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everywhere, operating as a moral blight; reducing rapidly a once noble race into barbarism.

The effect of slavery in retarding the material prosperity of the country, may be strikingly illustrated by the census tables, and a comparison between the free, and slave States. Taking for illustration, New York and Virginia. By the census, the population of Virginia in 1790, was 748,308, and in 1860, 1,596,318, making the ratio of increase, 113, 32 per cent. In 1790, New York numbered 340,120, and in 1860, 3,880,785, the ratio of increase being 1,040,99. Thus the rate of increase in New York, exceeded that of Virginia, more than nine to one.

In 1790, the population of Virginia, was largely more than double that of New York.* In 1860, the population of New York was very largely more than double that of Virginia.

In 1790, Virginia, in population, ranked first of all the States, and New York the fifth. In 1860, they had reversed their position, and New York was the first, and Virginia the fifth. At the same rate of progress, from 1860, to 1900, as from 1790 to 1860, Virginia retaining slavery, would have sunk from the first, to the twenty-first State, and would still continue at each scceeding decade, descending the inclined plane toward the lowest position of all the States.

Such has been, and still continues to be, the effect of slavery, in dragging down that once great State from the first, toward the last in rank in the Union. But if, as in the absence of slavery must have been the case, Virginia had increased from 1790 to 1860, in the same ratio as New York, her population in 1860, would have been 7,789,141, and she must always have remained the first in rank of all the States. The census proves that slavery greatly retards the increase of wealth.

By tables 33 and 36 of the census of 1860, it appears, omitting commere, that the products of industry, as given, viz: of agriculture, manufactures, mines, and fisheries, were that year, in New York, $606,000,000, or $156 per capita, and in Virginia, 120,000,000, or $75 per capita. This shows a total value of product in New York, more than five times greater See preliminary oonsus Rep., p. 132

than in Virginia, and per capita, more than two to one. Including the earnings of commerce and all business not given in the census, it will be shown that the value of the products and earnings of New York, in 1860, exceeded those of Virginia, at least seven to one.*

The war taxes of the Republic may be very great, but the tax of slavery is far greater, and the relief from it, in a few years, will add much more to the National wealth than the whole deduction made by the war debt.

The population of the United States would have reached, in 1860, nearly 40,000,000, and our wealth have been more than doubled, if slavery had been extinguished in 1790; this is one of the revelations made by the census; whilst in science, in education, and National power, the advance would have been still more rapid, and the moral force of our example and success would have coutrolled for the benefit of mankind, the institutions of the world.

Having shown how much the material progress of Virginia, has been retarded by slavery, let us now consider its effect upon her moral and intellectual development.

The number of newspapers and periodicals in New York, in 1860, was 542, of which, 365 were political, 56 religious, 63 literary, 58 miscellaneous; and the number of copies circulated in 1860, was 320,930,884.

The number in Virginia, was 139; of which, 117 were political, 13 religious, 3 literary, 6 miscellaneous; and the number of copies circulated in 1860, was 26,772,568. Thus the annual circulation of the press in New York, was twelve times as great as that of Virginia.

The number of public schools in Virginia, in 1850, was 2,937, teachers 3,005, pupils 67,438, colleges, academies, etc., pupils 10,326, attending school during the year, as returned by families, 109,775; native white adults of the State who cannot read or write, 75,868.

Public libraries, 54; volumes, 88,462; value of churches, 2,902. 220. By table 155, compendium of census, the per centage of native free population in Virginia, over 20 years of age

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* Most of these calculations are takeu Irumu an able pamp.let of the Hon. Robert J Walker,

who cannot read or write, is 19.90, and in New York, 1.87; in North Carolina, 30.34; in Maryland, 11.10; in Massachusetts, 32, or less than one-third of one per cent. In New England the per centage of native whites who cannot read or write is 0.42, or less than one-half of one per cent.; and in the Southern States 20.30, or 50 to 1, in favor of New England. But if we take the whole adult population of Virginia, including whites, free blacks and slaves, 42.05 per cent., or nearly one-half cannot read or write, and in North Carolina, more than one-half cannot read or write. We have seen by the above official tables of the census of 1850, that New York, compared with Virginia, had nearly ten times as many pupils at schools, colleges and academies, twenty times as many books in libraries, and largely more than seven times the value of churches; while the ratio of native white adults who cannot read or write, was more than 10 to 1, in Virginia, compared with New York. We have seen also, that in North Carolina, nearly one-third of the native white adults, and in Virginia, nearly one-fifth cannot read or write, and in New England, 1 in every 400; in New York, 1 in every 131; in the South and Southwest, 1 in every 42 of the native white adults. The comparison of other free and slave States would exhibit the same results.

