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ing the jerboa, fox, jackal, baboon, hyenas, SAIGA, si'ga, an antelope (Saiga tartarica) mountain sheep, etc.; about 80 species of birds, found on the steppes of Russia and in western among which is the ostrich. There are also Asia. It is about two and one-half feet high at tortoises, lizards, chameleons, serpents, such as the shoulders, pale bluish-gray in color and is the python, horned viper, etc. The edible frog remarkable for the greatly swollen appearance and fish also occur. There is an important of the nose, due to the thick cartilaginous covertrade in silk tissues and mixed goods, ivory, ings of the nostrils. It once had a far wider ostrich feathers, gums, spices, musk, hides, gold habitat in Europe, and is steadily diminishing dust, indigo, cotton, palm oil, kola nuts, silver, in range and numbers. dates, salt and alum. The exports are textiles, SAIGO, Kichinoswke Takamori, Japanese weapons, gunpowder, etc. Many thousand tons

general and patriot: b. Kagoshima, 1825–32; d. of phosphate are extracted. The range of there, 24 Sept. 1877. He was of the samurai temperature is very great. The chief centres

class and from early youth an enthusiastic parof population are the oases. The inhabitants

tisan of the Mikado. In 1858 the vigor with consist of Moors, Tuareg, Tibbu, Negroes,

which he urged the overthrow of the Tokugawa Arabs and Jews; the former occupy the region administration caused his banishment to Satbetween Fezzan and Lake Tchad. The tribes of

suma. He took an important part in the restorathe desert inhabit the south of Algeria and tion of the Mikado in 1868, fighting with the Tunis. The Tuareg control the principal cara- forces of the imperial family in the civil war routes. The Tibbu, who number about

which preceded it. He was afterward ap200,000, live in the cases between Fezzan and

pointed commander-in-chief of the army by Lake Tchad. The tribes of the desert are, gen- the Mikado and retained the office until 1873 erally speaking, camel drivers, slave and salt

when, his desire to attack Korea being overdealers, guides and robbers. A few possess ruled, he resigned and retired to Kagoshima. date-groves, but they usually subsist on the Himself of the samurai class, which was largely milk of their herds, bartering for fruits or disaffected because of opposition to the progresgrain. The principal caravan routes lead from

siveness of the emperor, he rallied a large force Timbuktu to the Wady Draha, and to the oasis

to his support and early in 1877 launched a reof wat; from Haussa by Air or Asben and

bellion against the government. After conGhat to Ghadames and Murzuk; from Bornu

tinued stubborn fighting and a steady, if slow, by Bilma and Murzuk to Tripoli; from Wady forced retreat he fell in action at Kagoshima. by Ojariga, Kufara and Aujilah to Benghazi,

The government, notwithstanding his attempt and from Darfur to Siut. Pop. about 2,000,000. to overthrow it, mindful of his invaluable serv

SAHARANPUR, są-här-an-poor', or SE- ices in establishing the Mikado on the throne, HARUNPOOR, Sě-här-ũn-poor, India, (1) afterward erected a bronze statue of him at capital of a district of the same name, in the Tokio. United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 90 miles SAIGO, Yorimichi (Judo), MARQUIS OF, northeast of Delhi. It is an important railway

Japanese field-marshal and statesman, brother junction. Among the buildings the most note

of K. T. Saigo (q.v.): b. Satsuma, 1843; d. worthy are an old Rohilla fort (used as a court

1902. He was of the samurai class and took house), and a fine Mohammedan mosque. The

a prominent part in the restoration of the residential part is substantial and modern.

