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afforded us an opportunity, which we gladly em-
braced, of completing our retrospect of such mat-
ters of consideration, as the excess and urgency of
matter in late busy years, had necessarily occasioned
our postponing. Of these, the public affairs of our
sister island and kingdom, not only claimed the
first place from our mutual relation and interest,
but demanded it on the account of superior im-
portance to all others. We have likewise brought
into view no small share of curious and interesting
matter from the transactions of foreign nations, which
seemed hitherto to have been overlooked. Spain,
in particular, has, through the great improvements
which for some time have been taking place in that
kingdom, afforded a most pleasing and fertile field
for retrospect. Nor have other countries, appa-
rently more sterile, been by any means unproduc-
tive. In the business of the present year, the ex-
ceedingly complicated affairs of Holland, presented
so alarming an aspect, and indicated consequences
by which the interests, and even security of this
country might have been so deeply affected, that
their discussion necessarily required our utmost care
and most serious attention.

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Ireland. Retrospective view of the internal state of affairs in that country.

Attempt to reform the conftitution, by shortening the duration of parliaments. Mutiny bill paffed. Meetings of the Irish volunteers to obtain a par. liamentary reform. Ineffectual attempt to induce them to disand. Bill for effecting a parliamentary reforxireje&ted by a great majority; and reo folution thereupon. Address to his majesty on that subje&t. Counter-address. Another bill presented, and reje&ted. Proposition for the relief of the Romax catholics. Petition of the delegates conveyed to Mr. Pitt. Mr. Pitt's anfwer. Disunion among the volunteers, on the subject of the Roman catholics, Lord Charlemont thanked by the city of Dublin for his conduet. Steps ta. ken by government to prevent the meeting of the delegates. Letter from the Attorney General to the sheriffs of Dubliu. High perif of the county of Dublin profecuted, fined, and imprisoned; others also profecuted. Meetings of delegates nevertheless beld. Another bill presented, and rejected. Dil tresses of the manufacturers of Dublin. Committee appointed for their relief. Mr. Gardener's plan--rejected by a very great majority. Violent ferment amongst the people. Outrages of the mob, who are difperfed by the military. Bill for restricting the liberty of the press. Petitions against. Modified, and paffed. Non-importation agreements entered into. Precautions to prevent enormities. Lord Lieutenant incurs popular odium, andis openly infulted. Commercial arrangement between Great Britain and Ireland. A set of resolutions presented to the house of commons in Ireland ; agreed to ; transmitted VOL. XXVIII.

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to England. Business opened in the house of commons there by Mr. Pitt;
his speech. Propofitions minutely investigated. Ten new propofitions added.
Propositions. passed. Very strongly opposed in the house of lords ; passed. Bill
thereupon. Propositions transmitted to Ireland ; their reception there. Bill
moved for, correspondent to that in England ; debates thereupon. Speeches of
Mr.Grattan and Mr. Flood. Bill brought in; ordered to be printed. Further
prosecution of the measure declined: Mr Orde's speech on the occasion.
Intended emigration of the Genevese to Ireland. Reception of their commif-
foners there. Disagreement between the parties. Scheme proves abortivs.

E have already seen, that kingdom of Ireland.-It has always
by several acts of parlia-, been questioned, whether any con-

ment which passed in the siderable part of the people of Engyear 1780, the commerce of Ireland, however unpopular the house land was freed from those ruinous of commons may at times have renrestrictions with which it had been dered itself to the nation, was at all long shackled, through the short- dissatisfied with the established mode fighted policy and narrow prejudices of representation, or expected any of the British nation.

effectual relief from the more freIn the year 1782, the declaratory quent return of elections. ast of George the Second was re. In Ireland, these projects of refore pealed; and by another statute, mation certainly met with a muchi which passed in the following year, more general reception--a circunthe authority of the British parlia- stance not difficult to be accounted ment, in all matters both of legisla- for, when we confider the ferment tion and jurisdiction, were renoun- which then exified in that kingcom, ced, and the political independence and how favourable such moments of the kingdom of Ireland was com- are to every species of political inpleatly established.

novation. The only object therefore that In the year 1779, the parliament remained for the consideration of of Ireland, in their addresies to the the respective governments of each throne, had in firm and manly lancountry, was the settlement of a guage demanded the restoration of system of commercial intercourse their commercial freedom. In orbetwixt the two kingdoms upon a der to give effect to this requisition, firm and permanent basis.

resolutions were entered into by the Before we enter upon this part of inhabitants of the trading towns to our history, it may be necessary to prevent the importation of British take a short retrospective view of the manufactures ; and these resolutions internal state of affairs in that coun- were often enforced with a degree try.

of violence and cutrage, which the The spirit of reforming the con- civil authority of the country was ftitution, by shortening the duration unable to reitrain. This vigorous of parliaments, and establishing a and determined spirit of the people more equal representation of the peo- had a forcible effect upon the deple, which broke out in Great Bri- liberations of parliament; all new tain about the year 1779, passed supplies for the current services of over at the same period into the the executive government were de

nied,

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nied, and the trüft of the old reve- a stand; and this, as well as a mo. nue, which had usually been voted tion made to obtain a modification for two years, was reltrieted to 'fix of Poyning's law, was rejected by a months.—A mutiny bill was allo large majority. passed for the king's army'in Tre- The failure of thefe efforts of the land, which before had always been minority in parliaiticot, appears to regulated under the authority of an have given učcaton to the first meetact of the British legislature. These ing of the volunteers on the subject of vigorous measures, as we have als parliamentary "reform.

