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The teachers of the United States of America assembled in the National Educational Association, at Los Angeles, California, July 8, 1907, viewing with pleasure and satisfaction the conditions which have brought about the Second Hague Conference, adopt the following minute as suggesting the principles to which they adhere:

We believe that the forces of this world should be organized and operated in the interests of peace and not of war; we believe that the material, commercial, and social interests of the people of the United States and of the whole world demand that the energies of the governments and of the people be devoted to the constructive and helpful pursuits of peace and that the people be relieved of the burdens of providing at enormous expense the armaments suggested by the competitive desire for supremacy in war; we further believe that the fear of war and the possibility of war would alike decline if the governments were to rely more upon the sentiment of the people and less upon the strength of their armies and navies. We recommend the following resolutions:—

1. We indorse and commend the sentiments expressed in the annual address by the President of this Association.

2. We urge upon our representatives at the Second Hague Conference to use their influence to widen the scope and increase the power of the Hague Tribunal.

3. While disclaiming any desire to suggest a program or to urge specific action, we do urge our representatives to secure the most favorable action possible upon international arbitration, the limitation of armaments, the protection of private property at sea, and the investigation of international disputes by an impartial commission before the declaration

of hostilities.

4. We recommend to the teachers that the work of the Hague Conference and of the Peace Associations be studied carefully and the results given proper consideration in the work of instruction.

On motion the declaration was referred to the Committee on Resolutions to be reported back to the Association with recommendation at the closing meeting of the Convention. An address on "Education and Democracy" was given by President A. B. Storms, of Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa.

The following Committee on Resolutions was appointed by President Schaeffer:


Charles C. Van Liew, Chairman, president of State Normal School, Chico, Cal.
Walter A. Edwards, president of Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, Cal.
Francis G. Blair, state superintendent of public instruction, Springfield, Ill.
Gustavus R. Glenn, president of North Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical College,
Dahlonega, Ga.`

S. A. Underwood, principal of Westport High School, Kansas City, Mo.

S. Belle Chamberlain, state superintendent of public instruction, Boise, Idaho.
William E. Hatch, superintendent of schools, New Bedford, Mass.
Maude B. Hansche, Commercial High School for Girls, Philadelphia, Pa.

The convention adjourned to meet at eight o'clock P. M.


The convention was called to order at eight o'clock P. M. by President N. C. Schaeffer, after an organ prelude by Bruce Gordon Kingsley.

Prayer was offered by Rev. J. P. McKnight, of Los Angeles.

The United German Male Choruses of Los Angeles, under the direction of Henry Schoenefeld, director, supplied the music for the evening and opened with (a) “Der Tag des Herrn," by Kreutzer, and (b) “In Einem kuehlen Grunde," by Glueck.

Hon. Francis E. Leupp, United States commissioner of Indian affairs, Washington,

D. C., gave a brief address on "Indians and Their Education."

At this point in the program, President Schaeffer introduced Dr. Elmer Ellsworth Brown, United States commissioner of education, and president of the National Council of Education, as presiding officer for the balance of the evening program, which was a joint session of the General Association and the National Council.

President Brown introduced, as representing the National Council, Mrs. Ella Flagg Young, principal of the Chicago Normal School, who read a "Report on Educational Progress During the Past Two Years."

The session closed with music by the United German Male Choruses, who sang, (a) "Sturm-Beschwoerung," by Duerner, and (b) "Verlassen," by Koschat.

The Association then adjourned.


After an organ prelude by Bruce Gordon Kingsley, the Association was called to order by President Schaeffer.

Prayer was offered by Rev. A. W. Atkinson, of Los Angeles.

Music "Winter Song," by F. W. Bullard, sung by the Los Angeles Shrine Quartet, William James Chick, director.

Honorable M. Uribe y Trancoso of the Department of Education of the Republic of Mexico was introduced by President Schaeffer. In response, he extended to the convention "Greetings from a Sister Republic."

Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Conaty, Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, delivered an address on "The Personality of the Teacher."

Music "When the Corn is Waving"-Dudley Buck, by the Los Angeles Shrine Quartet.

"The Economic Relations of Education" was the subject of the closing address of the evening by Dr. William O. Thompson, president of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. T. A. Mott, superintendent of schools, Richmond, Ind., led in a discussion of President Thompson's paper.

The following Committee on Nominations was appointed by President Schaeffer in accordance with By-Law No. 1:

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After announcement that the Nominating Committee would meet in Children's Hall, Auditorium Building, at 9 o'clock A. M., Wednesday, the convention adjourned to Thursday evening, July 11.


The Association was called to order by President Schaeffer at 8 P. M.

Following an organ prelude by Bruce Gordon Kingsley, prayer was offered by Rabbi

S. Hecht, of Los Angeles.

A chorus, “Morning Song," by J. Ruff, was sung by The Los Angeles Apollo Club under the directorship of Eugene E. Davis.

E. G. Cooley, superintendent of schools, Chicago, Ill., addressed the convention on "The Basis for Grading Teachers' Salaries."