Mikado in 1868. In the crisis of 1873, when There is a church, an American Presbyterian

his brother Takamori withdrew from office, mission and a fine botanical garden for experi- Saigo remained in sympathy with the governments in tea and cinchona. Commerce in grain,

ment He commanded the Japanese expedition sugar, molasses and country cloth is consider

to Formosa in 1874, and from 1877 until his able. Pop. about 70,000.

retirement in 1900 held various cabinet offices. (2) The district in the Meerut division has

He received rank as marquis in 1895. an area of about 2,242 square miles, and occupies an alluvial table-land between the Ganges

SAIGON, si-gôn (Fr. si-gon), or SAI

GUN, Indo-China, the capital of Lower and the Jumna. It consists partly of wildly

Cochin-China before the French conquest, is on picturesque broken ground, but the larger portion is tillable. Cereals are the chief products,

the right bank of the Saigon or Don-nai River,

34 miles from the sea. The town was nearly and its commercial importance is considerable. Pop. about 1,200,000.

destroyed by the French, and the present city

dates practically from 1861. It has fine public SAHIB, sä’ib, the term of native address

buildings, modern shaded streets and zoological in India to a reputable European. It is an and botanical gardens; of educational instituArabic word, signifying companion or lord.

tions, the colleges of Chasseloup-Laubat and The feminine form is Sahibâ.

d'Adran are the most important. There is a SAI, sä'i, a Brazilian native name for a large floating dock. The majority of the populocal monkey of indefinite application, most lation is Asiatic, the Chinese element predomioften, perhaps, designating the capuchin (Cebus nating. The town has an active trade with capucinus).

China, Siam, Singapore and Java. Considerable SAID PASHA, sä-ed păsh'â, Turkish French and English goods are imported. The statesman: b. 1835; d. Constantinople, 29 Oct.

main exports are rice cotton, silk and hides. 1907. He commanded an army corps in the

The great market is Cholon, three and one-half Russo-Turkish War, became governor


miles from Saigon. Pop. about 80,000; Cholon, Cyprus and was later appointed Secretary of

127,000. State. He was Premier 1879–82, was grand SAIL, or SAIL-TAILED, LIZARD, a vizier 1882-85 and was twice dismissed but re- large agamoid lizard (Lophurus amboinensis) instated by the sultan in 1883. In 1885-95 he of the Philippines, Celebes, Java and neighborwas Minister of Foreign Affairs, and subse- ing islands, which takes its name from the tall quently president of the Council of Ministers, sail-like crest bone upon the upper surface of

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the tail of the adult, which is supported by a years, during which vessels sailed if the wind great lengthening of the spines of the vertebræ was favorable, and unshipped the mast, and of that region; the tail otherwise is highly set the oarsmen at work when it was contrary. compressed, long and powerful. The lizard fre- The Hebrews in the time of Solomon must have quently exceeds three feet in length, is olive- possessed vessels of considerable size, as mengreen, spotted and marbled with black, and has tion is made in the sacred writings of that many curious folds of skin about the neck. It date of stately ships, and of voyages made to is strong and active and spends much of its bring trees of considerable size to be used in time in trees, but when alarmed or chased the building of the temple. The Phænicians rushes for water, dives to the bottom and en- about 1200 B.C. had sailing vessels which did not deavors to hide among the stones. It is de- differ in any important respect from those of fenseless and harmless, and its flesh, which is the Egyptians, but they seem to have developed white and tender, is much liked by the islanders. the art of sailing to a considerable degree. SAIL. See Ship.

Later they were connected with the Hebrews SAILCLOTH, a coarse, strong linen, cot

in their maritime expeditions, and this people

appear to have been the most enterprising in ton or hempen cloth used in making sails. The

navigation of all the nations of antiquity. best is made of flax, and combines flexibility

Herodotus tells us of their feat of circumwith lightness and strength. See Ship.

navigating the continent of Africa in 604 B.C. SAILFISH, a large predaceous fish (Istio. They started from the Red Sea, passing Ophir phorus nigricans) of the West Indian and

on east coast of Africa, then rounded the Cape, neighboring waters, which is closely allied to

and keeping by the west shore they entered the sword-fishes and of the same family as the

the Mediterranean Sea through the Straits of spear-fishes (Tetrapturus). It reaches a length

