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Marshall and others, and a dozen other ships for the passenger trade. For instance, there added, from 300 to 500 tons burden. They was the tea trade from China to the United were placed in the Liverpool trade and sailed States, in which speed has always been cononce a month at first and during the first nine sidered essential. The cargoes consisted of teas, years the average time in voyages to Liverpool spices, coffee, dried fruits, etc., which were was 23 days and for returning home 40 days, liable to deteriorate in a long voyage of four but one of the later ships, the Canada, the fast- months to the home port, and to shorten the est of them all, once made the outward voyage voyage as much as possible was desirable for in 15 days and 18 hours and held for a long many reasons. There were no telegraph lines time the average record of 19 days outward and ocean cables in those days and the uncerand 36 days homeward trips. A London line tainty of the markets made fast trips home followed the Black Ball line and then a Havre from the East Indies very important. Merline was started. In 1821 a second Liverpool chants had repeatedly suffered heavy loss, someline was established from New York by Byrnes, times business ruin by the decline in castern Trimble and Company, known as the Red Star goods brought home by ships during their abline, consisting of the Manhattan, Hercules, sence on the voyage out and back, and good Panther and Meteor, sailing once a month, and ships were, therefore, always required in that soon after Fish, Grinnell and Company, after- trade. The first clipper, the Scottish Maid, ward Grinnell, Minturn and Company, founded was built in 1839 in Great Britain. She was a the Swallow Tail line with four packets, mak- schooner of 150 tons and proved very fast and ing from New York at this time, one sailing continued in service for 50 years. The first for Liverpool each week. In 1830 the passenger American clippers were built at Boston and fare in the cabin from Liverpool was $180, in- Medford. These were small schooners, the cluding beds, bedding, wines and stores of every Angola of 90 tons and the Zephyr of 150 tons. description. The London packets now sailed They were used in the opium trade. The twice a month and the Havre line had three pioneer of the large clippers was the Helena, sailings a month. There were also at this time of 650 tons, whose dimensions were 135 feet sailing packets to South America and Mexican length on deck, 30 feet 6 inch beam and 20 feet ports. In 1830 there were 1,510 arrivals at New depth of hold, built by William H. Webb. York from foreign ports, of which 382 were She came out in 1841 and was constructed for ships, 28 barks, 714 brigs, 376 schooners, 8 A. and N. Griswold for the China trade. She sloops, 1 ketch and 1 felucca. Of these, 1,366 was a good sea boat and a very fast sailer for

American, 92 British, 7 Spanish, 12 her day, making many fast voyages between Swedish, 2 Hamburg, 5 French, 8 Bremen, 6 China and other East Indian countries and New Haitian, 9 Danish, 2 Brazilian, 2 Dutch and 1 York. Following the Helena came the RainPortuguese. The number of arrivals in 1829 bow of 750 tons, built by Smith and Dimon in was 1,310, and passengers, 16,064. In 1823 John 1843 for Howland and Aspinwall. She was the Griswold established a London line of four first of the extremely sharp type and at the vessels, that had been increased by 1837 to 12 time was claimed by her captain to be the fastvessels. These vessels down to 1845 were one- est ship in the world. Very few sailing ships or two-decked vessels, and had increased in since have equaled her records. This vessel size from 900 to 1,000 tons. The between deck made the voyage to Canton and return home in space, aft, was divided into cabins for the pas- six months and 14 days, having spent three sengers, the middle portion was fitted up with weeks of the time in loading and discharging kitchens, pantries, etc. The steerage passengers cargo. The Helena and the Rainbow brought and crew were placed forward. After 1830 there about a great change in this type of vessel. were frequent sailings of rival packets, tran- They commanded better prices for freights than sient, but all American, from Boston, New York, sloop ships, and in every way proved desirable. and Philadelphia to Great Britain and other Then in 1844 followed the Montauk of 540 parts of Europe. All the ships sailed with tons for William S. Wetmore, built by William great speed and made the run across the

H. Webb. Then A. A. Low and Company had Atlantic in excellent time. The Red Jacket Brown and Bell construct for them the Howonce ran from New York to Liverpool in 13 qua of 706 tons, a very fast and fine vessel, days 11/2 hours. The Mary Whiteridge made which made a voyage from Shanghai to New the voyage from Baltimore in 13 days 7 hours; York in 84 days. The owners of the Rainbow but the usual time was 19, 20 or 21 days to then had the noted clipper Sea Witch of 907 Liverpool and from 30 to 35 days homeward. tons, built by Smith and Dimon, with the inEnglish steamers were sent out in 1838 and tention to have the fastest vessel of the type 1840 to compete with these packet lines; but afloat. This vessel had finer under water lines the steamers did not at first make much better than her predecessors, and may be said to have average time on a voyage than the packets, but been the first of that advanced type of fast in the course of a few years the increase in clipper ships. She made one voyage to Calispeed and their additional carrying capacity fornia in 97 days; to Hongkong in 104 days; gave them an advantage and the packets could to Valparaiso in 69 days; and returned from no longer successfully compete with them. Canton to New York in 85 days. Her best 24

