« PrejšnjaNaprej »
Dr. Melvil Dewey.
Mr. William Warner Bishop.
Professor Martin A. Rosanoff.
Professor Walter Phelps Hall.
Professor Arthur L. Frothingham.
Professor A. D. F. Hamlin.
CATTLE AND CATTLE PLAGUE.
Dr. Alfred Charles True.
Dr. Edwin West Allen.
Dr. George N. Olcott.*
Professor Charles Knapp.
Professor Walter P. Hall; Dr. Clark
Wissler; Mr. Leon Dominian; Mrs. fessor A. D. F. Hamlin; Mr. William
Allan E. Engle.
Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. Professor Nathaniel Schmidt.
CAVALRY. CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
General Theophilus F. Rodenbough.* Professor Walter P. Hall; Mr. William
Lieut. Col. Joseph Theodore Dickman. Churchill; Mr. Charles Swift Sloane.
CAVE OR CAVERN.
Mr. David Hale Newland.
Professor Alpheus Spring Packard.*
Mr. C. William Beebe.
Professor Edwin A. Start.
Professor Walter Phelps Hall.
Dr. Robert H. Lowie; Mr. Cyrus C. Professor Martin A. Rosanoff. CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM.
Adams; Mr. William Churchill.
Dr. Samuel Macauley Jackson.*
Professor Irving F. Wood.
CELL (In Animals).
Professor Charles Benedict Davenport.
Mr. C. William Beebe.
CELL (In Plants).
Professor John Merle Cou
Mr. Frank Fowler. *
Dr. George Kriehn.
Professor John Lawrence Gerig.
Mr. Ernest F. Burchard.
Mr. Moses Nelson Baker.
Dr. Roland P. Falkner.
Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson.
CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION. CASS, LEWIS.
Dr. Marcus Benjamin.
Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames.
Mr. Gilbert Van Ingen.
Mr. David Hale Newland.
Dr. Frederic Taber Cooper.
Professor John D. Fitz-Gerald.
Professor A. V. W. Jackson; Professor Professor Arthur L. Frothingham.
Dana Carleton Munro; Mrs. Allan Dr. George Kriehn.
E. Engle; Mr. Charles Swift Sloane; CATALAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.
Professor Alexander F. Chamberlain*; Professor John D. Fitz-Gerald.
and others. * Deceased.
RÖCKELMANN, brēk'el-min, KARL those of a yearling stag. (See ANTLER.) They
(1866– ). A German university inhabit Brazil, are of “small size, heavy form, professor and aëronaut.
and arched back.” There are four species, formborn at Wiesbaden, Germany, and ing the subgenus Coassus, and varying from 19 was educated at the local gymna
to 27 inches in height. One is the Brazilian deer, sium and at the universities of Mu
or guazu-viva (Coassus nemorivagus), and is nich and Erlangen. He became professor at brown, each hair being tipped with white. Anthe University of Halle, chose photo-chemistry other is the guazu-pita (Coassus rufus). A as a specialty, and on this subject wrote several closely allied form is the diminutive venada or books. He also made more than 80 balloon as- pudu (Prdua humilis) of the Chilean Andes, the censions, taking many first prizes in aëronautics smallest of all deer, with spike horns only 242
See Pudu. among them several offered by the German inches long. Emperor-and writing Wir Luftschiffer (1909).
BROCK'ETT, LINUS PIERPONT (1820–93). The Aëronautic and Alpine Society of Berlin An American author. He was born in Canton, elected him a member.