Gibraltar, and arrived in Egypt in the third of six feet, has an elongated, much compressed

year of their expedition. Little doubt exists body, covered with elongate scutes, and a pow- of the Phænicians having been the discoverers erful, deeply forked tail, while the dorsal fin

of the art of sailing, as their skill in evading is, relatively, of huge size and deeply notched Nebuchadnezzar at the siege of Tyre for 13 outline, well simulating the appearance of a years shows that they possessed more than a ship under sail as it appears above the water superficial knowledge of navigation. They were when the fish glides along the surface as it also engaged in concert with other nations in frequently does. The bones of the nose are

wars with the Greeks: and it was from them prolonged into a sword," not so long as that

the latter nation learned in their conflicts what of the sword-fish, but sharper, and they are an

they knew of ships and navigation. The fact effective weapon in a school of small fish.

of the Grecian mariners making use of the SAILING. See NavigatION; SHIP; SAIL- screw pump to discharge water from their vesING VESSELS.

sels' holds would lead to the conclusion that SAILING VESSELS. The first vessel of their vessels were no mere sloops; yet the which history gives any description is the Ark, relative placidity of the waters in which they as built by Noah. Its proportions possess some

sailed suggests that their vessels were sailing interest, because, though not intended for a boats rather than sailing ships. An evidence voyage, it may be inferred that it was con- of the want of strength in the construction of structed to float with as little motion as pos- these ancient vessels is the fact of their being sible, considering that it went upon the face

bound around the outside with heavy ropes. of the waters) for about five months. Assum- They were sometimes carried as part of the ing a cubit to be about 21 inches, its length was

vessel's outfit, and used as necessity required. 525 feet, its breadth 87 feet 6 inches and its Out at and in heavy weather, they depth 52 feet 6 inches. Its length is thus seen

were made use of. There were sometimes as to have been six times its breadth, which pro- many, as 8 or 10 bands running fore and aft portion is about an average of all types of

of ihe vessel. The Greek warships were vessels. Its draft of water must have varied strengthened to withstand the shock of ramgreatly during the period of its occupation, as ming by the addition of longitudinal timbers 12 months' provisions must have formed a very secured to the exterior of the hull. At this large proportion of the original weight, and period it was the custom of mariners to draw these must have been gradually consumed. It their fragile vessels out upon the shores at the had three decks; but was fitted with neither approach of autumnal storms, and to leave them masts, sails nor rudder.

there till mild weather came again in the Ancient History.- The paintings and sculp- spring. tures, as the early records of Egypt, show Roman Galleys.- The Romans in the early regularly formed boats constructed of sawed stage of their history paid little attention to planks of timber, propelled by numerous rowers, navigation, until it was forced upon them by and also by sails. These vessels were long the necessity of competing with their rivals, the galleys with one mast and a large square sail, Carthaginians. The galleys of this period which was sometimes of linen and sometimes ranged from a single bank up to five banks of of papyrus. The oldest authentic record as to

The oars in these large galleys were these sailing vessels is the illustration of one arranged in sets or banks; the number of these of them used as a decoration on an Egyptian could be increased to any extent by giving inamphora (in the British Museum), judged by creased length to the galley. The trireme, or the best authorities to have been made about three-bank galley, appears to have been gen6000 B.C. It is to be noted, however, that these erally open, in the waist where the rowers sat, boats could sail only with the wind, and that with decks or platforms at both ends for the the science of tacking and sailing against the soldiers. The galleys of greater size than the wind was unknown for, literally, thousands of three tiers appear to have been always decked


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vessels. At the time of the First Punic War sels were built in England, but they were mostly the Roman fleet is said to have consisted of naval vessels. Prior to this the compass had 330 vessels, cach containing 300 rowers and 120 come into more general use, and it was now soldiers. The triremes were each 105 feet long possible to engage in longer voyages. The disand 11 feet wide, and the quadriremes were covery of America and the passage around the 125 feet by 13 feet.

