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States when young, and has been for many and later studied at the universities of Berlin years a resident of Nevada. He was elected and Göttingen. He was professor of natural lieutenant-governor of Nevada in 1895, and on science at Pennsylvania College in 1871-74; asthe death of Governor Jones in 1896 became sistant professor of chemistry at the Univergovernor. He was regularly elected to the sity of Pennsylvania in 1874-86, and professor • office in 1898, which he occupied until 1903. there in 1887-91. He was professor of chemSADLIER, Mary Anne (Madden), Cana

istry at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy dian author: b. Cootehill, County Cavan, Ire

in 1878–1916; and since 1891 has been a consultland, 21 Dec. 1820; d. 1903. She early con

ing chemical expert at Philadelphia. He was tributed to London magazines, and in 1844 emi

chemical editor of the United States Disgrated to Canada, where she settled in Montreal pensatory) (15th to 19th editions); and from and in 1846 was married to James Sadlier. She

1900 was a member of the committee of rewas for many years editorially connected with

vision of the United States Pharmacopæia. the Roman Catholic press, and also translated

Author of Hand Book of Chemical Experireligious and other works from the French.

mentation' (1877); Industrial Organic ChemAuthor of Alice Riordan? (1851); (The Con

istry) (1891); and joint author of Pharmaceutifederate Chieftains, a Tale of the Irish Re

cal Chemistry) (1895; 5th ed., 1917). bellion of 1641 (1859); Purgatory, Doctrinal, SÆMUND, sā'moond, Sigfússon, The Historical and Political (1886), etc.

Wise, Icelandic scholar: b. Iceland, about SADO, sä'do, Japan, an island off the west 1056; d. Oddi, 1133. He undertook a course of coast of Hondo, opposite and 32 miles from foreign travel in pursuit of learning, and visited Nügata, with an area of 336 square miles, and Paris and Rome; then, returning to Iceland, he a coast line of 135 miles. It has a diversified became a priest at Oddi (1176). He was unsurface culminating in Kimpokuzan, 3,820 feet known to scholars till about 1643, when the high. South of Kimpokuzan is the town of newly-discovered Elder Edda' and other writAikawa, near the east coast, with the ancient ings were falsely ascribed to him. and still productive gold and silver mines in its

SAFE, a strong and substantial receptacle vicinity, to which Sado owes its celebrity. On the west coast 18 miles distant from Aikawa is

for money, important papers and valuables, Ebisuminato, the port of the island. Pop. of

usually of iron or steel, or of both combined; island about 120,000.

sometimes with a filling of concrete to resist

heat. A safe, to justify its name, should be SADOLETO, sä-do-lā'to, Jacopo, Italian proof against fire, explosives, acids, drills, theologian: b. Módena, 1477; d. Rome, 18 Oct. wedges and the other implements and opening 1547. He was consecrated bishop of Carpentras, devices resorted to by burglars. The great manear Avignon, in 1517; belonged to the Con- jority of safes are designed mainly to preserve tarini Reform party, and was a member of the the contents from fire and to resist sneakcommission appointed by Paul III to take steps thieves. But the larger and most costly safes toward effecting a Church reformation. He im- are built to safeguard the cash and securities of mediately opened a correspondence with Eras- banks, trust companies, etc. The history of the mus, Bucer, Sturm and Melanchthon, but when progress of these strong safes is mainly a record in 1539 he invited the Genevans to return to the of struggles between the burglar and the safeRoman Catholic Church, he received a harsh manufacturer; the result is, that safes can now rebuff from Calvin. After that he confined be obtained which are all but impregnable. With himself largely to his own diocese. He had the modern safe of the best kind the lock may been appointed cardinal in 1536, but while he be said to be the only vulnerable point; hence was frequently summoned to Rome he preferred much care and ingenuity have been expended on Carpentras, and his study, well-stocked with its mechanism. Numerous patents, mostly of books of the new learning, in which he was an American origin, have been introduced in readept, being one of the Latinists of his day. He cent years. Of these, the keyless permutation wrote commentaries on the Psalms, and on the locks deserve particular mention, as they obviate Epistles of Saint Paul, and so excellent was the danger which arises from lost or false keys. their style that Erasmus made the somewhat Such locks allow of opening only after an ininvidious remark that their very polish of ex- dicator has been moved in accordance with a pression will take off the edge of their pious certain combination of numbers arranged before suggestiveness. His works were published in closing the safe. Some safe-locks are so confour volumes in 1734. He was a diplomat in structed that to be freed they require different whom successive popes had confidence and acted keys on different days, some can only be opened as ambassador to Francis I in the interests of at a certain hour, this being fixed on before the peace in 1544. Consult Joly, Etude sur J. door is closed; while others again require two Sadolet? (1856).