Conn., and in 1843 graduated at the Yale MediBROCK'EN (Mons Bructerus Melibocus of cal School. After a few years of practice in the ancient Romans), popularly known as the his profession he devoted himself exclusively to Blocksberg. The highest summit of the Harz literary pursuits, was connected, as editor or Mountains. It is situated in Prussia, about 20 contributor, with many magazines, and pubmiles west-southwest of Halberstadt, and has an lished, among other works, a History of Educaelevation of 3747 feet above sea level. The tion (1859); Philanthropic Results of the Civil mountain is very frequently veiled in mist and War (1864); Lights and Shadows of the Great is celebrated for the phenomenon known as Rebellion (1866; reprinted as Scouts, Spies, and the Brockengespenst (“spectre of the Brocken'), Heroes of the Great Civil War, in 1892' and which is nothing more than the shadows of 1911); Men of Our Day (1868); The Year of men, houses, and other objects thrown upon Battles (1871); Epidemic and Contagious Disthe misty eastern horizon by the light of sun
eases (1873); The Great Metropolis (1888). set. The mountain is very much frequented BROCKHAUS, brok’hous, FRIEDRICH ARon account of fine views obtained from its sum- NOLD (1772-1823). A German publisher, born mit, which has a hotel and observatory, and is in Dortmund, the founder of the Leipzig firm reached by a railway line constructed in 1898. that bears his name. The encyclopædia with
BROCKES, brók'ěs, BABTHOLD HEINRICH which he is chiefly associated (Brockhaus's Kon(1680–1747). A German poet, born in Ham- versations-Lexikon) he purchased incomplete in burg. He studied at the universities of Halle 1808, after it had been in progress for 12 years. and Leyden and traveled extensively. In 1724- He completed in Altenburg a first edition in 26 he and his friends published Der Patriot (4 1811, and a second was begun in 1812. The busivols.).
A passion oratorio set to music by a ness was removed to Leipzig in 1818, and book score of composers, including Händel, made him publishing was undertaken on a large scale. famous. In his works he turns, with a simple Brockhaus's sons and grandsons, who succeeded religious faith, from the stilted conventional him, have carried the Konversations-Lexikon poetry of his day to the appreciation of nature, through 14 editions, and have conducted with then but slightly understood. Particularly de- success similar enterprises, notably Ersch and serving of citation is his collection Irdisches Gruber's gigantic Allgemeine Enzyklopädie (167 Vergnügen in Gott (9 vols., 1721-48), which vols. since 1818, incomplete). The fifth edition shows the influence of the Bible, Milton, and of the Kleines Konversations-Lexikon appeared Thomson; new abridged ed. by Stiehler (1887). in 1910 (2 vols.). Consult H. E. Brockhaus, He translated Pope's Essay on Man and Thom- F. A. B., sein Leben und Wirken (3 vols., Leipson's Seasons. Consult A. Brandl, B. H. Brockes zig, 1872–81); and the same author's Die Firma (Innsbruck, 1878).
F. A. B. von der Begründung bis zum hundertBROCKET (Fr. brocart, from OF. broc, Fr. jährigen Jubiläum, 1805--1905 (Leipzig, 1905). broche, spit, tine; cf. OF. broquet, dim. of broc). BROCKHAUS, HERMANN (1806–77). A GerA book name of certain South American deer, man Orientalist, the third son of Friedrich Arbecause their antlers are simple spikes like nold Brockhaus. He was born in Amsterdam and was educated in Leipzig, Göttingen, and two well-equipped hospitals, and is the seat of a Bonn, completing his studies in Paris and Ox- United States consulate. Pop., 1901, 8940; 1911. ford. In 1839 he was called as assistant pro- 9374. fessor at Jena. Two years later he became BROCKWAY, HOWARD (1870– ). An lecturer at Leipzig, and in 1848 was elected American musician and composer, born in Brookprofessor of Sanskrit language and literature lyn, N. Y., Nov. 22, 1870. After pianoforte there. His works include the first five books of studies with H. 0. C. Kortheuer from 1887 to the great collection of fairy tales of Somadeva, 1889, at the age of 20 he went to Berlin, Kathā saritsagara ('The Ocean of the Flow of where he continued his instrumental studies with Siory,' 1839--66); an edition (1845) of the play Barth, and composition with O. B. Boise. At the Prabodhachandrodaya ("The Rise of the Moon age of 24 he had composed a symphony (op: of Intelligence') of Krishna Miśra; and a criti. 12), a ballade for orchestra, and a violin and cal edition of the Lieder des Hafis (3 vols., piano sonata (op. 9); as well as a cavatina for 1854-60). In 1841 he proposed the plan of violin and orchestra. These, together with other printing Sanskrit works in the Latin alphabet, piano solos, were given at a concert of Brockand he did much in other ways to increase way's own works in February, 1895, at the interest in and knowledge of the Oriental lan- Berlin Sing-Akademie. A few months later he guages. He prepared the first European glos. returned to New York, where he remained until sary of the Avestan language, which was ap- 1903. In 1903-09 he was professor of compopended to an edition of Vendidad Sūde (Leip- sition at the Peabody Institute in Baltimore. zig, 1850). In 1856 he became editor of Ersch Thereafter he made New York his residence. and Gruber's Allgemeine Enzyklopädie, and pre- BROCKWAY, ZEBULON REED (1827-1920). pared vols. lxii to xcix of that work. In 1853 An American penologist. He was born in Lyme, he founded the Zeitschrift der deutschen mor- Conn., April 28, 1827. In 1850 he entered upon genländischen Gesellschaft, in which he pub- prison service at the Connecticut State Prison. lished numerous articles relating to the lan- Thence he went to Albany Co., N. Y., as deputy guages of India, Arabia, and Persia.
