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Creatoris opere sex dierum, libri septem,” which seems to have been written chiefly with a view to authorize and support those Platonic ideas, with which his warm imagination was not' a little inebriated. 2. “ Conclusiones 900, quas olim Romæ disputandas exhibuit.” But the editors have omitted the advertisement subjoined at their first publication, which runs thus: “ Conclusiones non disputabuntur nisi post Epiphaniam, interim publicabuntur in omnibus Italiæ gymnasiis ; & si quis philosophus aut theologus ab extrema Italia arguendi gratia Romam venire voluerit, ipse pollicetur dominus disputaturus, se viatici expensas, illi soluturum de suo.” 3. “ Apologia adversus eos, qui aliquot propositiones theologicas carpebant.” 4. “ De ente & uno, opus in quo pluriini loci in Moise, in Platone & Aristotele explicantur.” 5. “ De hominis dignitate oratio.” Mirandula discovers here many secrets of the Jewish Cabala, of the Chaldean and Persian philosophers. 6. “ Regulæ XII. partim excitantes, partim dirigentes hominem in pugna spirituali.” 7. “ In Psalmum XV. commentarius." 8. “In orationem Dominicam expositio.” 9. “Aureæ & familiares epistolæ,” which are perhaps, at present, the most useful and entertaining part of his works : on which account the public is much obliged to the learned Christopher Cellarius, for giving a correct edition of them with notes, 1682, in 8vo.

10. “Disputationum in astrologiam libri XII.” the most solid and argumentative of all his works. 11. « Commento sopra una canzone de amore, composta da Girolamo Benivieni, se. cundo la mente & opinione de' Platonici ;” translated into English by Thomas Stanley, 1651, in 8vo. 12. “ Elegia in laudem Hieronymi Benivieni;" in Latin and Italian.

His life, prefixed to his works, and afterwards inserted in Bates' “ Vitæ illustrium virorum,” was written by his nephew, JOHN FRANCIS Picus; but a more valuable, and certainly the most elaborate account yet giver of this extraordinary man, is that for which we are indebted to the Rev. W. Parr Gresswell, published in 1805, with the Lives of Politian, &c. and to which it is sufficient to refer, as including erery species of authority.'

PICUS (John FRANCIS), was the son of Galeoti. Picus, the eldest brother of John Picus, just recorded, and born about 1469. He cultivated learning and the sciences, after

» Life as above,

1

the example of his uncle ; but he had dominions and a principality to superintend, which involved him in great troubles, and at last cost him his life. Upon the death of his father, in 1499, he succeeded, as eldest son, to his estates; but was scarcely in possession, when his brothers Louis and Frederic combined against him; and, by the assistance of the emperor Maximilian I. and Hercules I. duke of Ferrara, succeeded. John Francis, driven from his principality in 1502, was forced to seek refuge in different countries for nine years; till at length pope Julius II. becoming master of Mirandula, put to flight Frances Trivulce, the widow of Louis, and re-established John Francis in 1511. But he could not long maintain his post; for the pope's troops being beaten by the French at Ravenna, April 11, 1512, John James Trivulce, general of the French army, forced away John Francis again, and set up Frances Trivulce, who was his natural daughter. John Francis now became a refugee a second time, and so continued for two years; when, the French being driven out of Italy, he was restored again in 1515. He lived from that time in the quiet possession of his dominions, till October 1533 ; and then Galeoti Picus, the son of his brother Louis, entered his castle by night with forty armed men, and assassinated him, with his eldest son Albert Picus. He died embracing the crucifix, and imploring pardon of God for his sins.

He was a great lover of letters, and applied himself intensely, at the seasons of his leisure, to reading and writing. He seems to have been a more voluminous writer than his uncle; and such of his tracts as were then composed, were inserted in the Strasburgh edition of his uncle's works, in 1504, and continued in those of Basil 1573 and 1601. Among these are, 1.“ De studio divinæ & humanæ philosophiæ, libri duo.” In this he compares profane philosophy with the knowledge of the Holy Scripture, and shews how preferable the latter is to the former. 2. “De imaginatione liber." 3. “ De imitatione, ad Petrum Bembum epistolæ duæ, & ejus responsum.” 4. “ De rerum prænotione, libri IX.” In this book of the prescience of things, he treats of the Divine prescience, and of that knowledge which some prétend to leave of things future, by compacts with evil spirits, by astrology, chiromancy, geomancy, and similar means, which he confutes, at large. 5. “Examen vanitatis doctrinæ gentium, & veritatis disciplinæ Christianæ, &c." in which he opposes the errors of the philosophers, those of Aristotle particularly. 6. “ Epistolarum libri. quatuor." 7. " De reformandis moribus oratio ad Leonem X.” These and some more compositions are to be found in the editions above mentioned of his uncle's works; but there are others of his writings, which have never been collected together, but have always continued separate, as they were first published : as, “ Vita Hieronymi Savonarolæ; De veris calamitatum temporum nostrorum causis liber; De animæ immortalitate ; Dialogus cui nomen Strix, sive de ludificatione dæmonum; Hymni heroici tres ad Trinitatem, Christum, & Virginem; De Venere & Cupidine expellendis carmen heroicum ; Liber de Providentia Dei, contra philosophastros ; De auro' tum æstimando, tum conficiendo, tum utendo, libri tres, &c." “ There is not,” says Dupin, “ so much wit, sprightliness, subtlety, and elegance, in the works of Francis Picus, as in those of his uncle; nor yet so much learning : but there is much more evenness and solidity.” 1