Let us compare for a moment, the two great Western States, Illinois, a free State, and Missouri, until the rebellion, a slave holding State.

The Comparison will furnish just results in regard to the effects of slavery, for while Missouri has increased since 1810, in wealth and population, much more rapidly than any of the slave States, there are several free States whose relative advance has exceeded Illinois. The rapid growth of Missouri is owing to her immense area, her fertile soil, her

hty rivers (the Mississippi and Missouri, her central and commanding position, and to the fact, that she had so small a number of slaves to the square mile, as well as to the free population.

The popalation of Illinois, in 1810, was 12,282, and in 1860, 1,711,951; the ratio of increase from 1810 to 1860, being 18,838.70. (Table, Census 1860.) The population of Missouri, in 1810, was 20,845, and in 1860, 1,182,012; the ratio of increase from 1810 to 1860, being 5,570.18. (Ib.) The rank of Missouri, in 1810, was, 22, and of Illinois, 23. The rank of Missouri in 1860, was 8, and of Illinois, 4.

The area of Missouri is 67,380 square miles, being the 4th in rank, as to area, of all the States. The area of Illinois is 55,405 square miles, ranking the 10th. Missouri, then has 11,875 more square miles than Illinois. This excess is greater by 749 square miles than the aggregate area of Massachusetts, Delaware, and Rhode Island, containing in 1860, a popular tion of 1,517,902. The population of Missouri per square mile in 1810, exceeded that of Illinois .08; but, iu 1860, the population of Missouri per square mile, was 17.54, ranking the 22d, and that of Illinois, 30.90, ranking the 13th. Illinois, with her ratio to the square mile, and the arca of Missouri, would have had in 1860, a population of 2,082,042; and Missouri, with her ratio and the area of Illinois, would have had in 1860, a population of 971,803, making a difference in favor of Illinois, of 1,110,239, instead of 529,939. The absolute increase of population of Illinois per square mile, from 1850 to 1860, was 15.54, and of Missouri, 7.43, Illinois, ranking the 6th, in this ratio, and Missouri, the 14th. These facts prove the vast advantages which Missouri possessed in her larger area, as compared with Illinois.

But Missouri, in 1810, we have seen, had nearly double the population of Illinois. Now, reversing their numbers in 1810, the ratio of increase of each remaining the same, the population of Illinois, in 1860, would have been 2,905,014, and of Missouri, 696,983. If we bring the greater area of Missouri as an element into this calculation, the population of Illinois in 1860, would have exceeded that of Missouri, more than two millions and a half.

By census table 36, the cash value of the farms of Illinois, in 1860, was $432,531,072, and of Missouri, $230,632,126, making a difference in favor of Illinois, of $201,898,946, which is the loss which Missouri has sustained by slavery in the single item of the value of her farm lands. Abolish slavery there, and the value of the farm lands of Missouri would soon tyual thuse of Illinois, and augment the wealth



of the farmers of Missouri, over two hundred millions of dollars. But these farm lands of Missouri embrace only 19,984,809 acres, (table 36,) leaving unoccupied 23,138,391

The difference between the value of the unoccupied lands of Missouri and Illinois, is six dollars per acre, at which rate the increased value of the unoccupied lands of Missouri, in the absence of slavery, is $148,830,346, Thus it appears, that the loss to Missouri, in the value of her lands, caused by slavery, is $340,729,292. If we add to this diminished value of town and city property in Missouri, from the same cause, the total loss in that State in the value of real estate, exceeds $400,000,000, which is nearly twenty times the value of her slaves.

By table 35, the increase in the value of real and personal property of Illinois, from 1850 to 1860, was $715,595,276, being 457.93 per cent, and Missouri, $363,966,691, being 265.18 per cent. At the same ratio of increase from 1860 to 1870, the total wealth of Illinois, would be $3,993,000,000, and of Missouri, $1,329,000,000, the difference being $2,664,. 000,000, caused by slavery, which is more than twice the value of all the slaves in the Union, at the beginning of the slaveholder's war.

These comparisons could be extended to all the free, and lately slave States, with the same results.

Virginia was a considerable colony when Pennsylvania was occupied exclusively by Indian tribes.

In 1790, the population of Virginia exceeded that of Pennsylvania, 313,925, yet in 1860, Pennsylvania exceeded Virginia, 1,308,797. The ratio of increase in Virginia, being from 1790 to 1860, 113.32 per cent., and in Pennsylvania, during the same period, 569.03 per cent.

The effects of slavery upon morals and civilization will be strikingly illustrated by the barbarities and cruelties of the great civil war, upon a description of which I must soon enter. When it is remembered that there were nearly four millions of people among whom marriage had no legal existence, the family relation no legal recognition, where it was a penal offence to teach a negro child to read the Holy Bible; where the chastity of the colored woman was without

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