superintendent of the penitentiary, and in 1854 BROCK'PORT. A village in Monroe Co., became superintendent of the Monroe County N. Y., 18 miles west of Rochester, on the Erie (N. Y.) Penitentiary. In 1861 he took charge Canal and on the New York Central and Hudson of the House of Correction, Detroit, Mich., which River Railroad (Map: New York, C4). It is position he gave up in 1876 to assume the the seat of a State normal school. The village superintendency of the New York State Reformais the centre of a fruit-growing and agricultural tory at Elmira. This position he resigned in region, and manufactures shoes, canned goods, 1900. In 1898 he was elected president of the pianos, piano cases, tractors, spraying outfits, National Prison Association of America, and globes, clocks, etc. The water works are owned was honorary president of the International by the village. Pop., 1900, 3398; 1910, 3579. Prison Congress meeting in Washington in 1910.
BROCK'TON. A city_in Plymouth Co., He was elected mayor of Elmira in 1905. Mr. Mass., 20 miles south of Boston, on the New Brockway's fame as a prison reformer rests York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad (Map: largely upon his work in introducing the inMassachusetts, E 3). Its manufactures include determinate sentence at the Elmira Reformatory. shoes, lasts, mechanics' tools, rubber goods, fur- The success of the indeterminate sentence in niture, paper boxes, pianos, etc. The city has this institution was largely responsible for its a public library of about 60,000 volumes. First wide acceptance in other prisons. Consult his settled in 1700, and originally a part of Bridge- book, Fifty Years of Prison Service (New York, water, Brockton was incorporated as the town 1912). See ELMIRA REFORMATORY; PENOLOGY. of North Bridgewater in 1821. Its present name BRO'DERICK, DAVID COLBRETH (1820-59). was adopted in 1874, and a city charter secured
An American politician. He was born in Washin 1881. The government is administered by ington, the son of a stonecutter; but early rea mayor, elected annually, and a bicameral city moved with his father to New York City, where council. The executive appoints the license com- he attended the public schools and afterward missioners, and, with the concurrence of the learned his father's trade. He then kept a grog board of aldermen, the board of health, members shop for some time, became prominent as of the police department, and trustees of the leader of the rougher element in Tammany, and public library. Other officials, excepting the was chosen foreman of a volunteer fire-engine school committee which is chosen by popular company, which had a considerable political inelection, are selected by the council. Pop., 1890, fluence. He nevertheless devoted much of his 27.294; 1900, 40,063; 1910, 56,878; 1913 (local), time to private study and by his moral habits 65,000; 1920, 66,138. Consult Kingman, His. and his personal integrity earned the respect of tory of Brockton (Syracuse, 1895).