Clipper Ships. After the packets came the hours run was 358 miles, a speed greatly exclipper ships, vessels intended primarily for ceeding any steam vessel then existing. The freighting, and built to secure the highest pos- era of fast clipper ships was now fairly insible speed when laden with cargo. The packets augurated, and many of this class were now were the fast sailers from 1816 to 1845, but built not only at New York, but at Boston, after the latter date there grew up various Philadelphia and Baltimore. Nearly all the branches of trade in which a quick delivery was early ones did not exceed 1,000 tons register, as important for commercial purposes as it was or about 165 feet long, but competition led to a great increase in size, and every year saw was launched at 3,357 tons, being still the vessels launched that spread more and more largest ship afloat. One of the noted clippers canvas, longer, larger and faster than ever, and of the day was the Dreadnought built in 1853 expressly intended to excel everything that had at Newburyport, Mass. In 1859 she made the preceded them in the merchant shipping of the voyage from Sandy Hook to Liverpool in 13 world. In 10 years after the first clipper ship days, 8 hours.

Fast as

the Dreadnought the size of 2,400 tons was reached and there was she failed to surpass the records of the were many built 2,000 tons each.

Red Jacket, a Maine-built clipper of 2,006 tons, British Rivalry.- Foreign merchants were of 13 days, 1 hour from Sandy Hook to the by no means idle spectators of what was going Rock Light, Liverpool (1854), and of the on in this country, and in 1846 England began Andrew Jackson, built at Mystic, Conn., of to awake to the new and dangerous rivalry 1,679 tons, holding the record for the westfrom America. The arrival of the Oriental, bound voyage, 15 days from Rock Light to 1,003 tons, in London in 1850, 97 days from Sandy Hook (1860). Hongkong, with 1,600 tons of tea, on which Other record passages of those days which she collected $48,000 freight, created a furore. have never since been beaten are the following: Not a single British ship was her .equal in James Baines, 2,515 tons, launched at East speed or elegance of line and construction. Boston in 1854; 12 days, 6 hours, Boston to The British Admiralty sought and were given Liverpool. From Liverpo to Melbourne in permission to draught her underwater lines in the then record time of 63 days; and thence drydock; and a great impetus in the building home to Boston in 69 days; making the cirof fast ships resulted. Alex. Hall and Com- cuit of the globe in the unequaled time of 132 pany of Aberdeen made a specialty of clipper days. ships, and there were launched from their yard Lightning, American-built ship of 2,090 tons, many superior and famous vessels. But the Melbourne to Liverpool, 63 days (1853) ; PortsAmericans, though hard pressed, were able to mouth to Calcutta, 87 days (1857). maintain the lead, and entitled to the best rec- North Wind, American built, 1,041 tons, ord ever made by ships sailing under canvas. London to Sidney, New South Wales, 67 days. There were several famous races home from Mandarin, 776 tons, New York to MelChina. Once the British clippers Chrysolite bourne, 71 days. and Stornaway and the American clippers Race Mary Whitridge, American built, 987 tons, Horse, Surprise and Challenge engaged in a Liverpool to Baltimore, 14 days, 9 hours (1855). race from Canton to Liverpool and Deal and Marco Polo, American built, 1,512 tons, arrived at the home ports as follows: At Liv- Liverpool to Melbourne, 61. days (1861). erpool, Chrysolite in 106 days; at Deal, Storn- Thermopylae, British built. 927 tons, Lonaway in 109 days; Challenge in 105 days; Sur- don to Melbourne, 60 days (1869). prise in 106 days. The British ship Challenge The record voyages of American sailing ran from Shanghai to Deal in 113 days, and the ships in the coastwise trade, known as the American clipper Nightingale in 110 days. "California clippers, were: These races were claimed by both parties; but Flying Cloud, 1,793 tons, New York to San the Americans kept the reputation of supe- Francisco, 89 days (1851). The same feat was riority, and several ships were ordered at our accomplished in 1854 by the same vessel and shipyards for foreign account. Then shortly repeated in 1860 by the Andrew Jackson. after the gold fever broke out in California, Northern Light, 1,021 tons, San Francisco to and the John Bertram of 1,100 tons was built Boston Light, 76 days, 5 hours (1853). at Boston, Mass., and sent to the Pacific Coast Comet, 1,836 tons, San Francisco to New in 1850 by Boston parties. This was the first York, 76 days (1854). clipper ship built for the California trade. The The best day's run ever made by a sailing Witch of the Wave and four others of 1,500 ship was 436 nautical miles, recorded by the tons each were immediately after built for the Lightning on her maiden voyage from Boston same parties. The Witch of the Wave made to Liverpool in 1854. The highest speed ever the trip from Canton to Deal in 90 days – 15 recorded by a sailing ship was 21 nautical miles days faster than the best previous record, that per hour, made by the James Baines on 17 June of the Challenge.

