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one a native of Paros, who lived under Artaxerxes Mries mon; and one, a grammarian and philosopher, born at Athens or in Egypt, posterior to Aristotle. Which of these is author of the work already, noticed, is not at all certain.'

PALAFOX (JOHN de), natural son of James de Palafox, marquis de Hariza, in the kingdom of Arragon, was born in 14.00. His mother, it is said, attempted to drown him at bis birih, but one of his father's vassals drew him out of the water, and took care of him till the age at which he was acknowledged by his parents. Pbilip IV. appointed Palafox member of the council of war; then that of the Indies. Having afterwards chosen the ecclesiastical profession, he was made bishop of Los Angelos, “ Angelopolis,” in New Spain, in 1639, with the title of visitor of the courts of chancery and courts of audience, and judge of the administration of the three viceroys of the Indies. Palafox employed his authority in softening the servitude of the Indians, checking robbery in the higher ranks, and vice in the lower. He had also great contentions with the Jesuits concerning episcopal rights. He was made bishop of Osina or Osma, in Old Castille, in 1653, which diocese he governed with much prudence and regularity, and died, in great reputation for sanctity, September 30, 1659, aged 59. This prelate left some religious books, of which the principal are, “ Homilies on the Passion of Christ,” trauslated into French by Amelot de la Houssaye, 16to; several tracts on the “ Spiritual Life,” translated by the abbé le Roi; “ The Shepherd of Christmas-night," &c. but he is best known by his “ History of the Siege of Fontarabia;" and “ History of the Conquest of China by the Tartars," 8vo. There is a collection of his works printed at Madrid in 13 vols. fol. 1762, and a life by Dinouart in French, 1767, 8vo.

PALAPRAT (John), seigneur de Bigot, a French poet, was born in May 1650, at Toulouse, of a noble family. He was a member of the academy of the Jeux Floraux, became chief magistrate of Toulouse in 1675, when scarcely twenty-five years

and was made head of the consistory 1684, in which office be acquitted hiinself with great integrity. He went to Rome two years after, and at


i Vossius de Hist. Græc. - Fischer's edition, but especially his “Prolusiones," 1771.

.: Antonio Bibl. Hisp.-Moreri.Dict. Hist.



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length to Paris, in which city he chiefly resided from that time, and where M. de Vendôme fixed him in his service in 1691, as one of his secretaries. He died October 23, 1721, at Paris, aged 71, leaving some “Comedies," and a small collection of miscellaneous “ Poems,” most of them addressed to M. de Vendôme. M. Palaprat wrote for the stage with his friend Brueis, and their works have been collected in five small volumes 12mo, of which his is the least part. His style is gay and lively, but he discovers little genius or fancy, and he seems to have been indebted for his literary reputation to his private character, which was that of a man of great candour and simplicity." · PALEARIUS (AONIUS), an excellent writer in the sixteenth century, was born at Veroli, in the Campagna di Roma, and descended of noble and ancient families by both his parents. He was baptised by the name of Anthony, which according to the custom of the times, he al-, tered to the classical form of Aonius. He applied himself early to the Greek and Latin languages, in which he made, great progress, and then proceeded to philosophy and divinity. The desire he had of knowledge, prompted him to travel through the greatest part of Italy; and to listen to the instructions of the most famous professors in every place he visited. His longest residence was at Rome, where he continued for six years, till that city was taken by Charles V. when the disorders committed by the troops of that prince leaving no hopes of enjoying tranquillity, he resolved to depart, and retire to Tuscany. He bad at this time a great inclination to travel into France, Germany, and even as far as Greece; but the narrowness of his fortune would not admit of this. On his arrival in Tuscany; he chose Sienna for his abode, to which he was induced by the pleasantness of the situation, and the sprightliness and sagacity of the inhabitants : and accordingly be sold his estate at Veroli, with the determination never to see a place any more, where, though he was born, yet he was not beloved. He purchased a country-house in the weighbourhood of Sienna, called Ceciniano, and pleased himself with the fancy of its having formerly belonged to Cecina, one of Cicero's clients. Here he proposed to retire on his leisure-days, and accordingly embellished it as much as possible. At Sienna he married a young woman, of whom

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he was passionately fond, and who brought him four children, two boys and two girls. He was also professor of polite letters, and had a great number of pupils.

But his career was disturbed by a quarrel he had with one of his colleagues, who was enraged to see his own reputation' eclipsed by the superior lustre of Palearius. We are not told the particular point upon which the contest commenced; but it is certain that our professor was defended by Peter Aretin, who, perhaps more to revenge his own cause, or gratify a detracting humour, than from any respect for Palearius, composed, against his envious rival, an Italian comedy or farce, which was acted upon the stage at Venice; and so poignant was the ridicule, that the subject of it thought proper to quit Sienna, and retire to Lucca. Aither he was followed some time after, though with much reluctance, by Palearius, concerning which we have the following account: Anthony Bellantes, a nobleman of Sienna, being impeached of several misdemeanors, employed Palearius to plead his cause, who made so excellent a speech before the senate of that city in his defence, that he was acquitted and dismissed; but, the same nobleman having some time after accused certain monks of robbing his grandmother, employed bis advocate again to support the charge. The monks accused, making oath of their innocence, were cleared by the court, but were incensed at the prosecution, and aspersed Palearius both in their sermons, and on all other occasions, as an impious wretch, unfit to be harboured in a Christian country. They also declared him a heretic, because he disapproved several superstitious practices; neither did they approve of the book he had written on the “ Death of Christ.” Palearius, however, defended himself with so much strength of reason and eloquence, that the accusations were dropped. Yet finding himself still exposed to vexatious persecutions, he thought proper to accept of an invitation to teach polite literature at Lucca.