Cape of Good Hope were early fruits of these Viking Ships.- Of much sturdier build improvements. The Portuguese employed veswere the ships of the Norsemen, designed to sels of small size in their voyages of discovery, sail the turbulent waters of the northern seas. but the Spaniards built larger vessels and long The custom of burying noted Vikings in the maintained a superiority in this respect. Engboats which they commanded has preserved un- land was far behind the Peninsular nations in der great burial mounds a number of specimens commercial enterprise at the opening of the of these early ships. One of these, found in 16th century, but under the reign of Queen England, was 48 feet long, 9 feet 9 inches Elizabeth (1533–1609) the merchant marine of beam and 4 feet depth of hold. Another, un- England was relieved of many oppressive laws earthed in Norway, was 45 feet 6 inches in and the coasting trade of the British Isles was length, about 14 feet beam and 4 feet deep. reserved exclusively for British ships. And not The famous Gogstad ship, exhumed in 1880, only did the coasting trade flourish, but Engwas 79 feet 4 inches long, 16 feet 6 inches beam, lish shipping began to contest successfully with 6 feet deep amidships and 8 feet 6 inches deep that of Italy, Spain and Portugal for the carat bow and stern. All of these vessels were of rying trade of the world. Moreover, a distinct cak, clinker-built and caulked with moss or hair change appeared in the design of English ships of some animal. They have been decided by in the abandonment of the high Spanish poop antiquaries to belong to the 3d century. The and forecastle prevalent on the vessels which remains of a much larger vessel, prodigious for sailed the Mediterranean. Meanwhile the its time, were found in the Orkneys. It was French had not been idle, and while their mer130 feet in length and had a depth of hold of chant ships were few and small, they were about 15 feet. This vessel is regarded as be- building war vessels which compared well with longing to the latter part of the 9th century, those of Spain and England, though leaning in and is believed to have been one of the ships type toward the Spanish models. The Cordewith which the Vikings conducted raids on the

liere of 700 tons and the Grand Louise of 790 coast of England. These raids served to stir tons were as large as any ships afloat. Alfred the Great (848–890) with a spirit of ri- The Spanish Armada, which visited English valry and he proceeded to build ships twice as waters in 1588, comprised 130 sailing vessels of large as those of the enemy, but of the same all sorts, with a total tonnage of 60,000. Some type. It is noteworthy, however, that he failed 60 of these were galleons of the largest type. to find seamen of experience in his own king- The wrecking of one of them on the western dom, but was compelled to hire them in Hol- coast showed it to be of 900 tons. At this time land. Under Athelston, the grandson of Alfred the "treasure-ships) of Spain, 100 feet in length (895–941), it is known that a considerable mer- and 34 feet in breadth, were making regular chant trade was carried on with France and

voyages across the Atlantic for the gold and Flanders by English sailing ships; and it is re- silver of the New World. More light on the corded in history that King Edgar (944-975) shipping of those days is afforded by the record had a fleet of some 4,000 sailing ships stationed of the carak Madre de Dios, captured by the as a guard around the entire coast of Great English in 1592. This vessel was 165 feet in Britain.

length, 46 feet 10 inches beam and drew 26 feet The expedition of Richard Cour de Lion of water. The height of her mainmast was 121 (1157-99) to the Holy Land led to the remod- feet and her main yard was 106 feet long. Her eling in some respects of the English sailing capacity was 1,600 tons, by far the largest craft, through the adoption of some of the de- known up to that time. velopments in construction of the ships of the The Dutch ships of this period were distincMediterranean, which were much larger as to tive in model owing to the shallow waters in hull, and carried taller masts and a larger area which they sailed. They were low and of comof sail. But these improvements in the English paratively wide beam and large sail area. For ships were chiefly those for warlike purposes their smaller craft the Dutch had already deand the more important features of the Mediter- veloped the fore and aft rig, and were using ranean vessels seem to have been overlooked, both the sprit sail and sprit topsail on their or at least neglected, for they did not appear in galleons. It is to be noted in passing that the the English ships until the 15th century.