1856. Sailing Speed.- The speed of the clippers After 1860 there was no longer any necessity was remarkable. Six miles an hour was a good for great size and speed in this type of vessel. average rate of speed for long voyages and Too many ships had been built and a reaction nine miles an hour excellent time, especially for set in that lasted for many years. By 1857 there a ship loaded with a full cargo of merchandise. were from 80 to 100 large ships in the CaliClippers ran across the Atlantic to Liverpool fornia trade and the rates of freight fell off at an average speed of nine miles an hour, one-half, and the ships were thrown into the spurting at the rate of from 10 to 13 miles general trade of the world. In the next place, with a favorable wind, and on voyages that steam vessels, about 1852, had been built to gave them the advantage of the trade winds run on all the principal ocean routes and there they ran for days and weeks in succession at was no longer any need for sailing vessels to an average speed of from 12 to 15 miles an be fitted out with large cabins and roomy pashour. To sail 300 miles a day was not excep- senger accommodations. This ended the career tional. The largest of them all was the four- of those fast clipper ships that had such a master Great Republic, of 4,555 tons, built_by world-wide reputation from 1850 to 1860. Then Donald McKay in 1853 at East Boston. The the Civil War came on and our foreign trade length on load line was 314 feet, beam molded was cut off for four years. After 1865 the 4914 feet, molded depth 32 feet.

She was

grain trade attracted the larger sailing vessels burned at her dock before sailing. The hull from all over the world. This type of vessel was afterward rebuilt at Greenpoint, L. I., and was no longer an extreme clipper of the former

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period, but a handsome, medium clipper of The three-masted schooner Josephine followed from 1,400 tons for the British ships to 1,600 in 1880, being built by William Cramp and Sons and up to 2,000 tons register, for the American; Company. Then there came much larger vescapable of carrying a large cargo at a fair rate sels in the Tillie E. Starbuck, built in 1883 by of speed. The Maine shipyards at this time John Roach and Son at Chester, Pa.; and in turned out a large number of strong wooden the same year by Gorringe and Company, as sailing ships of from 1,600 to 2,400 tons. These the American Shipbuilding Company, the T. F. vessels continued in the Atlantic-Pacific trade Oakes. These vessels were about 2,000 tons until the American Hawaiian Steamship Line register each. commenced operations in 1900.

