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Trinity, under the supposition that it emptied into Trinidad bay, as laid down on the old Spanish charts.

On the discovery of gold, Reading, who had meantime remained in the country, again visited this mountainous region, taking with him a party of sixty Indians, through whose aid he obtained a large amount of gold on Trinity river-Readings bar, on that stream, being named after him. Since that period this gentleman has resided on an extensive farm owned by him in the upper Sacramento valley.

Trinity river, the only large stream in the county, rises in Scott's mountain, and receiving many small tributaries on its course, after running first southwest and then northwest, empties into the Klamath, of which it forms the largest branch.

The mountains throughout this county, which are covered for the most part with pine, spruce, maple, fir and oak timber, abound with game-some portions of them containing considerable quantities of grass and other herbage. There are fourteen small saw mills scattered over the county. They are all run by water, and cut an aggregate of about one and a quarter million feet of lumber annually-the whole for local use.

The population of Trinity county, numbering 5,125 in 1860, had been reduced to less than 4,000 at the close of 1867. A good wagon road has been constructed connecting Weaverville, the county seat, with the Sacramento valley on the east, and also, one running to Humboldt bay on the west. This town is situated in a pleasant valley near the confluence of Weaver creek and Garden gulch, on a flat known to be rich in gold. It is nearly three thousand feet above the sea level, and is surrounded with mountains, portions of which are covered with eternal snow. It derives its name, as does also the creek mentioned, from a miner named Weaver, who at an early period obtained a large quantity of gold from the latter. The town is handsomely laid out and well built up. Many of the dwellings have gardens, vineyards and fruit trees planted about them, indicating a high degree of comfort among the inhabitants.

The population, which at one time numbered 1,800, is now much less. This place, since founded, has suffered severely from fires and floods, having been nearly destroyed four times by the former, and twice greatly damaged by the latter, and like many other mountain towns, is now gradually decaying as the diggings in the vicinity become exhausted.

Trinity was at one time a very prolific mining county, the annual yield of its placers having for several years in succession reached over $1,000,000. This class of mines is still yielding fairly, the average

earnings of the mining population being, perhaps, equal to those of any other county in the State. There are also many auriferous quartz lodes in Trinity of great supposed value-few of them having been thoroughly prospected—while no attempt at working them on an extensive scale has as yet been made. The rugged nature of the country in which these lodes are situated, and the want of local roads have done much towards preventing heavy machinery being taken into this county, and consequently towards delaying the development of this class of mines. There are forty-five main ditches in the county, aggregating one hundred and fifty miles in length, constructed for the purpose of conducting water to points where used for washing. The cost of these works amounts in the aggregate to about $225,000, many of then having paid, as some still do, good interest on the investment.


Klamath county is bounded by Del Norte on the north, by Del Norte and Siskiyou on the east, by Trinity and Humboldt on the south, and by the Pacific ocean on the west. It is about forty-five miles long, east and west, and forty miles wide. Its topography is similar to that of Trinity.county, already described-almost the entire area consisting of steep, lofty mountains, separated from each other by deep ravines, their sides eroded by innumerable gulches and cañons. Through these depressions flow streams of greater or less magnitude, accordingly as swollen by the melting of the snow in the spring and summer. There is but little agricultural or meadow land in this county, the rivers and creeks running through steep narrow gorges, preventing the formation of alluvial bottoms along them. There is scarcely any arable land along the Klamath river, though it runs, with its windings, a distance of more than sixty miles within the limits of the county. The total amount of land under cultivation does not exceed two or three thousand acres. Hoopa valley, about thirty miles long and two wide, situated at the junction of the Trinity and Klamath rivers, contains the largest body of good land in the county, but it is not much cultivated, being the site of an Indian reservation. Many portions of the mountains and the country towards the sea are well timbered with spruce, fir, pine, cedar and redwood, the latter being confined to a belt eight or ten miles wide near the coast, where some of these trees attain gigantic proportions. There are seven saw mills in the county, which made during the year 1867 over 2,000,000 feet of lumber, more than half of which was cut by the Trinidad mill, on Trinidad bay, whence the most of it was shipped abroad. The only grist mill in Klamath is on the Indian reservation, being the property of the United States government. A strip of country about five miles wide and twenty. long, lying near the coast between Trinidad and Humboldt, comprises nearly all the level land in the county—the most of it, however, being heavily timbered, but little has been brought under tillage. To the east of the redwood timber belt lies a portion of the Bald hills, already described.

Placer mining constitutes the leading pursuit of the population of Klamath, though there are many lodes of gold bearing quartz in different parts of the county, some of which have been sufficiently prospected to demonstrate that they would pay well for working. In 1861 there were twelve quartz mills along the banks of Salmon river, there being numerous valuable quartz veins in this vicinity. The most of these mills having been destroyed by the flood of 1862, they have not since been rebuilt, leaving but three at present in the county. Klamath contains a number of small ditches, aggregating about one hundred miles in length, and costing $130,000. Gold Bluff, the discovery of which led to much speculation and excitement in the spring of 1851, and where the branch of mining known as beach washing has for many years been carried on, is situated in this county.