Dutch galleons were at this time determinedly Merchant Ships. It is generally supposed engaged in the first polar explorations on recthat ships intended only for merchant purposes

ord – the endeavor to find a northeast passage were first built by the Genoese, and that not to China (1594, 1595 and 1596). From the until the beginning of the 14th century were earliest times the Dutch had been fishermen and sails first used by that people. The fishing accomplished navigators, and while their war boats were the small beginning from which fleet was small, their merchant fleet grew apace sprang the sailers and the larger sail vessels and by the early part of the 17th century they of a later period. But it is an indisputable fact controlled the coasting trade as far south as that long before this time ships of three decks Portugal and were suceessfully monopolizing and of 600 or 700 tons, of Italian build, were the East India trade of Britain. The English sailing the Mediterranean with both freight and merchant marine was in a very depressed conpassengers. In England, as early as 1344, many dition. Internal discords had put a damper on vessels of this character were in service. In the enterprise of the merchants, and as the the middle of the 15th century many large ves- island was not yet famed for its manufactures,


VOL. 24 - 8

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commerce dropped with every disaster to trade. The British East Indies Company was formed under the auspices of Queen Elizabeth (1599) and some great ships were built for this trade, the largest being the Trade's Increase of 1,200 tons. From this time onward the British made every effort to control the shipping trade of the world. The Dutch were their principal competitors, and had, without doubt, the best-built and best-manned fleet and had established colonies in South America, to which their ships made regular voyages. The British policy was to build larger ships than those of any other nation and in this they surpassed the Dutch, but the French excelled them. The Sovereign of the Seas, built in 1637, was the largest of the British ships at this period. She was 170 feet long, 48 feet beam and 19 feet deep and measured 1,683 tons. The largest Dutch shi at ihat time were the White Elephant of 1,482 tons and the Golden Lion of 1,477 tons. The French had the Soleil Royal of 1,946 tons and the Royal Louis of 1,800 tons. The English continued to build larger vessels and in the early 18th century had the Royal George of 2,043 tons, and in 1765 launched the Victory, Nelson's famous flagship of 2,162 tons. The capture by the British in 1792 of the French Commerce de Marseilles of 2,747 tons aroused new emulation of the French shipbuilders, and the direct result of this impetus was the Caledonia, launched in 1808, a vessel 205 feet in length and of 2,616 tons.

The First American Ships.- This continent having been fitted by nature in supplying it with an abundance of good timber, vessels have been built upon our shores from the first year of actual settlement. The first ship constructed was for the purpose of carrying a small band of settlers back to England, who were discouraged with their prospects after the first winter. The vessel was built in 1607 at Stage Island, near the mouth of the Kennebec River in Maine. It was a staunch and excellent little vessel of 30 tons, a two-master, named Virginia. She is believed to have been about 30 feet long, 13 feet beam and 8 feet deep. She subsequently made a number of voyages between America and England. The next vessel built was at New York in 1614_by Capt. Adrien Blok, who had lost his ship Tiger by fire while lying in Manhattan River. His new vessel was named Onrust (Restless) and was 38 feet keel, 4412 feet long over all and 11 feet beam. This vessel was employed for several years in exploring the Atlantic Coast from the 38th to the 42d degree of latitude. Block Island was visited during one of the excursions and took its name from Adrien Blok. With the exception of fishing boats and shallops, there is no record of the construction of any other boats until 1631. In that year the 30-ton bark Blessing of the Bay was launched at Medford, Mass., for the use of the Massachusetts colony. In the course of the season this vessel made several coasting trips and soon after visited Manhattan Island and Long Island. It is thought the vessel was lost with a load of furs and fish in 1633 off the capes of Virginia. By 1635 there were six of these small sailing vessels regularly employed in the trade with England. In 1636 the Desire of 120 tons was built at Marblehead and put into the fishing business,