or more keys in charge of different persons; in SADOWA, sä'dő-vä (Czech Sádová), Cze- fact, the arrangement contrived to render the cho-Slovakia, a village near Königgrätz, on the plundering of safes next to impossible are too Bistritz, remarkable

of the hotly

numerous even to mention. The connection contested Prussian positions in the decisive bat- of safes with electric alarms in a variety of tle of 3 July 1866, in which the Crown Prince ways forms another safeguard. See Vault. of Prussia and Prince Frederick Charles com- SAFE-CONDUCT, a security granted by manding the Prussians defeated the Austrian forces under Benedek. This battle is known

the sovereign authority, or persons delegated by also as the battle of Königgrätz.

it, to strangers or other persons to enable them

to repair to and return from a certain place unSADTLER, sat'ler, Samuel Phillip, Amer- disturbed. In most of these cases passports ican chemist : b. Pine Grove, Pa., 18 July 1847. have now taken the place of special safe-conHe was graduated at Lehigh University in 1867 ducts. Sometimes the safe-conduct is given to






persons accused, to secure them against harm mander.” His patent was later assigned to when summoned to an examination.

B. J. Wildey, who made a safe called "Wildey's SAFE INDUSTRY IN AMERICA. Va

Patent, the principle of these being to leave rious methods for the safe-keeping of treasure,

the space between the walls empty, trusting that jewels and other valuables have been in use

the contents of the inner portion of the safe since the earliest periods in history, and the ad

would be protected from heat by the non-convancernent in this line has necessarily kept ducting properties of the air. Other mixtures, pace with increased wealth. Thus we have wit

such as asbestos, mixed with plaster of paris, nessed the evolution from the old-fashioned

clay, alum, fire-clay, mica, chalk, etc., were then

used to fill the vacant space, but none of these strong-box to the massive chilled-iron and

proved absolutely satisfactory. To-day the steel vaults, absolutely fire-proof and burglar

modern safe walls are filled either with alum proof, till they have reached the highest degree of efficiency and perfection that science and skill

or some other salt, which when heated gives off Locks of rude construction

a quantity of water. can make them.

Various water-chamber were in use by the ancient Egyptians, and

devices have also been employed, with a view during the Middle Ages by the Romans. The

to maintaining a body of steam between the

inner and outer shells of the safe when exChinese also used a lock similar in construction to the famous Bramah lock, invented in Eng

posed to a hot fire.

Outside of the fire element, the most imland in 1784. These were made of wood, the tumblers being of different length to fit the sizes

portant part of the safe to be considered is

the lock, for with our modern methods of fire of the wards in the keys. Beginning with the Middle Ages the inventive genius of man was

protection the danger of burglary is often as turned toward providing something more sub

great as possible loss by fire. The first supstantial than a lock as a method of warding off

posedly non-pickable lock was the Bramah, but the burglar, who at that time had not attained

was finally proved to be valueless and easily to the remarkable skill and cunning of the

picked, this being done by a Mr. Hobbs, by the modern "cracksman, and indeed the profes

tentative process.” Three other locks then came sional thief of modern times would look back

into use, the Chubh, also picked by Mr. Hobbs,

the Pye lock, invented in 1851, but picked by with envy on his predecessor who had nothing

