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their wives and children, seeking a new home in the wilderness. Most of the latter could not speak English; but when spoken to answered in their native tongue. They appeared to Washington ignorant as Indians, and uncouth, but "merry, and full of antic tricks." Such were the progenitors of the sturdy yeomanry now inhabiting those parts, many of whom still preserve their strong German characteristics.
"I have not slept above three or four nights in a bed," writes Washington to one of his young friends at home, "but after walking a good deal all the day, I have lain down before the fire upon a little straw or fodder, or a bearskin, whichever was to be had, with man, wife, and children, like dogs and cats; and happy is he who gets the berth nearest the fire."
Having completed his surveys, he set forth from the south branch of the Potomac on his return homeward; crossed the mountains to the great Cacapehon; traversed the Shenandoah valley; passed through the Blue Ridge, and on the 12th of April found himself once more at Mount Vernon. For his services he received, according to his note-book, a doubloon per day when actively employed, and sometimes six pistoles.*
The manner in which he had acquitted himself in this arduous expedition, and his accounts of the country surveyed, gave great satisfaction to Lord Fairfax, who shortly afterwards moved across the Blue Ridge, and took up his residence at the place heretofore noted as his "quarters." Here he laid out a
• A pistole is $3 60. A doubloon is double that sum.
manor, containing ten thousand acres of arable grazing land, vast meadows, and noble forests, and projected a spacious manor-house, giving to the place the name of Greenway Court.
It was probably through the influence of Lord Fairfax that Washington received the appointment of public surveyor. This conferred authority on his surveys, and entitled them to be recorded in the county offices; and so invariably correct have these surveys been found, that, to this day, wherever any of them stand on record, they receive implicit credit.
For three years he continued in this occupation, which proved extremely profitable, from the vast extent of country to be surveyed and the very limited number of public surveyors. It made him acquainted, also, with the country, the nature of the soil in various parts, and the value of localities; all which proved advantageous to him in his purchases in after years. Many of the finest parts of the Shenandoah valley are yet owned by members of the Washington family.
While thus employed for months at a time surveying the lands beyond the Blue Ridge, he was often an inmate of Greenway Court. The projected manorhouse was never even commenced. On a green knoll overshadowed by trees was a long stone building, one story in height, with dormer windows, two wooden belfries, chimneys studded with swallow and martin coops, and a roof sloping down in the old Virginia fashion, into low projecting eaves that formed a verandah the whole length of the house. It was probably the house originally occupied by his steward or land agent, but was now devoted to hospitable purposes,
and the reception of guests. As to his lordship, it was one of his many eccentricities, that he never slept in the main edifice, but lodged apart in a wooden house not much above twelve feet square. In a small building was his office, where quitrents were given, deeds drawn, and business transacted with his tenants.
About the knoll were out-houses for his numerous servants, black and white, with stables for saddlehorses and hunters, and kennels for his hounds, for his lordship retained his keen hunting propensities, and the neighborhood abounded in game. Indians, half-breeds, and leathern-clad woodsmen loitered about the place, and partook of the abundance of the kitchen. His lordship's table was plentiful but plain, and served in the English fashion.
Here Washington had full opportunity, in the proper seasons, of indulging his fondness for field sports, and once more accompanying his lordship in the chase. The conversation of Lord Fairfax, too, was full of interest and instruction to an inexperienced youth, from his cultivated talents, his literary taste, and his past intercourse with the best society of Europe, and its most distinguished authors. He had brought books, too, with him into the wilderness, and from Washington's diary we find, that during his sojourn here he was diligently reading the history of England, and the essays of the Spectator.
Such was Greenway Court in these its palmy days. We visited it recently, and found it tottering to its fall, mouldering in the midst of a magnificent country, where nature still flourishes in full luxuriance and beauty.
Three or four years were thus passed by Washington, the greater part of the time beyond the Blue Ridge, but occasionally with his brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon. His rugged and toilsome expeditions in the mountains, among rude scenes and rough people, inured him to hardships, and made him apt at expedients; while his intercourse with his cultivated brother, and with the various members of the Fairfax family, had a happy effect in toning up his mind and manners, and counteracting the careless and self-indulgent habitudes of the wilderness.
ENGLISH AND FRENCH CLAIMS TO THE OHIO VALLEY-WILD STATE OF THE COUNTRY-PROJECTS OF SETTLEMENTS-THE OHIO COMPANYENLIGHTENED VIEWS OF LAWRENCE WASHINGTON-FRENCH RIVALRY -CELERON DE BIENVILLE-HIS SIGNS OF OCCUPATION-HUGH CRAWFORD-GEORGE CROGHAN, A VETERAN TRADER, AND MONTOUR, HIS INTERPRETER-THEIR MISSION FROM PENNSYLVANIA TO THE OHIO CHRISTOPHER GIST, THE PIONEER OF THE YADKIN—AGENT OF THE OHIO COMPANY-HIS EXPEDITION TO THE FRONTIER-REPROBATE TRADERS AT LOGSTOWN-NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE INDIANS-SCENES IN THE OHIO COUNTRY-DIPLOMACY AT PIQUA-KEGS OF BRANDY AND ROLLS OF TOBACCO-GIST'S RETURN ACROSS KENTUCKY—A DESERTED HOME-FRENCH SCHEMES CAPTAIN JONCAIRE, A DIPLOMAT OF THE WILDERNESS-HIS SPEECH AT LOGSTOWN-THE INDIANS' LAND—" WHERE?"
DURING the time of Washington's surveying campaigns among the mountains, a grand colonizing scheme had been set on foot, destined to enlist him in hardy enterprises, and in some degree to shape the course of his future fortunes.
The treaty of peace concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle, which had put an end to the general war of Europe, had left undefined the boundaries between the British and French possessions in America; a singular remissness, considering that they had long been a subject in