teaching and governing. short-lived – it lasted 10 years at most. This It was only natural that a narrow conception was because a large part of the data which had of the significance of the history of education been so enthusiastically collected, together with should have been entertained, because the most of the scientific conclusions to which it study of education itself was still quite generwas alleged they pointed, were held in slight ally interpreted as the study of methods. Natesteem by the real psychologists. Such a result urally, therefore, educational biography and was inevitable. The psychology of childhood educational classics) or monographs setting can be developed as a science only by persons forth the educational theories of individuals of trained for that purpose, just as physical sci the past — both usually without reference to ence can be developed only by trained scientists. their social setting in the general history of It was then seen that the chief advantage to be their time — constituted nearly all that was derived from the study of children by untrained studied as the history of education. In spite of observers was the effect on the observers them this narrow interpretation of the history of selves. Not to extend the boundaries of the education the study of that subject, like the study science of psychology, but to interest the ob of psychology, was a great gain to the study of servers in children, to enable them to get into education. The recognition of the kinship of relation with child-life — that is the real value contemporary education with that of the past of child-study for most persons. And wherever necessarily broadened and dignified the concepthis conception of its value prevails the study of tion generally entertained of the meaning of children is to-day rendering good service to education itself and naturally enhanced_the students of education. The acute stage of value of the study of that subject. For, extravagant devotion to psychology as a part of although the history of education was at first inthe study of education is now happily past; and adequately conceived and taught, it was inevionly good can be expected of the saner pursuit table that it should cre long be recognized at its of it, which is fast becoming the rule.

true value, namely, as a part of general history; From the foregoing it is already clear that and hence that the student of education should far more was expected of psychology than come to rcalize that in studying the history of could be realized. But more needs to be said cducation he was studying nothing less than the on this point. Psychology is even yet in its history of culture — of the training of each formative stage as a natural science, and 30 generation to assume its share in preserving, years ago was just emerging from its thralldom

improving and transmitting to the oncoming to metaphysics. It was, however, assumed to generation the resources of our civilization, be a perfected science - a complete and accu and in so doing actively to promote the rate account of mental phenomena and their progressive solution of its problems. This true interdependence; and hence the extravagant ex conception of the history of education is, howpectations entertained of its value in giving in ever, of very recent development. Although sight into educational problems and a command some of the normal schools have contributed over teaching processes. These expectations to its development, many of them still adhere to could not be realized; for, as has just been said, the older conception, and it has remained for psychology is still a formative science and can colleges and universities to give form and subnot therefore guarantee the complete insight stance to the new conception and to disinto mental life — especially the mental life of seminate it. children, which it was believed to yield; and Meanwhile, also, the study of education was even if it were to-day all that it was then gradually extended to include an examination thought to be – a perfected science of mental into the adequacy and effectiveness of contemlife, and particularly of mental development porary schools and studies as a means of pro– the acquisition of that science would not moting the normal development of each indinecessarily ensure technical skill on the part vidual as an individual and also as a means of of the teacher. Insight and the practical adapting him to the civilization of his time application of insight are two very different the twofold aim of all general education; and things. Nevertheless, the widespread devotion this questioning, together with the formulation to the study of psychology in normal schools of the more or less satisfactory replies to it, and by teachers was a great gain to the study of sometimes alone but more commonly closely education. It established the fact once for all associated with educational psychology, constithat methods of teaching and governing have a tute what is now often called "Science of rational basis in the constitution of human Education, Philosophy of Education, or nature, and that it is the duty of the student of

more appropriately Educational Theory) or education and the teacher to ascertain what this "General Principles of Education. In the basis is as nearly as he can. The study of edu

light of the foregoing description of the hiscation in normal schools had now progressed torical development of the study of education beyond the study of methods as mere devices to in normal schools the present scope and aims a study of these devices as based on the nature of that study in those schools may be briefly of the minds subjected to them. That is to say, summarized as follows:

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It includes (1) Theory of Education or General Principles of Education, sometimes called “Science of Education” or “Philosophy of Education,” pursued as a means of awakening interest in and developing insight into the general problems of education (often not distinct nor separable from (4) below); (2) Methods; (3) Kindergarten Theory and Practice; (4) Psychology and the Study of Children, pursued as a source of information about the development of mental life and the processes of learning and as a rational basis for methods of teaching and discipline — that is, psychology pursued as a science on which the art of teaching and managing children might be based and the study of children pursued chiefly

means of developing a comprehending and sympathetic attitude toward children on the part of future teachers; (5) The Study of Teaching by observation and practice in “model schools" or "training schools”; (6) School Organization and Management, chiefly internal organization and class management; (7) The History of Education, usually pursued as source of suggestions for planning contemporary studies and methods of teaching and management and, to a limited extent also, as a mcans of developing a broader professional outlook over and better professional insight into educational problems as problems of social evolution; (8) School Hygiene; (9). School Laws as a source of practical information concerning the teachers' legal rights, privileges and duties.

As was pointed out above the work of normal schools is not confined to the study of education; but so far as that study itself is concerned the foregoing enumeration covers the ground, although not all of it is necessarily found in all normal schools. The foregoing description also reveals the aim of the study of education in normal schools. That aim is primarily the technical preparation of the classroom teacher. Finally, it should be said that many normal schools are far inferior to others in the adequacy with which they conceive the study of education and in the thoroughness with which that study is carried on.

Colleges and Universities.- Great as the services are which the normal schools rendered it gradually became clear that they were alone unable to cope with the rapidly growing need of a more comprehensive as well as a more intensive study of education than they could supply. Some time before the end of the 19th century the normal schools had made clear the great distinction between a trained and an untrained teacher, as was pointed out above; and they had, accordingly, made good progress in the gradual transformation (still going on) of the calling of the elementary teacher from a mere routine into a profession. But the increase of the native population and the growth of cities, the enormous and steadily increasing influx of forcign immigrants, the geographical expansion and the much more important and very great commercial and indusirial development of the country have been followed by our huge modern schools, our varied and complex programs of studies, our immense city school systems; and hence a host of new ediicational problems have come into the field.--- problems with which the mere classroom teacher of lim

ited academic training and narrow, even if thorough, technical training, is manifestly unable to cope satisfactorily. We have, fortunately, many efficient grammar school principals and superintendents to-day who have had only a normal school training; but in no case are they efficient because their training was originally limited, but in spite of that fact. Moreover, the general public, particularly the educated and the reading public, now take an interest in educational problems heretofore unknown, and this interest is increasing daily. This interest demands satisfaction and seeks educational leaders among the teaching profession as well as good classroom tcachers. At the same time it had long been apparent that many college-bred men of excellent scholarship were poor teachers. The college offered them no opportunity to learn how to teach. The problem was to secure, in addition to adequate scholarship, appropriate insight into education and technical skill in teaching. This the college graduate could not and cannot ordinarily secure in the normal school — first, because the normal school was and is naturally and properly concerned chiefly with the training of teachers for elementary schools and, therefore, has generally neither the teaching force nor the equipment to deal separately with college graduates who usually seek preparation to teach in secondary not elementary schools; and second, because it was not and cannot be profitable in most cases to teach in the same classes college graduates and normal school students. The college-bred students are too far ahead of the normal school students in maturity and scholarship to make a satisfactory combination class. For similar reasons the normal schools are generally unable to provide adequate opportunities for teachers already in service who seek preparation for work as principals or superintendents of schools. Out of these considerations arose the university department of education which has undertaken to provide the college graduate with the opportunities he needs for the study of education whether as a neophyte he is about to begin his professional career as a classroom teacher, or whether as an experienced teacher he returns to the university for the study of his profession under direction with a view to becoming a principal or a superintendent; or whether as an interested layman he seeks enlightenment as to the meaning of education and the means and methods of organizing and directing it as a branch of State or municipal affairs.

The history of the study of education in the colleges and universities of the country is even more brief than the history of that study in the normal schools, for it does not really begin until 1879, when the University of Michigan founded a chair of the science and the art of tcaching) of co-ordinate rank with other chairs or departments Education before that time (from about 1850) had been studied in "normal departments) established at a number of colleges and universities (more commonly of the Middlc West than elsewhere), in which the study of education did not differ materially from that pursued in the normal schools. Such á normal department, for example, existed at Brown (Iniversity from 1851 to 1854. It was discontinued "in consequence of the establish