Linus Yale, Jr., of Philadelphia, by the "impresmore than a mere wooden box, sometimes bound

sion process, and the Yale lock. Since then with iron, with which to cope. The first means of securing valuables was by placing them in

many new forms of locks have been invented, some secret cavity in a wall, the door of which

and the modern lock-combinations are

structed in a manner which has made the trade was opened by a spring or other device, but

of burglary extremely difficult. more often articles of household furniture were

There are three ways of procuring security used, such as desks with secret drawers, or

against burglary, first by the laminated contables and chairs with false bottoms. These

struction; second, by the use of blocks of chilled constituted the chests of the wealthy for some time and some of them were furnished with

iron, this method being more useful in the con

struction of large vaults than in the making of locks and bound with strips of iron, the whole

portable safes; and third, by the spherical very artistically made so as to ward off sus

chilled-iron safe. In the first method of conpicion of their contents. The oaken-chest or

struction the chamber is made of alternate laystrong-box, reinforced with iron bands and

ers of hard and soft plates of iron and of plates knees, was in the beginning of the 18th cen

of hardened steel, the two laid alternately over tury considered to be the best means of security.

each other in the walls of the chamber in such Such a chest was used in 1707 to guard the

a way that they form a single mass. Thus the crown jewels of Scotland.

body of the safe, being constructed of alterPrior to the 19th century the all-metal safe naté plates of iron, welded iron and steel, was unknown. The first improvement along carbonized and decarbonized steel, and crysthis line was made in France about 1820, con

tal steel, fastened together by means of bolts sisting of a metal box built within double walls, from the inside, has made safes practically the space between being filled with a composi- impregnable to drills, jimmies, jackscrews and tion of non-conducting substances. A little

other devices. Another method of making later a so-called fire-proof safe was constructed safes, in common use by manufacturers, is to in New England, considered to be a vast im- roll down together while hot into one solid provement over the existing types. This safe

sheet of tempered steel three layers of soft iron had a body of solid oak plank from three to or steel alternated with two intermediate layers four inches thick, which, after being thoroughly of hard steel. These composite sheets, when saturated with alkali, was covered with sheets they have been rolled till about one-half of of thiri iron. To make this more surely fire- an inch thick, are then built into the walls of proof, bands of iron were crossed and recrossed the safe and alternated with plates of heavy over these plates and nailed down with large steel about one-half inch thick. The doors are round-headed iron spikes. The great fire in generally the weak point in the construction of New York in 1835 proved the worthlessness of a safe, for it is these which a burglar first these, several hundred of them being then de- attacks to see if there is any crevice into which stroyed. The idea of filling in the walls of a wedge might be inserted, or any crack into a safe with non-conducting substances was first which nitro-glycerine or any other high exput into use in this country in 1843 by Daniel plosive might be introduced. In some safes the Fitzgerald. His idea was to fill the metal walls plates comprising the door are dovetailed, enof the safe with plaster of paris because of its gaging with the corresponding parts of the tendency to throw off heat, and having secured jamb; in some an air-tight packing is used bea patent on his invention he immediately began tween the jambs and their abutments; while in to manufacture a safe known as the “Sala- others a screw door is used.