the better element in the city. In 1846 he failed BROCK VILLE. The capital of Leeds Co., to secure a coveted election to Congress, and Ontario, Canada, taking its name from Gen. Sir three years later removed to California, where Isaac Brock (q.v.); on the left bank of the St. he soon became the recognized leader of one of Lawrence, about 60 miles below Kingston and the two factions into which the Democratic party 125 southwest of Montreal (Map: Ontario, J 4). in the State was then divided. He was a memIt is an important railway and commercial cen- ber of the California Constitutional Convention tre, being a division point of the Grand Trunk, in 1849, and served two terms in the State and the southern terminus of the Ottawa and Senate, for part of the time as presiding officer. Brockville branch of the Canadian Pacific and In 1856 he was elected to the United States of the Brockville, Westport, and Northwestern, Senate and soon became conspicuous for his opand a port of call for St. Lawrence steamers. position to the admission of Kansas under the It manufactures stoves and hardware, steam Lecompton Constitution. In 1859 he took an engines, agricultural machinery, carriages, etc., active part in a rancorous political campaign in and has an extensive trade in cheese and butter. California, and, challenged at its close by Judge Brockville has a large asylum for the insane, Terry on account of certain strictures in one of
his speeches, he fought a duel on September 13, 1846 to 1849 Brodhead was Secretary of Legain which he was fatally wounded. His death tion in London, George Bancroft then being the under such circumstances caused a deep sensa- United States Minister to England, and from tion in the East as well as in the West and was 1853 to 1857 he was naval officer of the port of generally attributed to the animosity aroused New York. His reputation rests chiefly on his among slaveholders and their political sym- History of the State of New York (2 vols., 1853– pathizers by Broderick's unyielding opposition 71), which is notable for its thorough scholarto the further spread of slavery, especially in ship, its candor, and its painstaking accuracy, Kansas.
and which, though left incomplete, remains the BRODERIP, bröd'rịp, WILLIAM JOHN (1789- standard work for the period covered—1609-91. 1859). An English lawyer and naturalist. He Brodhead also published An Oration on the Congraduated at Oxford, studied and practiced law, quest of New Netherland (1864) and an address edited law reports, and was for 34 years a Lon- entitled Government of Sir Edmund Andros over don police magistrate. He was devoted to science, New England (1867). and wrote the zoölogical articles for the Penny BRO'DIE, ALEXANDER OSWALD (1849–1918). Cyclopædia. He published Zoological Recrea- An American army officer, born in St. Lawrence tions (1848) and Leaves from the Note-Book of Co., N. Y. He graduated from West Point and a Naturalist (1852). He was secretary of the was appointed a first lieutenant of cavalry in Geological Society for many years. His great 1875. Two years later he resigned, engaged in conchological collection is in the British Mu- the cattle trade in Kansas, and later took up
Consult Berger, W. J. Broderip (Paris, mining and engineering in Arizona. During 1856).
this period he was a second time enlisted (1883– BRODEUR, bro'dêr', LOUIS PHILIPPE (1862- 84), serving in two Indian campaigns. At the
). A Canadian statesman, born at Belæil, outbreak of the Spanish-American War he beQuebec. He was educated at the College of St. came a major in Theodore Roosevelt's “Rough Hyacinthe and at Laval University. In 1884 he Riders," saw fighting in Cuba and elsewhere, was admitted to the bar and in 1891 was elected and was promoted to be lieutenant colonel. In as a Liberal to the House of Commons, retaining 1902 he was appointed temporary Governor of his seat until appointed Speaker of the House in Arizona; in 1905 he became assistant chief of 1901. In 1904 he became Minister of Inland the Record and Pension Office (rank of major) Revenue in the cabinet of Sir Wilfrid Laurier and then military secretary (lieutenant colonel), (q.v.), and two years later was appointed Minis- and in 1907 adjutant general. ter of Marine and Fisheries, in which capacity BRODIE, SĪR BENJAMIN COLLINS (1783he did much to improve conditions of navigation 1862). An English surgeon. He studied under on the St. Lawrence River. He also introduced Sir Everard Home at St. George's Hospital and legislation which prevented the American To- was surgeon there, having previously lectured bacco Company from establishing a foothold in both on anatomy and surgery. In 1810 he was Canada. In 1907 and 1911, respectively, he was elected to the Royal Society, in 1811 received a delegate to the Colonial and Imperial confer- its Copley medal for physiological papers, and ences in London, and in the former year was in 1858 was elected president. He became proassociated with William Stevens Fielding (q.v.) fessor of comparative anatomy in the Royal in negotiating the Franco-Canadian Treaty. College of Surgeons in 1819, and later president. Upon the establishment of a Canadian naval ser- He was attending physician to George IV. vice in 1910 he became its head. Canada was William IV made him sergeant surgeon (1832) represented by him at the Imperial Defense Con- and a baronet (1834). He was sergeant surgeon ference in London (1909), and at the North to Queen Victoria. He was one of the leaders in Atlantic Fisheries Conference held in Washing. England of the opposition to homeopathy and ton in pursuance of The Hague Tribunal's deci. to Gall's “phrenology." His work on diseases of sion. In 1911 he was appointed a judge of the the joints promoted conservative treatment and Supreme Court of Canada.