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ment in Providence of the Rhode Island Nor is, it has helped to determine a professional atmal School,” so says the university, catalogue titude and temper of mind of great importance for 1854–55. Another example was the normal for immediate efficiency and steady professional department of the University of Iowa, which growth; and, at its best, it has done and is still was, at first (1855), a department of the pre doing this, and provides, also, actual laboratory paratory school of the university. It had a work for the

young teacher - classroom varied career and was gradually transformed teaching under direction amid normal surroundinto the present "School of Education of the ings, over a sufficiently long period of time; university It exemplifies a uncommon and it provides suitable training for principals process of development of these "normal de and superintendents of schools on the basis of partments into the university Departments of good instruction and a comparative study, unEducation or Schools of Education or (Teach der direction, of schools and school systems in ers Colleges) of to-day.

actual operation; and, finally, it has established Not infrequently the courses in education the study of education among the branches of instead of being grouped in a department or a liberal education. At the present time more school of education or teachers college were, than half of the colleges and universities of the and are still, associated with and made a part country make more or less provision for the of the department of psychology of philosophy, study of education, and many more are preparusually to the disadvantage of the study of ing to do so. But the development of this education. This affiliation followed the lead study has naturally been more rapid in the of the German universities and dates from the State universities than elsewhere, save in the time — not far back — when “pedagogy” rather few cases noted above, that is, in the universithan education was the subject studied. It has ties that have developed “Schools of Educabeen found possible, however, in only a few tionof co-ordinate rank with their other procollege or university departments of education fessional schools. The scope and general aims to solve the problem of technical training for of the college or university study of education, neophytes. Teachers of experience and other as now carried on, may be summarized as folpersons who resort to the university to study lows: (1) To study education as an important the history and theory of education and the or function of society as well as of individuals, ganization and administration of school sys and hence of interest to all university students tems find the instruction of any good professor whether they intend to become teachers or not. of education decidedly profitable. But begin (2) To offer to university students who look ners who need to learn how to teach under di forward to teaching the necessary technical rection usually fail to get what they most need training for their vocation; and to teachers al

the laboratory work of actual teaching and ready in service, an opporiunity to study their management under the usual conditions that profession under direction. (3) To offer to prevail in the classroom. A few college and university students who have already had exuniversity departments of education, like the perience as teachers, and to all teachers of suitdepartment at Harvard University, have pro able age and attainments, appropriate training vided such opportunities from almost the very for future activity as principals or superintendbeginning; but, except in some of the larger ents of schools. (4) To offer opportunities urban universities, it has generally been found to advanced students for research in the field of impracticable. But the university department education. or chair of education has accomplished and is While the courses of study offered for the accomplishing a most important task, quite realization of these aims vary greatly, they may apart from what it may or may not accomplish be briefly described as courses in: (1) Educain the training of young teachers, or in the tional Theory or General Principles of Educatraining of principals or superintendents. It tion, sometimes called "Philosophy of Educahas made education in all its phases a university tion, or "Science of Education. The specific study. Apathetic and even hostile faculties aim of these courses is to enable the student to have slowly yielded the false position that they gain a just conception of the scope and meaning once held, namely, that among all the fields of of education and to make a critical examination human thought and activity education is the of such generally accepted educational prinonly one it is not profitable to study; and this ciples as will serve to guide him in his further is a great gain. The gradual abandonment of study of educational questions. (2) Educational false views concerning the study of education Psychology and Child Study. While this subby members of the faculties of our higher in ject could be appropriately regarded as a substitutions has naturally been followed by similar division of the preceding topic, it is usually progress on the part of the students. To-day offered in separate courses, the special aim of university courses in education are attended by which does not differ materially — although the an increasing number of future lawyers, doc method of treatment does — from similar tors and business men who do not care for the courses in normal schools. The work done in technical courses pursued by future teachers or such courses in colleges and universities is ususchool officers, but who wish to study the his- ally more scientific and thorough than in the tory, theory and, to some extent, the organiza- corresponding normal school courses. (3) Gention of education, just as they study the history eral principles of method and special methods of and theory of economics — that is, as a part of teaching the several school studies, without and the proper equipment of a liberally educated with practice teaching, particularly the methods man. The university department of education of teaching secondary school rather than elehas, therefore, accomplished several important mentary school studies. The instruction in the things. It has, at its worst, given college-bred courses in special methods is sometimes given teachers an insight into their future profession by instructors belonging to the department of which they formerly could not get at all; that education, but often by specialists chosen from