Klamath county is situated wholly to the west of the main Coast Range, which here makes a broad deflection to the east. The Salmon river mountains, dividing the Salmon from the Klamath river, are a broad broken range, running northwest and southeast, reaching an altitude, in some places, of perpetual snow. The principal rivers are the Klamath, Trinity, Salmon and Redwood. The county derives its name from the first mentioned stream, signifying in the Indian tongue "swiftness." This river heads in a series of large lakes situated on the confines of Oregon and California, and after pursuing a devious course through Siskiyou, Del Norte and Klamath counties, enters the ocean a little to the north of Gold Bluff. Once over the bar at its mouth, which, from its frequent shifting is difficult and dangerous of entrance, small steamers can run up forty miles, to its confluence with the Trinity, below which point it carries a volume of water equal to the Sacramento. Confined to a narrow, deep cañon, this stream frequently rises to a great height, it having, during the flood of 1862, reached a stage one hundred and twenty feet above its ordinary level, at which time it carried off a wire suspension bridge ninety-seven feet above low water mark, and also swept away most of the soil and improvements on its banks. The mountains bordering this river reach a considerable altitude-Prospect and Flagstaff peaks being upwards of six thousand feet high, while some unnamed ridges are still more lofty.

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The Trinity, Salmon and Redwood all take their rise in the coast mountains, run northwest, and empty, the former two into the Klamath, and the latter into the Pacific ocean. Near the sources of the Salmon are the remains of an extinct volcano, an area of nearly two square miles being covered with lava, obsidian, and similar matter--their occurrence the more noticeable from being the only evidences of volcanic action in this portion of the Coast Range. The rocks here are almost exclusively slate and granite, and this, like Trinity county, is without hot or mineral springs and deposits of sulphur or petroleum.

Owing to its extremely rugged surface, but few wagon roads have been constructed in Klamath, most of the transportation being done with pack animals. During the winter, when the snow is deep, communication with the coast is kept up by snow-shoe express.

The placer mines here not having been worked so extensively as in the counties further east and south, pay better average wages, perhaps, than in any other part of the State. Many of the diggings, under the action of the floods, have also the further peculiarity of partially renewing themselves every year. Bars, worked out, are swept away, and new deposits formed, often affording virgin diggings. Water, in most localities, is also abundant, costing the miner but little. On the other hand, however, the country is difficult of access, the cost of living great, and operations much interrupted during the winter by reason of the cold and snow.

The first mining done in this county was in the spring of 1850, at Orleans bar, now the county seat. The present population of Klamath does not exceed fifteen hundred, a much smaller number than it contained ten years ago. The climate here is subject to heavy fogs and dews during the summer and to excessive rains-snow, on the mountains--during the winter. The precipitation along this part of the coast, as well as to the north, is much greater than at points further south, the quantity of rain and snow almost equalling that falling in the Sierra Nevada. The storms of thunder and lightning that sometimes occur among the higher peaks of the Coast Range are grand and appalling, being often kept up continuously for many hours.

The native tribes inhabiting this region, in common with those throughout the entire northern portion of the State, are large and well proportioned, but sullen, fierce and warlike, and being well armed, have given the settlers and miners much trouble ever since the first arrival of the latter in the country, These Indians are usually divided into three classes by the whites : the Coast, Klamath and Hoopa tribes-readily distinguished by their appearance and habits. The first occupy

the southwestern portion of the county, along the sea coast, from Mad to Redwood river; this tribe is nearly exterminated, the remnant left having greatly degenerated through intercourse with the whites. The Klamaths live in the mountains that border the main river from its junction with the Trinity north into Oregon. In 1866 the various families composing this tribe numbered two thousand warriors; they are divided into the Mekares, or Upper, and the Weitchepecs, or Lower Klamaths. It was the former who, surprising Fremont's camp, in 1846, killed several of his party.

The Hoopas had their rancherias in the valley that bears their name, and on the mountains adjacent. A few hundred, mostly women and children, are all that is left of this tribe—which remnant has been collected and placed on the reservation in Hoopa valley.

These northern races, besides being larger and more athletic, are of a lighter complexion than those in the interior and southern portions of the State, the men being well developed, and many of the women by no means ill-looking, though the latter greatly disfigure themselves, at least in the estimation of the whites, by tatooing their chins in a hideous manner.

The males are well skilled in the use of fire arms, and dexterous in all the arts and devices of the chase.

Gold Bluff, the discovery of which, in the spring of 1851, lead to one of those excitements culminating in sudden migratory movements, so common among the mining populations of California, is situated on the ocean beach, about fifteen miles south of the mouth of Klamath river, and twenty north of Trinidad bay. The bluff consists of a high sandy ridge or headland, against which the waves impinging, wear it slowly away. Mixed with the sand of which this bluff is composed are particles of fine gold, which, as the former is washed down by the action of the waves, are released, and mingling with the shore sand, forms the gold beach found at the foot of the bluff.

Orleans Bar, a small town of about one hundred and twenty-five inhabitants, is situated on the Klamath river, sixty-five miles southeast of Trinidad, and is worthy of notice only as being the county seat.

Trinidad, the only port in the county, contains about two hundred and fifty inhabitants. The town stands on a ridge, which, projecting south, shelters the harbor on the north west. The port is an open roadstearl, having deep water and good anchorage, but is exposed on the south and west. There are extensive wharves here, affording good accommodations for the increasing trade of the place.

Auriferous lodes of large size and supposed value have been found at several places in this county; and although the ores, so far as tested, ,

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