Charles H. Keyes, supervisor of schools, South District, Hartford, Conn., spoke on the subject of "Teachers' Pensions."

The Los Angeles Apollo Club sang "The Heavens are Telling," from the Creation. "Other Forms of Compensation for Teachers" was the subject of an address by George W. Nash, president of State Normal and Industrial School, Aberdeen, S. Dak.

The topic was discussed by Alexander Hogg, Ft. Worth, Tex.
The convention then adjourned to Thursday Evening, July 11.


Following an organ prelude by Bruce Gordon Kingsley, prayer was offered by Rev. William Horace Day of the First Congregational Church of Los Angeles.

A solo, "Ah! fors e lui" (La Traviata), Verdi, was then sung by Ellen Beach Yaw. "Schools for Defectives in Connection with the Public Schools" was the subject of the first address, by Carroll G. Pearse, superintendent of city schools, Milwaukee, Wis.

J. W. Olsen, state superintendent of public instruction, St. Paul, Minn., presented a paper on "The School and the Library."

President Schaeffer then introduced Mrs. Catherine Pierce Wheat, representing the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Los Angeles, who presented to President Schaeffer, with appropriate remarks, a beautiful gavel for the use of the President of the Association at the Annual Conventions. This gavel, which is intended as a companion of the gift of a silk United States flag by the same organization in 1899, is composed of the following named woods: eucalyptus, magnolia, oak, apricot, toon, lemon, gavilla, locust, live oak, black locust, and (handle) manzanito.

Music: a vocal solo, "Thou Brilliant Bird," David, by Ellen Beach Yaw, with flute obligato by Miss Mead.

"The Influence of Women's Organizations upon Public Education" was the subject of a paper presented by Mrs. Helen L. Grenfell, high-school visitor, State Agricultural College, Denver, Colo. This paper was discussed by Miss Adelaide Steele Baylor, superintendent of schools, Wabash, Ind.

The Association then adjourned.


The closing session of the fiftieth anniversary convention was called to order by President Schaeffer at 2:30 P. M.

An organ prelude was rendered by Bruce Gordon Kingsley.
Prayer was offered by Rev. J. J. Wilkins, of Los Angeles.

The Woman's Lyric Club of Los Angeles, under the direction of J. B. Poulin, sang Schubert's “God in Nature," with organ accompaniment by Mrs. J. H. Chick. President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, of the University of California, delivered an address upon the subject, "Call Nothing Common."

The closing address of the session and of the convention was delivered by Professor John Adams, University College, London, England, on the subject "A Significant Lack of Educational Terminology.”

The Woman's Lyric Club sang, with organ accompaniment, the following: (a) "The Moths,” Palicot; (b) “The Fountain," Bartlett.

President Schaeffer then introduced Charles C. Van Liew, president of the State Normal School, Chico, Cal., and chairman of the Committee on Resolutions, who presented the report of the committee as follows:




The National Educational Association, now holding its forty-fifth annual convention in Los Angeles and representing teachers and friends of education in every state of this Union, makes the following declaration of principles and aims:

1. American teachers have been accustomed for years to look upon the bureau of education of the Department of the Interior at Washington, D. C., as the nation's great educational exchange and clearing-house, not only for educational information and statistics but also for the extensive investigation of special questions touching education and for the dissemination of the results of such work. Realizing that this work, to be effective must receive liberal financial aid, the Association wishes to declare the bureau of education worthy of a much larger support than it has received in the past and to urge upon Congress the favorable consideration of this need.

2. The National Educational Association notes with approval that the qualifications demanded of teachers in the public schools, and especially in city schools, are increasing annually, and particularly that in many localities special preparation is demanded of teachers. Some of the large universities, recognizing their responsibility to their immediate communities, have organized courses suitable in scope and convenient as to hours for these teachers. The idea that anyone with a fair education can teach school is gradually giving way to the correct notion that teachers must make special preparation for the vocation of teaching. The higher standard demanded of teachers must lead logically to higher salaries for teachers. We regret the attempt that is being made in some quarters to evade the consequence of low salaries. The salaries and often the conditions under which the teachers in the public schools teach do not offer sufficient inducement to offset the more promising positions in the commercial life of a large city. Recourse is had, therefore, to selecting students with incomplete high-school or normal-school training to fill these yearly increasing vacancies. Hence we believe that constant effort should be made by all persons interested in education to secure for teachers such adequate compensation for their work that both teacher and public will recognize teaching as a profession. We wish heartily to indorse the action of those legislatures that have fixed a minimum salary at a living wage. 3. The rapid establishment of township or rural high schools is one of the most gratifying evidences of the progress of education. We believe that this movement should be encouraged until the children of rural communities enjoy the benefits of public education to an extent approximating as nearly as practicable the education furnished in urban communities.

