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NURSE TRAINING SCHOOLS, 1917–18.

CONTENTS.-Reasons for separate treatment Methods of tabulation formerly used-Classification of

schools-Pupils and graduates-Requirements for admission-Hours of duty required-Remuneration of pupils—Tuition-Years in nurse training course-Nurse training schools affiliated with colleges and universities.

REASONS FOR SEPARATE TREATMENT.

Hitherto the statistics of nurse training schools have been included with those of theology, law, medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, and veterinary science in the chapter of the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education devoted to professional education. This year (1918) the statistics of the other professional schools are included in the chapter on colleges, universities, and professional schools, and the statistics of nurse training schools are printed separately. It is highly desirable this year to publish detailed statistics of each nurse training school reporting to the Bureau of Education, especially since no printed lists or statistics of these schools have appeared during the past seven years. In 1912 this bureau published a bulletin entitled, “Educational Status of Nursing,” prepared by M. Adelaide Nutting, of Columbia University, in which detailed statistics were given for the school year 1910–11, and in which the leading tendencies in the education of professional nurses were pointed out.

Since that date the Bureau of Education has published only summary tables for these schools. Within the past few years the subject of nurse training has received so much attention that it is thought desirable this year to publish a special chapter on these schools, giving detailed information regarding each school and summary tables by States, and pointing out a number of the most pronounced conditions and tendencies as revealed by the data contained herein.

It will be noticed that all schools known to be in existence have been included, whether they were able to submit a report or not. The list, therefore, forms a complete directory of these schools. No reports for the year 1916 have been incorporated in the statistics contained herein. The revision of the blank statistical form used in collecting data from these schools precluded this possibility. If a school failed to report in 1918, only the name and location of it are given in this chapter. If estimates had been made for the 67 schools not reporting this year, the statistics would have shown a much greater increase than is shown in the following pages.

METHODS OF TABULATION FORMERLY USED. Hitherto, except in 1917, an attempt was made annually to secure a complete report from all schools, so that the statistics would represent the whole nurse training situation throughout the country. Often it became necessary to use the reports for the preceding year, to make the statistics complete. For instance, if a school did not report in 1916 the report of that school for the preceding year vas incorporated in the statistics then compiled. An office ruling in force in 1912 and in 1913, to the effect that any school in arrears for two years with its report should be dropped from the list of schools

TOTAL NUMBER OF NURSE TRANNG SCHOOLS REPORTING .

Fig. 1. Number of schools. 1800

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177
298
377

432
448
545
552
724
862
974
1023

1026

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1129
1121

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10940
1327
1509
1520

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1918

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maintained in the Bureau of Education, cut down the aggregate statistics for those years as will appear below. If a school did not report for two consecutive years it was deemed a “dead school.” The result of this procedure is shown in figure 1.

CLASSIFICATION OF SCHOOLS. As in preceding reports, all schools have been divided into two classes: First, schools maintained in hospitals which are more or less of general character and function, and second, schools maintained in hospitals for the treatment of insane patients. It should be remarked, however, that many schools classified in the first group offer highly specialized training courses, but for the sake of convenience in referring to them they all have been designated as nurse training schools in "general hospitals.” These two types of schools have been treated separately throughout except in figures 1 to 5, which are historical in nature and in which the totals for both types of schools have been combined. The reasons for continuing this classification are self-evident, as wiil appear in the comparative figures which follow.

Postgraduate and special training schools have not been grouped in a separate table, but have been inserted in their proper places in the table giving the detailed statistics on general hospitals. They, however, can be readily ascertained by glancing down the column on "educational requirements for admission" where they have been definitely indicated. Possibly several other schools offering short courses are also graduate or special training schools, but the reports did not so indicate. In all, there are only nine graduate schools and five special training schools with short courses of instruction. In addition, four other schools offer a special course to pupils registered in other hospitals.

Table 1.Comparative statistics of nurse training schools, 1879–1918.