One solid mass of metal is used in the mechanism which swings back the ponderous second and third types of safes, the tough doors, it is obvious that the chronometer comand hard qualities of the metal being obtained bination is the greatest safeguard against robby modern processes of steel-making. The bery which the bank can employ. metal used is a soft sheet-iron, the surface of In 1914 there were 31 establishments enwhich can be hardened by cooling. In the gaged in the manufacture of safes and vaults, construction of many vaults, blocks of chilled capitalized at $6,898,000. They utilized the servmetal, weighing from three-quarters to several ices of 2,107 employees, paying wages of tons, are bolted together on the inside, the $1,366,000; manufactured products totaling $5,sides being dovetailed together, and the outside 366,000 in value, of which $3,571,000 was value surface is chilled to the highest degree of hard- added to the cost of materials. These figures ness. The door is a single casting of steel, indicate a serious reduction in the industry in two inches thick, and also chilled on the out- the decade, for in 1905 there were 3,488 wageside,

earners, and the gross products were $7,861,000. In the third type, the spherical, invented The value of the American safe has been recogby William Corliss, the shell, constructed of nized in foreign countries, and to-day may be steel from four to seven inches thick and found throughout Great Britain, Europe, Asia, chilled to a depth of about two inches, some- Africa, Australia, South America, etc. See times contains a "bugging) made from a special Lock; Vault, Etc. ore. This material, which is excessively hard

SAFED, sä'fěd, Palestine, occupies the and is in appearance somewhat like crystallized

summit of a hill 2,700 feet high, on the shores silver, is so interwoven with wrought-iron rods

of the Mediterranean, about 10 miles northwest that it can be battered with immense force with

of the Sea of Galilee. Safed was a fortified out damage. The purpose of this construction

place of importance during the Crusades, and of wrought and crystallized iron is to hamper

is one of the four holy cities of the modern a burglar in his work, it being supposed that

Jews in Palestine, their settlement dating from in an attempt to drill through the walls of the

the 16th century. Pop. (estimate) 19,000. safe, the drill will penetrate the soft metal more

SAFETY-LAMP. See LAMPS. readily than the hard, and, consequently, working sideways, will be broken off when it strikes SAFETY-VALVE, a device used upon the hard metal. The "bugging) may, however, steam boilers and other vessels subject to an be used in precisely the opposite manner, the internal pressure, for the purpose of automatrods being made of the hardest tool-steel and ically preventing that pressure from rising to a the body of the filling composed of cast-iron dangerous intensity. It consists essentially of segments, but the principle of turning the point an opening in the boiler (or other vessel) over of the "cracksman's) drill is the same. The which a suitable lid or valve-disc) is fitted. circular door is especially suitable for the The valve-disc is pressed against its opening spherical safe. They are closed after the man- with a definite, constant pressure, whose magniner of the brecch-block of a large gun, with an tude is regulated according to the pressure that interrupted thread or screw.

the boiler is intended to carry. So long as the In large banks and safe-deposit vaults there pressure that the steam within the boiler exerts is no room sufficiently large to contain the num- upon the under side of the valve-disc is less ber of individual safes which would be required than the constant force with which the disc is to hold the enormous masses of money and pressed down upon the opening, the valve reother valuable securities with which these insti- mains closed and no steam escapes.

If the tuitions are entrusted. This has turned the at- pressure within the boiler rises, however, so tention of the manufacturer in recent years to that the steam exerts upon the disc a total the building of large vaults which would be pressure that is greater than the external force absolutely fire and burglar-proof. The interior that tends to hold the disc in place, the valve of these vaults may be constructed to suit the opens and permits steam to escape until the tastes and requirements of the owner, but the pressure in the boiler is sufficiently reduced for walls are now made much thicker than formerly the external force again to close the opening. and the builder has made more use of fire- There are three general types of safety-valve in proofing materials. The most important feature use, which are respectively known as "deadof the modern vault is the lock, which has now weight,” "ever" and "pop" valves. The fundareached the acme of perfection. The first mental principle of operation is the same in all form of lock used was the combination-lock, and the classification relates merely to the an outgrowth of the "tumbler” lock, and the means that are employed to hold the valve-disc mechanism of these is very ingenious. These against the opening in the boiler. In the deadlocks are not limited in the number of combina- weight” valve this is accomplished by placing tions upon which they may be set, and may be weights directly upon the valve-disc. Safetychanged at any time should the combination valves of this type can be recommended for low become known to undesirable persons. The pressure boilers and they are much used, in most valuable asset of the modern vault, how- England, upon heating and upon kitchen boilever, is the chronometer, or time-lock, the They are not adapted for use in connecmechanism of which is as intricate and as com- tion with high pressures, however, for the load plicated as the best watch, but at the same time resting upon the valve-disc must then be very it runs as true and as smoothly. To offset any great, in order to prevent the valve from openpossible disarrangement in the mechanism of a ing at the ordinary running pressure. It is single clock, which would, of course, prevent common, therefore, to use the "lever” type for the opening of the safe, three movements are high pressure service. In this type the valveusually enclosed in a single case. As these disc is held against its seat by the action of a safes cannot be opened by any available agency weight, but the weight does not rest directly until the time set for the clock to operate the upon the disc. A horizontal lever two or three