4. The Association heartily approves of the efforts now being made to determine the proper place of industrial education in the public schools. We believe that the time is rapidly approaching when both industrial and commercial education should be introduced into all schools and made to harmonize with the occupations of the community. These courses, when introduced should include instruction in agricultural as well as manual branches. We believe that it is the duty of the state not only to qualify its children to be good citizens but also as far as possible to be useful members of their community. Hence, wherever conditions justify their establishment, trade schools should be maintained at public expense to fit children as far as possible for a chosen career.

5. The National Educational Association indorses the increasing use of urban school buildings for free vacation schools and for free evening schools and lecture courses for adults and for children who have been obliged to leave the day school prematurely. We also approve of the use of school grounds for playgrounds and even of the buildings for the relief of the poor in the crowded districts during summer.

6. It is the duty of the state to provide for the education of every child within its borders, and to see that all children obtain the rudiments of an education. The constitutional provision that all taxpayers must contribute to the support of the public schools logically carries with it the implied provision that no persons should be permitted to defeat the purposes of the public-school law by forcing their children, at an early age to become bread winners. To this end the child labor and truancy laws should be so harmonized that the education of the child, not its labor, be made the desideratum.

7. The national government should provide schools for the children of all persons living in territory under the immediate control of the government. The attention of Congress is specially directed to the need of adequate legislation to provide schools for the children of citizens of the United States living on naval reservations.

8. The Association regrets the revival in some quarters of the idea that the common school is a place for teaching nothing but reading, spelling, writing, and ciphering; and takes this occasion to declare that the ultimate object of popular education is to teach children

how to live righteously, healthfully, and happily, and that to accomplish this object it is essential that every school inculcate the love of truth, justice, purity, and beauty thru the study also of biography, history, ethics, natural history, music, drawing, and the manual


9. The National Educational Association wishes to record its approval of the increasing appreciation among educators of the fact that the building of character is the real aim of the schools and the ultimate reason for the expenditure of millions for their maintenance. There are in the minds of the children and youth of today a tendency toward a disregard for constituted authority, a lack of respect for age and superior wisdom, a weak appreciation of the demands of duty, a disposition to follow pleasure and interest rather than obligation and order. This condition demands the earliest thought and action of our leaders of opinion and places important obligations upon school authorities.

10. The National Educational Association wishes to congratulate the secondary schools and colleges of the country that are making an effort to remove the taint of professionalism that has crept into students' sports. This taint can be removed only by leading students, alumni, and school faculties to recognize that inter-school games should be played for sportsmanship and not merely for victory.

II. The National Educational Association observes with great satisfaction the tendency of cities and towns to replace large school committees or boards, which have exercised thru subcommittees executive functions, by small boards which determine general policies, but intrust all executive functions to salaried experts.

12. Local taxation, supplemented by state taxation, presents the best means for the support of the public schools, and for securing that deep interest in them which is necessary to their greatest efficiency. State aid should be granted only as supplementary to local taxation, and not as a substitute for it.

13. We cannot too often repeat that close, intelligent, judicious supervision is necessary for all grades.

14. The National Educational Association approves the efforts of the Simplified Spelling Board and other bodies to promote the simplification of English spelling by the judicious omission of useless silent letters, and the substitution of a more regular and intelligible spelling in place of forms that are grossly irregular or anomalous, such amendments to be made according to the existing rules and analogies of English spelling, with a due regard to the standards accepted by scholars; and the Association hereby approves the simpler forms contained in the list of three hundred words now spelled in two or more ways, published by the Simplified Spelling Board, and containing the twelve simplified forms now used by this Association and directs that these simpler forms be used in the publications of the Association in accordance with the rule now in force, that if the writer of any paper published by this Association expressly so desires, his paper shall be printed in the old spelling.

15. Without seeking to determine the merits of coeducation versus separation of the sexes in higher institutions the Association recognizes that at present the demand for separate higher instruction for women is greater than existing colleges for women can supply. Moreover, the great colleges for women are almost all grouped in one section of the country. We urge upon the attention of the friends of higher education for women the needs of the western and southern states for this kind of educational institution.

16. The Association believes that secret societies, fraternities, and sororities are inimical to the best interests of schools and pupils, and we urge school authorities to abolish them in all secondary and elementary schools.

17. In teaching, as in every other kind of work, the best service is secured by finding the individual best fitted to the particular place as indicated by training, experience, and meritorious service; the National Educational Association accordingly heartily approves a merit system of promoting teachers and filling vacancies. We assert, furthermore, that the grounds upon which a teacher may apply for a position are preparatory training, experience, and meritorious service, in a word, professional fitness, alone; and that the use of other personal and political arguments is immoral in the teacher and a serious menace to a high professional standard.

18. The Association regrets the purely theoretical work which still characterizes much of our so-called training of teachers, especially in colleges and universities, and urges the establishment everywhere of training and practice facilities for the better preparation of teachers.

19. The National Educational Association believes that the forces of this world should be organized and operated in the interests of peace and not of war; we believe that the material, commercial, and social interests of the people of the United States and of the whole world demand that the energies of the governments and of the people be devoted to the constructive and helpful pursuits of peace and that the people be relieved of the burdens of providing, at enormous expense, the armaments suggested by the competitive desire for

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