Early Shipbuilding.- Shipbuilding at this time appears to have received its impulse from the same cause which threw the colonists upon their own resources for the supply of many of the necessaries of life. They had been hitherto supplied with all but their corn and fish by the many emigrant ships which had yearly added to their numbers. A suspension of this emigration, brought about by the civil wars in England, and the diminished intercourse caused thereby, left them dependent on mercantile enterprise alone, which the state of navigation then rendered precarious in the extreme. Governor Winthrop then said, “The general fear, of the want of foreign commodities, now our money was gone, and things were like to go well in England, set us on work to provide shipping of our own: for which end Mr. (Hugh) Peter, being a man of very public spirit and singular activity for all occasions, procured some to join for building a ship at Salem of 300 tons, and the inhabitants of Boston, stirred by his example, set upon the building of another at Boston of 150 tons. The work was hard to accomplish for want of money, etc., but our shipwrights were content to take such pay as the country could make. He speaks in another place of the Trial of 160 tons, as the first ship built at Boston. She sailed for Bilboa on 4 June 1642, laden with fish, which she sold there at good rate, and from thence freighted to Malaga.” Thus early began the profitable trade to distant ports from New England, and by 1676 the colony of Massachusetts owned 200 vessels of from 30 tons to 50 tons; 200 of from 50 tons to 100 tons, and 30 above 100 tons. An early and successful prosecution of the business of shipbuilding could have been more reasonably expected of none of the first colonists of America than of the settlers of Manhattan. Holland was at that period, and long after, in the enjoyment of the carrying trade of the world. Though not possessed of a foot of timber, she built and armed more ships than all the rest of Europe. Planted by this commercial people, and by merchants and capitalists of Amsterdam, then the mercantile metropolis of Europe, exclusively for the purposes of trade, it appears somewhat surprising that the facilities afforded by the new territory for shipbuilding were not made available to a greater extent by the parent nation. But the administration of a privileged mercantile association, such as the West India Company, which, in 1621, was invested with a monopoly of its trade, was unfavorable to the development of the resources of the colony. About 1630 the carrying trade between Holland and America, and the trade with Brazil, where the company had sustained losses equivalent to one hundred tons of gold," were thrown open to the colonists and private ships were for the first time entered at Amsterdam and publicly advertised for New Netherlands. Other restrictions, which had fettered commerce, were soon after removed and the trade of the world with the exception of that to the East Indies, and the trade in furs, were open to the colonists. In 1678 the shipping owned in the port consisted of three ships and 15 sloops and other small sailing vessels. In 1694 the shipping had increased to 60 ships and 102 sloops. This was on account of a monopoly of exporting four and biscuits from the

province. South of New York during colonial registry of 848,307 tons in 1807 fell to 769,054 times there was little or no construction of tons in 1808, under the restrictions of the Amervessels. New England developed her large ican embargo laid at the insistence of Great shipping interests through the fisheries that Britain. The repeal of the embargo in 1809 were at her door and the coasting trade main- brought the tonnage of the merchant fleet to tained by the latter extended as far south as 910,059 and in 1810 it reached its high-water the West Indies during these early days. It mark for many decades to come at 984,269 tons. might be said the fisheries were the cause of Then came on the War of 1812 that lasted for the large merchant marine of New England. nearly three years, during which many privaBetween the years 1674 and 1714 a total of 1,332 teers were constructed that subsequently purvessels were registered as built in New Eng- sued the peaceful pursuit of trade. A change land yards, in many cases by men drawn from in the form of our sailing vessels now began English shipyards. Of those built, 239 were sold to appear, giving them better entrance lines, to foreign owners.