feet long is provided, and this is pivoted at States Coast Survey, and in 1876–1901 professor one end, while the weight is attached near its of astronomy in Williams College. He was a free end. The centre of the valve-disc comes Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and directly under the lever, a few inches from Sciences, of the American Association for the the pivoted end, and the lever is supported by Advancement of Science and an associate of the means of a stout vertical rod whose lower end Royal Astronomical Society of England. He rests upon the centre of the valve-disc. By studied the nebulæ, discovering many new ones; this means the total downward force acting computed cometary and planetary orbits and for upon the disc and tending to keep it in position some time devoted his attention to latitude and may easily be made to be 8 or 10 times as longitude work for the United States Corps of great as that which would be realized if the Engineers, for which he prepared a star cataweight rested upon the valve-disc directly; and logue. Among his further published writings the pressure at which the valve will open can were a catalogue of polar stars, Mathematical be nicely regulated by shifting the position of Teaching and its Modern Methods, and nuthe weight upon the lever arm. In the "pop) merous contributions to astronomical journals, valve the disc is forced against its seat by to the Proceedings of the American Acadmeans of a stout spiral spring, which is held in emy and to the notices of the Royal Society. position by a framework or casing which is SAFFRON, a bulbous autumnal plant securely attached to the boiler. The compres

(Crocus sativus) and a commercial dye-stuff obsion on the spring is regulated by means of a

tained from it. The cultivated saffron origscrew that acts upon its upper end and which

inated probably in the Levant, and was grown can be turned by a wrench. It is now custom

in early times about the town of Corycus, ary, however, to have the adjusting screw en- Cilicia (from which the Crocus genus may have tirely within the casing of the valve so that the

taken its name). The Arabs cultivated it in attendant in charge of the boiler cannot tamper Spain about the 10th century, and it was an imwith it; the casing being provided with a lock, the key to which remains in the posses

portant crop in England, especially about Şafsion of the owner of the boiler. The name

fron Walden, Essex, in the 15th century, bring

ing the highest market price. It is now raised "pop” refers to the sound that these spring

about the Mediterranean and in Asia. The valves make when they open and close. Lever

saffron is low, with the grass-like leaves and valves and dead-weight valves open and close

long-tubed, funnel-shaped flowers, springing digradually and before they open they give warning by a hissing sound. "Pop” valves, on the. istic of the crocuses. It's Aower is purple, with

rectly from the ground, which are charactercontrary, open without any such premonitory

a style tipped with three orange-colored stigmas, signal, and when they close they do so with

each more than an inch long, depending from corresponding quickness. Pop' valves are used

one side of the perianth. These stigmas are exclusively upon railroad locomotives, as the violent swaying and vibration to which these

picked off in the early morning and dried on a

kiln, either loosely or between layers of paper, are subject would render weighted valves undesirable.