PIERCE (EDWARD), an English painter, who flourished in the reigns of Charles I. and II. was eminent both in history and landscapes. He also drew architecture,' perspective, &c. and was much esteemed in his time. But there is little of his work now remaining, the far greater part being destroyed in the fire of London, in 1666. It chiefly consisted of altar-pieces, ceilings of churches, and the Jike; of which last sort there was one lately remaining, in Covent-garden church, in which were many admirable qualities of a good pencil. He worked some time for Vandyke; and several pieces of his performing are to be seen at Belvoir castle in Leicestershire. He died in London about fifty years ago, leaving behind him three sons, who all became famous in their different ways. One was an excellent sculptor, as appears by a noble marble vase, executed by him, at Hampton-court, the statues of sir Thomas Gresham and Edward III. at the Royal Exchange, and of sir William Walworth at Fishmongers’-hall; and the busts of Thomas Evans in Painters'-hall, and of sir Christopher Wren in the picture-gallery at Oxford, &c.

PIERRE (CORNEILLE DE LA), Cornelius à Lapide, born at a village in the diocese of Liege, entered early in life among the Jesuits, and having learned Greek and Hebrew, devoted himself to the study of the sacred writings. This father taught at Louvain, and afterwards at Rome, in which city he died, March 12, 1657, aged seventy-one, leaving long " Commentaries" on the whole Bible, except the Psalms, Antwerp, 10 vols. folio. They contain great learning, and many curious researches, but, says l'Avocat, little critical knowledge, and no taste.'

1 Tiraboschi.-Dupin.-Fabric. Bibl. Lat. Med.

Walpole's Anecdotes.

PIERRE. See SAINT PIERRE.

PIGALLE (JOHN BAPTIST), one of the most celebrated sculptors that France has produced, was born at Paris in 1714, the son of a joiner, and by his talents became not only sculptor to the king, but chancellor of the academy of painting, and knight of the order of St. Michael. He did not manifest any early disposition for designing; he loved to model, but set about it awkwardly, and finished nothing but by means of indefatigable labour. A visit to Italy gave him that facility which he could not acquire at home. He there studied the works of the great artists, and returned thoroughly inspired with their genius. He died at Paris, Aug. 20, 1785. His most known works are, 1. A Mercury and a Venus," which he made by order of Louis XV. and which were presented to the king of Prussia. The king, who was delighted with them, was desirous to see the sculptor ; and Pigalle, some time after, went to Berlin, but, being announced as the author of the Mercure de France, could not obtain an audience. When Frederic understood the mistake, he was very anxious to repair it; but Pigalle was already gone in some digust. Pigalle maintained that none of the heads of Frederic did justice to his physiognomy, which, in point of spirit, was the finest he had ever seen, and much regretted that he had not been allowed to model it. 2. The monument of marechal Saxe, in which the beauty of the whole obliterates all objections to the parts. 3. The pedestrian statue of Louis XV. executed in bronze for the city of Rheims. 4. The statue of Voltaire. 5. A little boy holding a cage. 6. A girl taking a thorn from her foot. 7. Several busts of men of letters who were his friends. If Pigalle cannot be ranked among the men of the first genius in his art, the good sense of his designs, and the soundness of his taste, afford him a place in the very next class.'

1

Foppen Bibl. Belg.-Dict. Hist.

2 Dict. Hist.

PIGHIUS (Albert), á Dutch divine and mathematician, was born at Campen in Overyssell, towards the close of the fifteenth century, and was educated at Louvain. He acquired considerable distinction by his publications against Luther, Melancthon, Bucer, and Calvin, and was much esteemed, as indeed he deserved, by popes Adrian VI. Clement VII. and Paul III; for, even by the confession of the catholic historians, he was most blindlý attached to the powers, privileges, and usurpations of the Romish pontiffs. He died at Utrecht, where he was provost of the church of St. John the Baptist, Dec. 29, 1542, leaving many works; the most considerable among which is entitled “ Assertio Hierarchiæ Ecclesiasticæ," Colog. 1572, folio. His mathematical treatises, which do him most credit, were, “ De Ratione Paschalis celebrationis," 1520; De Æquinoctiorum Solstitiorumque inventione;" a defence of the Alphonsine tables, and “ Astrologiæ Defensio” against the pretenders to prognostics, and annual predictions.

PIGHIUS (STEPHEN VINAND), nephew to the preceding, was born at Campen in 1520 ; and, when grown up, went to Rome, where he spent eight years in the study of Roman antiquities, of which he acquired a knowledge that was not exceeded by any of his time. He then returned to Germany, and was taken into the family of the cardinal de Granvelle, who made him his librarian. He published an early, but not very correct edition of Valerius Maximus, in 1567, 8vo. Afterwards he became preceptor to Charles, prince of Juliers and Cleves, and was to have attended him to Rome : but in this he was disappointed by the death of the prince, whose loss he deplored in a panegyric, entitled “ Hércules Prodicus ;" for which the prince's father, William, made him canon of the church, and head master of the school, at Santen. He died at Santen in 1604, aged eighty-four.

His “ Annales, seu Fasti Romanorum magistratuum et provinciarum,” which are drawn up in a more correct and copious manner, than even those of Sigonius and Onuphrius Panvinius, he commended to his friends upon his death-bed; and Andreas Schottus published them at Plantin's press, 1615, in 3 vols. folio, with this character : “ I have really found, and hope I shall prove to others, that

1 Foppen Bibl. Belg.–Niceron, vol. XXXIX.-Burman Traject. Erudit.

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