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other departments of the college or university. (4) History of education studied as history. The purpose is to trace the historical development of modern schools and universities, with especial reference to their ideals, studies, modes of teaching and organization; together with the effect of economic, political, social and religious ideals on the spirit and direction of education; and the influence upon school methods and curricula of the general progress of the arts and sciences. Such a course should therefore give the student a view of the subject in its relation to the history of civilization, as well as a historical basis for sound criticism of the more important elements of modern schools and school systems. (5) The educational importance of play and recreation. (6) Education in practical arts íor boys and for girls. (7) The education of exceptional (anæmic or tubercular, crippled, deaf, blind, truant and delinquent, mentally defective) children. (8) Vocational (industrial, commercial, agricultural) education. (9) The vastly important allied subject of vocational and educational guidance for school and college youth and for young people already at work. (10) Organization and management of schools and school systems. The purpose of courses covering this last subject is to study both the internal organization and management of schools and school systems with special reference to the duties of principals and superintendents within a given school or school system, and also the organization and management of education as branch of State and municipal affairs, at home and abroad. Accordingly, they deal with the appointment or election, organization, powers and duties of State and city boards of education; the powers, duties and opportunities of superintendents, principals and teachers in cities and towns; the work of elementary and secondary schools, including the construction of programs (“courses”) of study; and, in general, everything pertaining to the organization and efficient administration of our vast, complex and costly provision for public education; and sometimes also a similar study of foreign schools and school systems. Such courses sometimes also cover the organization and management and the work of private and endowed schools. (11) School hygiene; the hygiene of school buildings and the hygiene of the pupils. (12) Seminary courses or rescarch

Such courses offer opportunities to the most advanced students for prolonged study of particular educational questions. As the whole field of educational theory and practice abounds in unsolved problems and vast areas in the history of education are as yet untouched, it is casy to see how important such courses are. Not all of these courses are found in every college or university department of education, but they are all found in some of

and in the university schools of education, to which reference has been made, all these courses are offered and elaborated with a minuteness of differentiation that should eventually promote a very thorough study of the topics involved.

Progress in the study of education has been greatly facilitated in recent years by the rapid growth of a considerable body of good educacational literature both in books and periodicals

a large number of good books have been published in recent years and several periodicals have appeared worthy of a place beside the best educational literature that has been produced anywhere.

In addition to the study of education already described, mention should be made of the study of education carried on by educational associations. The National Educational Association is not only a vast forum for the discussion of educational questions, but since 1893 it has stimulated and subsidized cducational research through committees appointed to report on selected problems. Several of the reports submitted by these committees have been of great value and more may be expected in the future. The State teachers' associations and other local associations throughout the country also occasionally carry on educational investigations of more than local significance. Mention must also be made of the studies in education now undertaken by associations of laymen and by some of the non-professional magazines.

Recent and very important developments in the study of education may be described as statistical and experimental studies of educational procedure and approximately scientific studies (quantitative measurements) of educational results. The purpose of these studies is to obtain objective standards whereby contemporary educational procedure can be directed and results mcasured with an accuracy approximating the direction and measurement of results in the natural sciences; and thereby to confirm or refute (as the case may be) educational opinion. Such standards, when attained, constituie unassailable guidance for educational practice, which, for the most part, we now lack. The most promising standards thus far attained are in the field of elementary education - arithmetic (computation with whole numbers), penmanship, spelling and reading. The study of education in the past has been based almost wholly on individual experience, and especially on the opinions of prominent individuals — laymen and tcachers. Such individual experience and opinion will always be worth studying, but the conviction that scientific research in education is essential to satisfactory progress, which has been slowly forming during the past decade, is now firmly established in the professional mind; and the statistical and experimental studies and the measurement of educational results above referred to are the result. The literature of this important development in the study of education is growing rapidly. Apart from books, such studies are energetically promoted by several contemporary periodicals and by researches carried on by colleges and university departments and schools of education, working independently, but often in co-operation with progressive supervisory officers and teachers in neighboring school systems. The conviction that such studies are essential to progress in education has also led to the establishment of departments of research in about a dozen of the larger school systems of the United States. Such departments serve the same purpose in school activities that research departments and departments of design serve in industry and commerce. That they do serve such purposes, several of them have already proved.

Many important studies of entire school sys

courses.

them;

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