Although he had bere a handsome gratuity, and was only to attend his scholars one hour in the twenty-four, yet it was entirely owing to the expences of his family that he engaged in this employment, wbich was otherwise irksome to him. He passed, however, some years at Lucca, before he obtained the offer of several immunities, and a handsome stipend from the magistrates of Milan, where he hoped that he was now settled in peace for life, but the event proved otherwise. Paul V. who had been a Dominican monk, coming to the pontificate in 1566, determined to show his bigotry against every thing that had the appearance of heresy, and therefore ordered the cause of Pa. learius to be re-heard. On which Palearius was suddenly arrested at Milan, and carried to Rome, where they found it not difficult to convict him of having said “That the German doctors who followed Luther were to be commended in respect to some points; and that the court of the inquisition was erected for the destruction of men of learning." He was then condemned to be burnt, which sentence was executed the same year, 1566:

He was greatly respected by the most eminent scholars of his time, such as Bembus, Sadoletus, Sfondratus, Pbilonardus, cardinals; Benedictus Lampridius, Anthony Flaminius, and Andreas Alciatus; besides others, whose names may be seen in the catalogue to the last edition of his “ Letters," containing the names of his literary correspondents.

He was the author of several works. In the piece on the immortality of the soul, 1. “ De immortalitate animæ, libri tres,” which is reckoned his master-piece, he establishes the doctrine of the soul's immortality, against Lucretius; for which reason Daniel Pareus annexed it to his edition of that poet at Francfort, 1631, 8vo. Sadolet bestows high encomiums upon this poem, in a letter to Palearius. It was printed by Gryphius in 1536, in 16mo; and is inserted in our author's works. 2.“ Epistolarum, libri 4,” “ Orationum, lib. 3," 1552.

3. “ Actio in pontifices Romanos et eorum asseclas, ad imperatorem Rom. reges et principes Christianæ reipublicæ summos Oecumenici concilii præsides conscripta cum de consilio Tridentino habendo deliberaretur." He drew up this piece with a design to get it presented by the emperor's ambassadors to the council of Trent. It is a regular plan in defence of the protestants, and was published at Leipsic in 1606. 4. “ Poëmata ;" these are some poems printed at Paris in 1576. His works came out under this title, “ Aonii Palearii opera," Amst. 1696, 8vo.

." Amst. 1696, 8vo. In the preface is given a circumstantial account of the author's life. They were reprinted, Jenæ, 1728, 8vo. There is also a piece extant, with the following title: “Dialogo intitulato il grammatico overo delle false Esercitationi, delle scuele (da Aonio Paleario),” Perugia, 1717. He also wrote a “ Discourse upon the Passion of Christ,” in Italian, which is lost; but the plan of it is in his “ Orations,” p. 90, 91. In Schelhorn's “ Amenitates," Leipsic, 1737, is “ Aopii Palearii ad Lutherum, Calvinum, aliosque de concilio Tridentino epis. tola;" a letter, in which he advises the Lutherans and Calvinists to unite, as the best means of resisting the attack made by the council of Trent on both.'

PALEOTTI (GABRIEL), a learned Italian cardinal, descended from an illustrious family, was born at Bologna, Oct. 4, 1524. He was intended for the profession of the civil and canon law, in which some of his family had acquired fame, and he made great progress in that and other studies. His talents very early procured him a canonry of Bologna ; after which he was appointed professor of civil law, and obtained the title of the new Alciatus from his emulating the judgment and taste of that learned writer. Some business requiring bis presence at Rome, he was appointed by cardinal Alexander Farnese, who had been his fellow-student at Bologna, and who was then perpetual legate of Avignon, governor of Vaisson, in the county of Venaissin, but bearing of the death of his mother, he made that a pretence for declining the office, and therefore returned to his professorship at Bologna. The Farnese family were, however, determined to serve him in spite of his modesty, and in 1557 obtained for him the post of auditor of the rota. When Pope Pius IV. opened the council of Trent, Paleotti was made proctor and counsellor to his legates, who, in truth, did nothing of importance without his advice. Of this council Paleotti wrote a history, which still remains in MS. and of which Pallavicini is said to have availed himself in his history. After this council broke up he resumed his functions at Rome, where in 1565 he was raised to the dignity of the purple by Pius IV. and by Pius V. be was created bishop of Bologna, but the see upon this occasion was erected into an archbishopric to do honour both to Paleotti and his native country. Being a conscientious man, he was always so assiduous in the duties of his diocese, that it was with the greatest reluctance the popes summoned him to attend the consistories and other business at Rome. He died at Rome, July 23, 1597, aged seventy-three. He was author of several works of considerable merit, on subjects in antiquities, jurispradence, and morals. Of these the most considerable are

| Niceron, vol. XVI,Gen. Dict.-Moreri,

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