and under the pressure of a thick board which

forms the mass into cakes, about 4,000 of these SAFFLOWER, a large thistle-like compos- stigmas being necessary to give an ounce of ite plant (Carthamus tinctorius) with orange- saffron. In either case the commercial saffron colored flowers, said to have been originally is liable to suffer from adulteration. This brought from the East, but now naturalized in adulteration was so prevalent at one time that many parts of Europe and extensively culti- those guilty of it (when caught) were killed. vated. The tubular flowerets are collected, Saffron stigmas, when genuine, have a chardried and used somewhat as a feeble laxative acteristic orange red color and an aromatic, medicine, in place of, or as an adulterant of, bitter odor and taste. The substance has faint saffron. They are, however, chiefly important carminative and narcotic properties, but is selas the source of carthamin, a dyeing principle dom used medicinally, except for coloring tincoriginally much employed by the Chinese and tures and occasionally as a diaphoretic in the later by Occidental silk manufacturers, as it eruptive diseases of children. In the Song of gives brilliant, although fugitive, red tints; Solomon the saffron is mentioned among the mixed with French chalk it forms the cosmetic

sweet-smelling herbs, and it was much in derouge. In Spain the flowers are used to color

mand among the Greeks and Latins for its persoups and other dishes. The Jews in Poland

fume. A fragrant essence was made from it are remarkably fond of the flowers and mix with water and wine for sprinkling in theatres them with their bread and most of their viands. and other places, even in the streets, for anointOil, in India, is expressed from safflower seeds, ing the hair and for the bath. Saffron was also for culinary and lighting purposes.

much employed in culinary operations, chiefly SAFFORD, Truman Henry, American for its aromatic taste and for coloring, as the mathematician and astronomer: b. Royalton, clown in the (Winter's Tale) says he must have Vt., 6 Jan. 1836; d. Newark, N. J., 13 Tune saffron to color the warden pies.” 1901. He was early known as a calculator of Saffron, however, is most commonly used as great skill; in 1845 prepared an almanac; by a a dye, giving a yellow hue to cloth, but it is method of his own he abridged by one-fourth being displaced by cheaper colors. This tint the task of computing the rising and setting of was in very early times the royal color in the moon, and after his graduation from Har- Greece, and was that of some of the women's vard was officially connected with the observa- court robes, but afterward appropriated by the tory there, 1854-66. In 1865 he was appointed hetairæ. In Ireland and the Hebrides it was professor of astronomy in the University of also the color of the king's mantle and of the Chicago and director of the Dearborn Observa- shirts of persons of rank. Saffron enters tory; in 1874–76 was a member of the United largely into the composition of the sacred spot

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on the forehead of a Hindu Pundit. An ex- legend, Märchen, epopee and epos are used tract made from saffron, used as a glaze on tin- without clear distinction of meaning. foil, imitated gold in mediæval illuminations, In the third and last stage of its developand was also employed by painters.

ment, the word saga has come to mean any free HELEN INGERSOLL.

creation of the popular fantasy, sometimes

incredible even burlesque in character. SAG HARBOR, N. Y., village in Suffolk Here the historical element is entirely lacking. County, on Gardiner's Bay, an inlet from the In its widest sense, saga is sometimes used to Atlantic Ocean, and on the Long Island Rail- include the entire body of the history and road, about 100 miles east of New York. It mythology of a people, or their literature or has a good harbor, regular steamer connections some division of it: hence we read of the with New York and several of the Long Island Norse, German, Irish, or Greek sagas; of saga coast towns. It has several manufactories, chief poetry, saga cycles, heroic sagas, beast-sagas, of which are a watch-case and silverware fac- the Cuchulain saga, the Karl saga, the Nial tory, flour and cotton mills, a tannery and ma- saga. In Norse mythology Saga is also the chine shops. The Sacred Heart of Mary Acad- name of a goddess. emy (R. C.), opened in 1877, a union school, The Icelandic sagas may be classified (1) public and parish schools and a library consti- geographically, according to the part of the tute the educational institutions. There are country in which they arose or in which their three banks with a combined capital of $100,000.

are located; (2) as major or minor The village is a favorite summer resort. sagas, the latter being more distinctly local in one time Sag Harbor was noted for its character and simpler in plot and interest than interests in whaling; its income from that in- the former; and (3), as here, as (a) historical, dustry amounting to $1,000,000 some years. In (b) mythical, or (c) romantic. To the class of those days its tonnage equaled that of New historicat sagas belong: The well-known York. The Indian relics found in and near the Landnámabók,' (Book of Settlements which village show_it was once an important Indian contains a list of all the notable men who, up to settlement. Pop. (1920) 2,993.