decreased the frequency of amputations. He BROD'HEAD, JOHN ROMEYN (1814-73). was an able diagnostician and a cool steady An American historian, born in Philadelphia, surgeon, but his passion was prevention of dis, Pa. He removed with his parents to New York
He wrote two volumes of Psychological City in 1826, graduated at Rutgers College in Inquiries (1854; 1862). His professional pa1831, and in 1835 was admitted to the bar, but pers, with his Autobiography, were collected soon abandoned the practice of law and devoted (1865) by Hawkins. Consult Acland's biography his attention almost entirely to the study of the (London, 1864).-His son, SIR BENJAMIN COLhistory of New York. For several years after LINS BRODIE (1817-80), became eminent as a 1839 he was connected with the United States chemist and studied particularly the constitution legation in Holland, and while there was ap- of carbons. In 1855 he was elected Aldrichian pointed (1841), in pursuance of an act of the professor of chemistry at Oxford, his Alma New York Legislature, to procure and transcribe Mater. documents in European archives relating to the BROD RICK, WILLIAM ST. JOHN FREMANTLE, history of the State. He devoted himself to this VISCOUNT MIDLETON (1856- ). An English task with great energy and succeeded in col- statesman. He graduated in 1879 at Oxford, lecting more than 5000 documents, many of sat as a Conservative for West Surrey from 1880 which had been previously unknown to his- to 1885, and for the Guildford division of Surrey torians. “The ship in which he came back," after that year until 1906. From 1886 to 1892 says Bancroft, "was more richly freighted with he was financial secretary to the War Office. In new material for American history than any 1895–98 he was Undersecretary of State for War, that ever crossed the Atlantic.” The documents and in 1898 was appointed Undersecretary of were printed by the State, under the editorship State for Foreign Affairs. He was Secretary of of O'Callaghan and Fernow, as Documents Re- State for War in 1900, and his management of lating to the Colonial History of the State of the War Office during the South African War New York (14 vols., Albany, 1856–86). From was criticised. In 1903 he was made Secretary
of State for India. He supported Lord Kitch- of Schiller. Unfortunately the revolution of ener in his controversy with Viceroy Curzon, 1831 interrupted his literary labors. Disapwhich led to the latter's resignation in 1905. pointed with the outcome of the Polish insurHe became an alderman of the London County rection, he became a Messianist, expressing the Council in 1907.
belief in one of his later works that “the Polish BROD'SKY, ADOLF (1851- ). A Rus- nation is the Copernicus of the moral world.” sian violinist. He was born at Taganrog in the For an account of his life and work, consult Province of the Don Cossacks, studied under Arabazhin, Kazimierz Brodzinski (Kiev, 1891). Hellmesberger in Vienna, and became a member BROFFERIO, bröf-fā're-7, ANGELO (1802of the Hellmesberger quartet and of the orches
An Italian poet and publicist, born at tra of the Royal Opera in Vienna. Subsequently Castelnuovo-Calcea. In 1834 he established the he undertook a concert tour, pursued further Messaggiere Torinese, and from 1849 to 1856 he study under Laub in Moscow, and in 1875 was edited the radical Voce della Libertà. Imprisappointed an instructor in the Moscow Conserva- oned for liberalism in 1831 and 1846, he was tory. He became director of the symphony con- from 1848 until his death a member of the certs in Kiev in 1879, in 1882 a professor in the Parliament of Piedmont and achieved distincLeipzig Conservatory, and in 1891 an instructor tion as an opponent of Cavour. A prolific in Scharwenka's Conservatory and concert author of historical and political works and of master of the Symphony Society of New York. memoirs, he still lives in his dialect Canzoni In 1895 he was appointed director of the Royal piemontesi, which are good reflections of the College of Music in Manchester, England. He idealism of the revolution. Consult R. Ebranci, appeared in concert with great success in 1881- A. Brofferio e il suo tempo (Asti, 1898), and 82 in London, Vienna, Paris, and Moscow. translation of I miei tempi by L. W. (London,
BRODY, broodi (Slav. pl. of brod, ford, re- 1861). ferring to the swamps around it). A town in BROGLIE, bro'lyē', ACHILLE CHARLES LÉONCE the Austrian Crownland of Galicia, about 56 VICTOR, DUC DE (1785–1870). A French statesmiles east-northeast of Lemberg, not far from