The world's recorded tonnage of merchant Modern Schooners.— The schooner, as pre- sailing vessels in 1850 totaled 7,701,885; of viously mentioned, was a distinctively Ameri- which 3,396,650 tons were British; 3,009,507 can product of a comparatively early date tons American; 674,228 tons French; 298,315 (1713). It was largely used in the coastwise tons Norwegian; 289,870 Dutch, and 33,315 Beltrade, to the West Indies, to South America gian. and later to Africa, and it may be said has not In 1900, with more complete records, the fallen from favor even to this day. The early total was 9,167,620, distributed thus: United vessels were not over on an average 75 tons. States, 2,507,042 tons; United Kingdom, 2,096,When it became necessary to increase the ton- 408 tons; Norway, 1,002,675 tons; France, nage of the vessel it was thought to be ad- 636,081 tons; Germany, 593,770 tons; Italy, vantageous to increase the power, so thrce 568,164 tons; Japan, 320,572 tons; Sweden, masts were adopted. The earliest date of the 288,687 tons; Finland, 287,154 tons; Russia, building of a three-masted schooner in this 269,460 tons; Greece, 175,867 tons; Denmark, country is thought to be about 1831. There 158,303_tons; Spain, 95,187 tons; Holland, 78,493 were a few more built about 1845, and in 1847 tons: Portugal, 43,874 tons; Austria-Hungary, the Midas was converted into a three-masted 25,342 tons; China, 20,541 tons. schooner, the Zachary Taylor was built at Phil- In 1911, the latest year for which complete adelphia in 1849 and the Spray at Wilmington, figures are available, the total of the merchant Del., the same year. The period when this sailing marine was 7,454,189 tons, distributed as type of sailing vessel had passed the experi- follows: United States, 2,564,721 tons; United mental stage appears to have been in 1853 when Kingdom, 962,718 tons; Norway, 738,197 tons; there were built the Gardner Pike, the James France, 624,521 tons; Germany, 510,059 tons; H. Chadbourne, the Kate Brigham and the Japan, 451,529 tons; Italy, 410,791 tons; FinE. R. Bennett; and in 1855 the Eckford Webb land, 327,625 tons; Russia, 254,330 tons; and the William L. Burroughs; and in 1856 Sweden, 154,968 tons; Greece (1910), 145,284 the Hartstein and the Cordelia. The two latter tons; Denmark, 124,510 tons; Spain, 44,325 were two-decked vessels and were the largest of tons; Portugal, 43,844 tons; Holland, 42,312 the type built for some years. These vessels were tons; Austria-Hungary, 32,871 tons; China, used mainly in our coasting trade, as far south 15,679 tons. as the Gulf of Mexico ports. There were a A comparison of decades shows that the few more built prior to 1860; the Civil War zenith figures of the sailing fleets of the several came on when but few, if any, were built. It

maritime nations were

as follows: United was 1868 before three-masted schooners were States, 1861. 4,662,669 tons; United Kingdom, again constructed, and by 1873 they were the 1870, 4,577,855 tons; Norway, 1890, 1,502,594 most popular type of our coastwise sailing ves- tons; Italy, 1870, 980,054 tons; Germany, 1880, sels. The first four-masted schooner was the

tons ;

France, 1860, 928,000 tons; William L. White, built at Bath, Me., and com- Sweden, 1880, 461,593 tons; Holland, 1860, pleted in June 1880. The Northern lakes also 423,790 tons; Greece, 1870, 398,703 tons; Rushad four-masters immediately after the William sia, 1880, 378,894 tons; Finland, 1911, 327,625 L. White. Then it was some years before the tons; Spain. 1880, 326,438 tons; Austria-Hunpioneer five-master was constructed in 1888 at gary, 1870, 279,400 tons; Denmark, 1880, 197,509 Waldoboro, Me., as the Governor Ames. The tons; Portugal, 1900, 57,925 tons; Belgium, 1850, latter was the largest schooner for 12 years,

33,315 tons. until the George W. Wells was built in 1900 A comparison of these figures will give a as a sir-masted schooner. The largest of them measurably accurate view of the rise and fall all was the Thomas W. Lawson, built of steel of the sailing vessel in the principal maritime in 1902, as a seven-masted schooner. This countries. superb vessel foundered off the Scilly Islands in In the United States the zenith of the build1907.

ing of sailing ships was reached in 1855, when Iron Hull Ships. Although iron had been 1,781 vessels, aggregating 510,690 tons, were used in Great Britain for building hulls as far launched. Of these, 381 were ships, 126 were back as 1829 and came into common use in the brigs, 605 were schooners and 669 were sloops. early 40's, the first iron hull sailing vessel On 30 June 1917 there were on the register constructed in the United States the of the United States 134 square-rigged vessels; schooner Mahlon Betts of 275 tons, built in 82 of these being American built and 52 built 1854 at Wilmington, Del. Then there were

abroad. These were 38 ships totaling 77,863 none but wooden sailing vessels until the brig tons; 55 barks, totaling 68,993 tons; 38 barkenNovelty was built at Boston, Mass., in 1868, and tines, totaling 37,987 tons, and 3 brigs and the bark Iron Age constructed in 1869 for Tup- brigantines, totaling 940 tons. The materials per and Beattie of New York. The sloop yacht of which these vessels were built were: Of Vinder was then built in 1871 at Chester, Pa., wood, 81; of iron, 28; of steel, 25. by Reanie Son and Archibold; and in 1879 the The sailing vessels of the world, of 100 tons yacht Mischief was built at Wilmington, Del. and upward in the year ended 30 June 1922,






THE FIRST SEVEN-MASTED STEEL SCHOONER Length, 395 feet; Beam, 50 feet; Molded Depth, 34 feet 5 inches; Displacement, 10,000 tons; Cargo capacity, 7,500 tons; Total sail area, 40,617 square feet

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