and cutting off those high poop decks that had The Schooner.— In 1745 Andrew Robinson been such a fixture on large vessels for many of Gloucester, Mass., built a vessel with a years. square stern, which was fitted with two masts, The Carrying Trade.- Prior to the War bearing a sloop sail on cach, and a bowsprit of 1812 our coastwise trade was carried on by with jib. She was sharp on the bottom and on no larger sailing vessels than those that were being launched sped over the water so fast schooner rigged, while our foreign trade was from the impetus gained by descending from most largely carried on in foreign-built botthe ways as to elicit from a bystander the re- toms. Before 1812 a few sailing packets, or mark, "See how she scoons. .” Scoon was a word vessels carrying both passengers and freight, used by plain people to express the skipping of were brought into the transportation business, a flat stone over the surface of the water when and cleared from port on regular days in each skilfully thrown; and the builder of the vessel, month, and were operated between special points having been somewhat at a loss for a name for only. At this time, however, there were many the new rig, seized upon the trifling incident American-built whalers making three-year voyand replied, “A scooner let her be," and two- ages to the Pacific from Massachusetts harbors masted vessels, with jibs, and fore and aft sails and not a few had gone as far as Bering's Sea. have since been called by that name. This ves- The average tonnage of these daring vessels sel was probably used in the fisheries. The was less than 300 tons. When the war ended schooner proved to be a very economical ves- there were only a few small British ships in sel to run, with fewer men to her sail area than the packet service between England and Amerany other type of sailing vessel. The largest ica, and very few between America and other schooners were those sent to the Grand Banks, parts of the world. Soon after the peace, howand for many years after 1800 about 70 sailing ever, a large number of lines came into existvessels were sent annually to the Grand Banks, ence as a natural outgrowth of the rush of chiefly from Cape Ann. These early vessels emigration from Europe to America, and the were from 20 to 40 tons.

general expansion of ocean travel and trade. Colonial Merchant Marine.- Before the The carrying of passengers was a profitable Revolutionary War our merchant marine was business and there was considerable competition in a prosperous condition and took nearly first among shipping merchants to get the most rank with us. By 1760 from 300 to 400 trading business for their vessels. None but the best vessels were being built annually in the different and finest vessels could be used in this trade provinces. In 1769 alone, 389 ships with a ton- and the old-fashioned freighting vessels with nage exceeding in the aggregate 20,000 tons were their small cabins and houses and poop decks, turned out of American shipyards. Of these, were subjected to many changes to adapt them 113 were square-rigged and a large proportion to the passenger business. The merchants at of the remainder were schooners. Few of most all our coastwise ports, from Portland, these exceeded 200 tons. During the War of Me., to New Orleans, La., soon saw the adthe Revolution the whaling and fishing fleets vantage of these packets for our coastwise suffered seriously from raids by English cruis- trade and regular established lines were soon ers. Foreign trade in our vessels suffered in operation that remained as carriers until the the same fate. A large part of the merchant coastwise steamship lines began operations in and fishing fleet was employed during the war 1847, when these lines of sailing vessels gradin privateering and it became a profitable field ually withdrew from business. In this trade for them at times, as small armed sloops fre- brigs, schooners and barks were used, while quently captured large merchantmen under the in the foreign service ships and barks only were British flag. The larger privateers built during placed in service. the war, when the conflict was over, were con- Packet Lines.- It was at New York the verted into merchantmen and sent to the East packet business between Europe and America Indies to trade. The Baltimore-built schooner mainly centred. There were lines from other took high rank as a privateer during the war. ports, but New York was the pioneer, always The 16 years that followed ending with the War kept the lead and had the largest number and of 1812 were perilous times for American ship- finest vessels for the service, In 1816 Isaac ping. England excluded us from a profitable Wright and Company of New York founded the trade with the British West Indies and the famous Black Ball Line, so called from the same interests led to the searching of our mer- 1ound black circle in a white field, which was chant vessels for British subjects, the capture adopted as the pennant of the ships. There and confiscation of our vessels and cargoes and were at first four vessels in this line, each of a detention of a large number of them for 400 tons, and named Pacific, Courier, Amily evasions of the British law. The American and James Monroe. This line was subsequently merchant fleet which had increased to a total owned by Goodhue and Company, Charles H.

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