He was born in Paris, Nov. 28, 1785. the Russian frontier (Map: Austria, J I). Al-The family was Piedmontese, but had won though its commercial importance has been on distinction in the armies of France, one of its the decline for several years, due to the with members obtaining the rank of marshal under drawal in 1879 of its charter as a free commer- Louis XIV, and another holding the post of cial city, it still remains a leading exchange commander in chief under Louis XVI. The mart between Austria-Hungary and Russia. The father of Achille died in 1794 on the guillotine, chief articles of commerce are grain, wool, cattle, but left the injunction to his son to remain furs, feathers, and agricultural implements, its faithful to Liberty even though she was untrade being almost entirely in the hands of the grateful and unjust. “His father murdered, his Jews, who constitute two-thirds of the popula- niother in prison, his property confiscated and tion. Pop., 1890, about 17,500; 1900, 17,360; plundered, the young De Broglie first appears 1910, 13,588.
in life in wooden shoes and a red cap of liberty, BRODZINSKI, brod-zen'ské, KAZIMIERZ begging an assignat.” His mother having es(1791-1835). A famous Polish poet. He was ca ped and remarried, Broglie was carefully edutorn at Krolowka (Galicia) and received a cated by his stepfather. Early in life he was a military training. Having joined the artillery member of Napoleon's Council of State, and was corps a little before 1812, it was his lot to par- detailed by the Emperor on several diplomatic ticipate in the disastrous Napoleonic invasion missions. Broglie entered the House of Peers of Russia. In 1813 he was taken prisoner by in 1815, just before he was 30 years old. At the Prussians in the battle of Leipzig. Three the trial of Marshal Ney he alone had the couryears later, on being liberated, he settled at age to speak and vote for acquittal on the Warsaw and devoted himself to the study of ground that the Marshal was not guilty of precomparative literature. Through his mastery meditated treason. During the Restoration he of German, he soon became thoroughly familiar acted with the doctrinaires, of whom Guizot was with the works of Schiller, Goethe, and their the ablest representative. In 1816 he married contemporaries. In German, too, he read Shake- Mme. de Staël's daughter Albertine. About the speare. By 1822 he had acquired so profound same time he became the ally of Clarkson and a knowledge of the world's literature as to be- Wilberforce in the antislavery cause. In Louis come lecturer on Polish, German, and English Philippe's first cabinet he was Minister of Pubwriters at the University of Warsaw. Even lic Worship, and in 18:32 succeeded Casimir before this his fame had been made by the Périer as Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1835 publication of two volumes of poems, especially he was the head of the cabinet. At this time the idyllic Wicslaw, a narrative poem (modeled the restrictive September Laws were passed, alsomewhat after Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea) though Broglie had long advocated greater freedealing with the life of Polish peasantry and yet dom for the press. His ministry fell because of full of delicate sentiment, which is still much his desire to indemnify the United States for read. Indeed, Brodzinski was the first writer in shipping losses under Napoleon. Riding beside Poland to discard classical literary models for the King when Fieschi's attempt on the life of the everyday life of the people all about him; Louis Philippe was made, Broglie received one he was a Polish Wordsworth, as it were, mak- of the bullets through his coat collar. ing a new path in his native literature. He tired permanently from public life in 1836. knew life as well as books and gave a most Though not in office, Broglie preserved through wholesomely fresh impulse to modern Polish life close personal and political friendship with literature. Besides his original writings (of Guizot, who made him Ambassador to England which the eight-volume edition published at in 1847. The overthrow of the constitutional Warsaw in 1872-74 is probably the best), he monarchy in 1848 was a severe blow to the has added greatly to Polish literary culture by Duke; but he consented to sit in the Republican translations of the Book of Job and the dramas assemblies and labored to counteract what he