930, settled in the island. It contains much that SAGA, Japan, capital of the province of

is valuable on the religion, laws and customs of Fizen, on the island of Kiu-siu, 74 miles north

the people. It is preserved only in a version

dating from the 13th-14th century. The 'Isleneast of Nagasaki. It is an important seaport and commercial centre. The town is intersected

dingasögur,' which embody the lives and

achievements of celebrated Icelanders and the by numerous streams, chief of which is the

fortunes of great Icelandic houses from 950 to channel of Sentonofutsi, 50 miles long. It

1130. The Biskupasögur) are biographies of unites the Gulf of Simabara with the Northern

Icelandic bishops who flourished in the ilth and Sea, and is of considerable commercial import

12th centuries; they constitute an ecclesiastical tance. Pop. about 36,500.

history of Iceland, of less literary interest than SAGA. The word saga is cognate with Ger- the secular sagas but of the utmost historical man Sage, (a short tale," with which, however, value. it must not be confounded in meaning, and It would be difficult to say how much is to with English saw, "saying. In its limited and be regarded as authentic history in Noregs original meaning and without qualification, a Konungasögur, also called Heimskringla, saga is a story or group of stories in prose, of "World-Circuit, from the words with which an historical character, relating in a series of it opens. This was the work of the greatest of episodes the whole life-history of a Scandi- all Icelanders, Snorri Sturluson, who was born navian hero and written down in Norway or, in 1178 in West Iceland and became distinmainly, in Iceland during the Middle Ages. guished as statesman, scholar, poet and sagaThe historical events which the sagas narrate

It was written about 1230 and gives the took place mostly in the period which extended history of the kings (chiefly) of Norway. The from the date of Iceland's settlement in 874 Icelanders never lost the feeling of connection to the middle of the 11th century. That was with the motherland with which their country the heroic age of the Icelandic people. At first was in close relations especially in the time of the sagas were nothing but oral transmissions Harald Hárfagri, when Iceland was settled, from one tale-teller to another. Their compo- and of Olaf Tryggvason, when it was consition began about the middle of the 12th cen- verted, The Heimskringla possesses all the tury and lasted for about 100 years.

most excellent features of the best saga-art. In a wider sense the word saga is applied At about the same time the Gudhmundarsaga to any narration of events of the past, mythi- Dyra) was written. Of historical importance cal as well as historical in character, but pos- also is the Sturlungasaga, “the history of sessing the traits of the genuine saga. In these Sturla,” which is a collection of later Islendintales some legendary champion, from whom gasögur, telling of events which happened as the saga takes its name and around whom the late as the year 1250. The tales belonging to important events are centred, is the hero. this saga arose in West Iceland about the beHeroic achievement and marvelous adventure, ginning of the 14th century and contain some of fact and fancy, are mingled freely. In the the finest narrative passages in the whole body course of generations the saga undergoes im- of Icelandic literature. The "Thordharsaga portant changes, acquires accretions and takes Sighvatssonar) treats of Icelandic history up on a more or less poetic and artificial character, to the same period. The mythical sagas are Finally it is consigned to writing and handed those that treat of the old heroic legends, some down as a kind of rudimentary epic. When of which, like the Völsunga Saga,' which is a applied, as they frequently are, to works of that prose rendition of the Nibelungen story as kind, in which the historic element is found in given in the Eddic lays, are the common propgreater or less degree, the words saga, myth, erty of all the German peoples, while others,

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