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11 15 17 22 33

141 157 133 124 221

34 29 31 33 33

35 34 36 47 66

1879. 1880. 1881 192-83 1%83-84. 1884-85 1845-6. 1X81-87. 1687-88. 1888-89. 1989-90. 1890-91. 1891-92. 1892-93 1893-94. 1894-95. 1X95-96, 1896-97 1997-98. 1896-99. 1899-1900. 1900-1901. 1901-2. 1902-3 1903-4. 1904-5. 1905-6. 1906-7 1947-. 9908-9. 1909-10. 1910-11 1911-12. 1912-13. 1913-14. 1914-15, 1915-16. 1916-17 1917-133

131 177 298 377 393 432 448 545 552 724 862

974 1,023 1,026 1,096 1, 129 1, 121 1,057 1,094 1,327 1,509

298
323
414
475
579
793
837

989
1,093
1,248
1,552
1,613
1,862
2,338
2,710
3,985
5,094
7,263
8,805
10,018
11,164
11,599
13, 252
13, 779
17, 713
19, 824
21, 052
21, 119
26, 457
29, 320
32, 636
29, 305
32, 349
34, 417
39, 597
46, 141
47.611

218
349
335
421
431
471
527
582
786

970
1,498
1,773
2, 498
3,027
3, 132
3,456
3, 710
4,015
4, 206
5,333
5,795
6. 400
6,759
6,759
7,017
8,140
7, 720
8,062
9,937
10, 234
11,118
11, 520

84, 227
95, 180
10S, 435
112, 467
130, 930
145, 506
166, 063
176, 026
185,932
199,012
214, 597
194, 236
199, 172
202, 887
233, 748
256, 325
265, 332

158, 606 158, 389 173, 640 185, 408 198, 174

1, 520

1,776

55, 251

13, 751

303, 193

225,899

1 In so far as reported to this office.
2 Statistics were not collected for the school year 1916-17.
3 For general statistics for the school year 1917–18, see Tables 21 and 22.

NUMBER OF SCHOOLS.

The total number of schools represented in this chapter is 1,776. Of this number, 1,692 are schools maintained in general hospitals, and 84 are schools maintained in hospitals used exclusively for the treatment of insane patients. Of the 1,692 schools in general hospitals, 65 did not, or could not, report, and only 2 schools in hospitals for the insane failed to make statistical reports. Altogether, 1,709 schools made a report, nearly all of them giving in full the data requested on the statistical blank.

By reference to figure 1 it will be observed that the number of nurse training schools has multiplied rapidly since 1903. The increases in 1914, 1915, and 1918 are pronounced. The evident decreases in 1912 and 1913 are not due to an actual decrease in the number of schools, but to the fact that if a school had failed to report its statistics for two consecutive years it was dropped from the list of schools maintained in the Bureau of Education, and consequently was considered a “dead school." From 1879, when this bureau first collected the statistics of nurse training schools, to 1893 the number of schools reporting did not exceed 100. Since the latter date the number of schools has increased from 66 to 1,776. The curve, however, represents the total number of such schools throughout the country which were known on the respective dates to be in existence, and not at any time the total number reporting for the current year. The curve shows graphically the rapid multiplication of schools of this type throughout the United States, which has been almost phenomenal within the last five years. Assuming that there were 1,250 schools instead of the low number of 1,094 in 1913, as accounted for above, there has been an increase of 526 schools, or 42 per cent, in five years. Approximately 100 new schools are being organized annually.

1

SIZE OF SCHOOLS.

In figure 2 the nurse training schools have been classified according to the number of nurse pupils enrolled in each school. It is found that 804 schools have from 1 to 20 pupils each, and about one-half as many, 470 schools, have an enrollment between 21 and 40 pupils, inclusive. In other words, 76 per cent of the 1,680 schools reporting enrollment do not have more than 40 pupils. The school most frequently found does not enroll more than 20 pupils, as will be noted by the longest bar in the diagram. One very large school enrolls more than 300 pupils.

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OF
SCHOOLS.
NUMBER
ROLLMENT

Fig. 2.
DISTRIBUTION OF ALL NURSE TRAINING SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO EN-

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