Dec. 28th, ready seen in the transactions of the On the 28th of Decem

1781. year 1780, produced their intended ber, 1781, the officers' effect, and led to ftill more impor, ofone of the Ulster regiments came tant confequences.

to an unanimous resolution, r. That The passing of the mutiny bill

" to restore the constitution to its was a step that went in its principle " original purity, the ntoft vigorous so evidently and so directly to the and effectual methods should be acknowledgment of the indepen, "pursued to root corruption and dence of the kingdom of Ireland, court influence out of the legislathat it is not easy to conceive how ", tive body:” and with this view it came to meet with fo little oppo: a meeting of delegates from the fe. fition from administration, or to re- verál regiments of the province was ceive so readily the sanction of the convened at Dungannon on the 15th British cabinet, unless we suppose of February following: that the circumstance of its being On that day, the representatives of made perpetual had rendered it ac- 143 corps of volunteer troops assem ceptable to government. But in bled: Theit felöllitions, which were Ireland, where one great conftitu: adopted in fubftance by all the votional principle appears to have been lunteers of the fouthern provinces, facrificed merely for the purpose of were confined for the molt part to establishing another, it was easy to the 'affertion of the political inde.. foresee that they would not long pendence of the kingdom.- This submit to a restriction which ren primary object being soon after efta. dered the advantage they had ob- blished, by folemn acts of the le. tained not only not useful, but dan- gislature of both nations, the argerous to their conftitution.

dour for parliamentary reformations Accordingly in the following fef- appeared for a while to have almost Gon an attempt was made to get entirely subsided*. rid of the obnoxious part of the bill, The existence and increase of the by repealing the clause of perpe. volunteer army, after the necessity tuity. But here government made which first gave rise to it had been

fuperceded

During the course of this, the Irish parliament passed the following acts, for the purpose of giving effect to their new constitution :

An act to empower the lord lieutenant, or other chief governor or governors, and council of this kingdom, for the time being, to certify all such bills, and none other, as both houses of parliament shall judge expedient to be enacted in this kingdom, to his majesty, his heirs and successors, under the great seal of Ireland, without addition, diminution, or alteration. All such bills, thus transmitted, and

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returned

superceded by the establishment of advice on fo great and momentous peace, and after the

great

constitu- an occasion. tional objects to which it had se. On the eighth day of September, condarily directed its views were 1783, a general meeting of delefully atta ined, called for the most gates from the province of Ulfter serious attention of government. was held at Dungannon. A plan of Accordingly, soon after the transac- reformation was here proposed and tions we have just related, an attempt agreed upon ; and it was resolved, was made to induce them to disband, that a grand national convention of by raising under the authority of representatives from the whole vogovernment a kind of national mi. lunteer army should assemble at litia, by the name of Fencible Regis Dublin on the tenth day of Novem, ments. It is probable that this de. ber following. In these measures sign, though too glaring to be con- 'the volunteer corps of the other cealed, and accordingly almost uni. three provinces almost unanimously versally condemned and opposed by concurred. the volunteers, would in time have The convention in Dublin was produced its effect, if some new ob- both full and respectable, and the ject had not been found upon which measures were at least commendable the united efforts of that body might for their moderation. On the subagain be exerted. The reform of ject of parliamentary reform, it was parliamentary representation fur- proposed to extend the right of voting nished this centre of union, and the in all cities and boroughs to every discuffion of it was again resumed protestant inhabitant possessed of a with great zeal and folemnity.- freehold.or leasehold, for 31 years or Delegates are assembled from the upwards, of the value of forty fhil. several corps of the several provin. língs a year; that in decayed boces; committees of correspondence roughs, where the number of voters are appointed ; and letters * are dif- should be less than two hundred in patched to the most celebrated polis the province of Ulster, one hundred tical speculators, or parliamentary in Munster and Connaught, and sereformers in Great Britain, for their venty in the province of Leinster, returned under the great seal of Great Britain, without addition, diminution, or alteration, and none other, to pass in the parliament of this kingdom. No bill necessary to be certified into Great Britain as a cause or consideration for holding a parliament in Ireland.

An act to limit the matiny act to two years, and to repeal the other obnoxious parts of the late statute.

An act providing that from henceforth all erroncous judgments, orders, and decrees, thall be finally examined and reformed in the high court of parliament of this kingdom only; and that for this purpose the lord lieutenant, or other chief governor or governors, shall and may grant warrants for sealing writs of error returnable into parliament.

An habeas corpus law, and one for rendering the judges independent of the crown, were also enacted.

* These letters were addressed to the Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Effing. ham, Mr. William Pitt, Mr. Wyvil, Major Cartwright, Dr. Price, and Dr. John Jebb.

the

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